ABSTRACT: Pollination is a well-studied and at the same time a threatened ecosystem service. A significant part of global crop production depends on or profits from pollination by animals. Using detailed information on global crop yields of 60 pollination dependent or profiting crops, we provide a map of global pollination benefits on a 5′ by 5′ latitude-longitude grid. The current spatial pattern of pollination benefits is only partly correlated with climate variables and the distribution of cropland. The resulting map of pollination benefits identifies hot spots of pollination benefits at sufficient detail to guide political decisions on where to protect pollination services by investing in structural diversity of land use. Additionally, we investigated the vulnerability of the national economies with respect to potential decline of pollination services as the portion of the (agricultural) economy depending on pollination benefits. While the general dependency of the agricultural economy ...
Pollination syndromes are suites of flower traits that have evolved in response to natural selection imposed by different pollen vectors, which can be abiotic (wind and water) or biotic, such as birds, bees, flies, and so forth. These traits include flower shape, size, colour, odour, reward type and amount, nectar composition, timing of flowering, etc. For example, tubular red flowers with copious nectar often attract birds; foul smelling flowers attract carrion flies or beetles, etc. The "classical" pollination syndromes as they are currently defined (see below) were developed in the 19th century by the Italian botanist Federico Delpino. Although they have been useful in developing our understanding of plant-pollinator interactions, an uncritical acceptance of pollination syndromes as providing a framework for classifying these relationships is rather out of date. These do not attract animal pollinators. Nevertheless, they often have suites of shared traits. Flowers may be small and ...
The influence of space on the structure (e.g. modularity) of complex ecological networks remains largely unknown. Here, we sampled an individual-based plant-pollinator network by following the movements and flower visits of marked bumblebee individuals within a population of thistle plants for which the identities and spatial locations of stems were mapped in a 50 × 50 m study plot. The plant-pollinator network was dominated by parasitic male bumblebees and had a significantly modular structure, with four identified modules being clearly separated in space. This indicated that individual flower visitors opted for the fine-scale division of resources, even within a local site. However, spatial mapping of network modules and movements of bumblebee individuals also showed an overlap in the dense center of the plant patch. Model selection based on Akaike information criterion with traits as predictor variables revealed that thistle stems with high numbers of flower heads and many close neighbours ...
Insect pollination. Macrophotograph of a beetle (Amphicoma sp.) on a crown anemone flower (Anemone coronaria). This beetle is the anemones pollinator, carrying pollen between flowers and fertilising them as it feeds. Magnification unknown. - Stock Image B786/0621
How to Grow Fruit Trees or Blueberries in Aquaponics - by Colle and Phyllis Davis Here are the main parameters that need to be addressed when considering raising fruit trees with aquaponics: Pollination. Bees do not do well at all inside buildings. Hand pollination is time consuming and expensive. Which fruit(s) should you raise? What … Continue reading ». ...
... The farmers of Hanyuan, China, are forced to pollinate pear trees by hand because all the bees died off
Two factors limiting seed production in clover are incomplete pollination and attack by seed eating pests. Clover is totally dependent on pollination by insects, mainly by bumble bees and honey bees. Without insect pollination, the clover seed yield becomes negligible. Clover is also attacked by seed eating pest insects, mainly Apion weevils. The weevils attack the clover flower heads and generally cause serious damage with observed yield losses of over 50 percent.. ...
Some flowers are pollinated using buzz pollination. Pollination management is a branch of horticulture that seeks to protect and enhance present pollinators and often involves the culture and addition of pollinators in monoculture situations, such as commercial fruit orchards. The largest managed pollination event in the world is in California almonds, where nearly half (about one million hives) of the US honeybees are trucked to the almond orchards each spring. New Yorks apple crop requires about 30,000 hives; Maines blueberry crop uses about 50,000 hives each year. Bees are also brought to commercial plantings of cucumbers, squash, melons, strawberries, and many other crops. Honeybees are not the only managed pollinators. Other kinds of bees are also cultivated as pollinators. The alfalfa leafcutter bee is an important pollinator for alfalfa seed in western United States and Canada. Bumblebees are increasingly cultured and used extensively for greenhouse tomatoes and other crops. The ...
Biology Assignment Help, Pollination, Pollination Pollination refers to the transfer of pollen from dehiscing anthers to the pistil. Unlike animals, plants cannot move to their mates for sexual reproduction. Hence, they need some external device or agency for the transfer of pollen
Pollination bags are designed to fit well over the inflorescence or individual flowers of a plant type. The size, shape and strength of bag should ensure that there is no contact with flowers to avoid development of diseases and physical hindrances in seed development. The size of bag will vary with the size of inflorescence to be covered. Pollination bags may be 2D or 3D. The 3D bags have a gusset for expansion to avoid contact between the plant and the bag. Sometimes pollination bags may have a window to allow examination of inflorescence without removing the bag. Bags with a flap over the window, when provided, protects from strong sunlight. Most pollination bags are produced by general paper bag manufacturers which have branched out into providing pollination bag supplies. Such bags may not suit to the needs of plant breeders of different crops. Some companies such as PBS International UK, Del Star (Delnet) Technologies (Delnet bags) and Focus Packaging manufacture customized bags of ...
Detecting protein complex in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks plays a significant part in bioinformatics field. It enables us to obtain the better understanding for the structures and characteristics of biological systems. In this study, we present a novel algorithm, named Improved Flower Pollination Algorithm (IFPA), to identify protein complexes in multi-relation reconstructed dynamic PPI networks. Specifically, we first introduce a concept called co-essentiality, which considers the protein essentiality to search essential interactions, Then, we devise the multi-relation reconstructed dynamic PPI networks (MRDPNs) and discover the potential cores of protein complexes in MRDPNs. Finally, an IFPA algorithm is put forward based on the flower pollination mechanism to generate protein complexes by simulating the process of pollen find the optimal pollination plants, namely, attach the peripheries to the corresponding cores. The experimental results on three different datasets (DIP, MIPS and
This chapter considers pollination by nonflying vertebrates and other oddities. It begins with a discussion of ectotherm vertebrates visiting flowers; these include fish, amphibians, and reptiles. Fish are not recorded as flower visitors, but they are at least occasionally facilitators of the pollination process for shoreline pond plants, where they prey on animals that compete with or reduce pollinator populations. The chapter proceeds with an analysis of pollination by nonflying mammals such as marsupials, rodents, monkeys, and lemurs as well as flowers that they regularly visit, including ground-level (geoflorous) flowers and arboreal flowers. Finally, it examines pollination by unusual invertebrates ranging from snails and woodlice to land crabs and millipedes.
Fruit breeding programs usually use controlled hand pollination among cultivars and advanced selections for obtaining segregating populations to select new cultivars. In sweet cherries, however, sometimes in controlled pollination few hybrids are obtained. Caging whole trees with bees and flowers of the pollinating cultivar is sometimes used to obtain larger hybrid populations. To generate large segregating populations for the Chilean Sweet Cherry Breeding Program (run by the Consortium of BioFrutales S.A. and Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias), the initial strategy was to harvest seeds from open pollinated self-incompatible cultivars maintained at the germplasm collection orchard of Univiveros, one of the leading fruit tree nurseries in Chile. While the female parent is known, the male parent is unknown. The pollen source will depend on the cultivars present in the area, the flowering time and the compatibility of the cultivars involved. In order to identify pollinators of the ...
Organic berry and fruit production suffers heavily from the lack of effective disease and pest management tools, and from inadequate insect pollination at times. As a consequence, the expanding demand on organic berries cannot be filled today. The BICOPOLL project aimed to change this and to improve the yield and quality of organic strawberry production significantly and thus farm economics. We used honeybees to (i) target deliver a biological control agent (fungus antagonist) to the flowers of the target crops (strawberries) to provide control of the problem diseases grey mold (Botrytis cinerea) and to (ii) improve the pollination of this organic horticultural crops. The use of bees has many environmental and economic benefits compared to spraying fungicide like in conventional farming systems. As bees, that actually forage in the target crop, is a key essential requirement for the entomovectoring technology, the main focus of this project was to determine, which factors can affect foraging ...
The characteristics of petal epidermal conical cells affect the quality of the signals perceived by various pollinators. This study aimed to identify variations in micromorphological characteristics of flower petals and their relationship to melittophily, ornithophily and chiropterophily pollination systems. The petals of 11 species were analysed using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy and the micromorphological traits were described, measured and compared using Tukeys test, PCA and cluster analysis. Unlike chiropterophily, all melittophilous and some ornithophilous species possessed adaxial epidermal conical cells. Cluster grouping separated chiropterophilous flowers from melittophilous and ornithophilous. PCA analysis showed that the two morphometric profile of conical cells was the attribute that most strongly influenced the grouping of species. When considering the data set of the three pollination systems, melittophilous and ornithophilous plants were more similar to each other
Currently the size and frequency of wildfires are increasing at a global scale, including arid ecosystems that exhibit great sensitivity to disturbance. Fire effects on plant pollination and reproductive success in deserts are largely unknown. Plant dependence on animal pollinators for reproduction can increase the risk of reproductive failure if pollination services are hindered or lost. Species that depend on few taxonomically related pollinator species are expected to be most negatively affected by disturbances that disrupt pollination interactions. To assess fire and isolation effects on reproductive success in desert plant communities, and how wildfire influences the pollination success of generalist and specialist pollinated plants, the number of flowers, fruits, and viable seeds produced by plants surviving in burned and unburned desert landscapes were compared. Fire increased flower production for wind and generalist pollinated plants, and did not affect specialist plant flower production.
Insect pollination played an important role in the evolution of angiosperms. Little is known, however, about ancient pollination insects and their niche diversity during the pre-angiosperm period due to the rarity of fossil evidence of plant-pollinator interactions.. Recently, a research group led by Prof. WANG Bo from the Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NIGPAS) has provided new insight into the niche diversity, chemical communication, and defense mechanisms of Mesozoic pollinating insects. Its findings were published in Nature Communications on September 17.. One of the most intensely investigated examples of pollination niches is the morphological match between insect proboscis and floral tube length, which Darwin described in a publication in 1877. Kalligrammatid lacewings are among the largest and most conspicuous Mesozoic insects with siphoning mouthparts.. The NIGPAS researchers reported 27 well-preserved kalligrammatids from late ...
Biotic pollen vectors are animals, usually insects, but also reptiles, birds, mammals, and sundry others, that routinely transport pollen and play a role in pollination. This is usually as a result of their activities when visiting plants for feeding, breeding or shelter. The pollen adheres to the vectors body parts such as face, legs, mouthparts, hair, feathers, and moist spots; depending on the particular vector. Such transport is vital to the pollination of many plant species.. Any kind of animal that often visits or encounters flowers is likely to be a pollen vector to some extent. For example, a crab spider that stops at one flower for a time and then moves on, might carry pollen incidentally, but most pollen vectors of significant interest are those that routinely visit the flowers for some functional activity. They might feed on pollen, or plant organs, or on plant secretions such as nectar, and carry out acts of pollination on the way. Many plants bear flowers that favour certain types ...
Ecosystem services, defined as the benefits to human welfare provided by organisms interacting in ecosystems, are considered to be at risk (Daily 1997; Palmer et al. 2004). Pollination by wild animals is a key ecosystem service. Although crop pollination is commonly cited as an example of an endangered ecosystem service (Corbet 1991; Williams 1994; Ingram et al. 1996; Matheson et al. 1996; Allen-Wardell et al. 1998; Kearns et al. 1998; Kevan & Phillips 2001; Steffan-Dewenter et al. 2005, but see Ghazoul 2005), detailed studies of the crop pollination systems are incomplete or out of date. Animal pollination is important to the sexual reproduction of many crops (McGregor 1976; Crane & Walker 1984; Free 1993; Williams 1994; Nabhan & Buchmann 1997; Westerkamp & Gottsberger 2000) and the majority of wild plants (Burd 1994; Kearns et al. 1998; Larson & Barrett 2000; Ashman et al. 2004), which can also be important for providing calories and micronutrients for humans (Sundriyal & Sundriyal 2004). ...
4.3 Performing multiple pollinations using a glassine bag: If a large number of pollinations are to be made on a single day from one pollen source (as many as 100 pollinations may be made from one tassel) the best procedure is as follows: prepare a glassine bag (2" x 7 ½ " [5 x 19 cm] ) by making a "Z"-shaped fold in the bag about halfway up the length of the bag. Then pour in the contents of the tassel bag. Sift the pollen past the first fold into the bottom fold, taking care to keep the anthers in the top from where they may be discarded. Turn the bag on its side and tear off the upper of the two bottom corners of the bag. Carry the pollen in this bag to the waiting silks where it may be sifted sparingly through the torn corner of the glassine bag into the top of the torn shoot bag covering each ear. Then fold the shoot bag to protect the pollinated silks and move rapidly to the next ear. Speed is essential here because the pollen will remain viable only a short time. Fresh pollen appears ...
Here is this weeks question: Why is this greenhouse cucumber shaped like this? This cucumber is the result of poor pollination. Here is a great description of pollination and pollination problems from the Missouri Botanical Gardens: Cucurbits are monoecious; there are separate male and female blossoms on the same plant. The male flowers tend to…
Of the parameters examined in this paper, the degree of specialization (i.e. pollination niche partitioning) of plant-pollinator interactions proved to be critical for plant coexistence. Given the importance of the level of partitioning of non-mutualist resources for species coexistence (limiting similarity, e.g. [21]), this result is not unexpected. Apart from having a considerable impact on the invasion threshold by itself, the models specialization parameter influences the strength of the effects of other factors such as pollen carryover and the two parameters affecting search costs. Its direct positive impact on plant coexistence can be explained as follows.. When the pollinator A1 enters the system together with the rare plant P1, it initially profits from the fact that its density is far below the carrying capacity set by the limited availability of nesting sites. Hence, this rare pollinators population is able to grow, while the more abundant pollinators population size (A2) is kept ...
Avocados have an odd system of pollination to insure cross pollinization. Each of the inconspicuous green/yellow flowers has both male and female parts, but only one sex is open at a time to prevent self fertilization. There are two kinds of trees, A and B types. The A type trees have their flowers open in the mornings as females. The flowers close by afternoon, and remain closed until the following afternoon, when they reopen with the male parts now producing pollen. The B type trees open their flowers as female in the first afternoon, they close and reopen as males the following morning. Each flower only opens twice. If a grove is properly planted with both types of trees, and if pollinators are present then a good set of fruit is likely. Honeybees do the vast majority of the pollination here, but wild bees, flies, wasps and even hummingbirds are also seen working the flowers ...
Abstract. Habitat fragmentation affects both plants and pollinators. Habitat fragmentation leads to changes in species richness, population number and size, density, and shape, thus to changes in the spatial arrangement of flowers. These changes influence the amount of food for flower-visiting insects and the quantity and quality of pollinations.. Seed set in small populations is often reduced and genetic variation is expected but not always found to be low. The majority of studies show that low flower densities have reduced pollination success and higher inbreeding. Density effects are stronger than size effects.. Most studies concluded that species richness in flower-visiting insects is directly related to richness in plant species. However, the consequences of low insect species richness for pollination are not always clear, depending on the studied pollinator-plant relationship. The effects of the presence of simultaneously flowering species are highly dependent on the circumstances and may ...
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wollongong. Grant Details Final Report. The overall aim of the research project funded by the Australian Flora Foundation was to examine the factors limiting seed production by Telopea speciosissima (Waratah) in a natural population at Barren Grounds Nature Reserve, near Wollongong, NSW. This project was proposed following a pilot study conducted by Whelan and Goldingay in 1985, in which it was apparent that the low levels of fruit set observed in the field could be increased by experimental outcrossing of flowers using hand pollination. This result contrasted with previous studies on Waratah, in different study sites, by Pyke (1982) and Pyke & Paton (1983).. In order to understand the factors which limit fruit set in nature and to resolve the apparent contradiction between different studies on Waratah, we felt that is was necessary (i) to gain more information about the basic biology of the species: its breeding system and natural pollinators, ...
The contribution of nutrients from animal pollinated world crops has not previously been evaluated as a biophysical measure for the value of pollination services. This study evaluates the nutritional composition of animal-pollinated world crops. We calculated pollinator dependent and independent proportions of different nutrients of world crops, employing FAO data for crop production, USDA data for nutritional composition, and pollinator dependency data according to Klein et al. (2007). Crop plants that depend fully or partially on animal pollinators contain more than 90% of vitamin C, the whole quantity of Lycopene and almost the full quantity of the antioxidants β-cryptoxanthin and β-tocopherol, the majority of the lipid, vitamin A and related carotenoids, calcium and fluoride, and a large portion of folic acid. Ongoing pollinator decline may thus exacerbate current difficulties of providing a nutritionally adequate diet for the global human population.
If you have a question about this talk, please contact sl750.. The genus Petunia comprises species that are pollinated by different animal pollinators including bees, nocturnal hawkmoths and hummingbirds. Transitions in adaptation to these different pollinators have helped drive speciation within the genus. Such transitions require the modification of multiple floral traits, among them visible colour, ultra-violet (UV) absorbance, scent, nectar production and morphology. How can such complex changes happen again and again over short periods of evolutionary time? To help answer this question, I looked at the genes and mutations responsible for transitions in floral colour. Two classes of flavonoids are important for Petunia floral colour: anthocyanins produce the reds and purples, whereas flavonols absorb UV light. In general, differences in anthocyanin and flavonol levels between Petunia species are caused by a limited number of mutations of large phenotypic effect. For instance, mutations in ...
Certains naiment pas monter aux branches préfèrent les longues cannes ornées de plumes de poulets pour polliniser les fleurs.///Some do not like climbing the trees and prefer the long canes adorned with chicken feathers for pollinating the flowers.
The use of artificial light at night, such as street lights, can harm pollination according to researchers at the University of Bern in Switzerland.Pollinators are animals, commonly insects, that transfer pollen from plant to plant as they feed, allowing plants to reproduce. More than 30% of our plant-based food supply depends on animal pollination, which had an estimated
My wife and I started gardening in Fukuoka (Japan) in 2003. There was nothing but muddy clayey sloping land. At the beginning we made several structure such as steps and paths, and planted turf, fruit trees, roses, herbs etc. In 2010, we visited several famous English gardens, including Sissinghurst Castle Garden, Mottisfont Abbey Garden and Hidcote Manor Garden. We were shocked by the glory of those gardens. Since then, we have been trying to make little but glorious gardens by ourselves. ...
... : Self-pollination Occurs in the same flower or between two flowers of the same plant. Pollinatio
Interested in sustainable food, gardening in the city, local urban biodiversity?. Help us count down! The Urban Pollination Project, a Seattle citizen science project dedicated to researching and conserving native bees and increasing urban garden crop yields, begins a special version of the Twelve Days of Christmas today-the Twelve Sustainable Days of Christmas Pollination!. Visit http://www.facebook.com/urbanpollination or www.urbanpollinationproject.org every day between now and New Years Day to learn how pollinators-bees, flies, butterflies, birds, bats, and others-have contributed to your holiday foods and traditions.. ...
Leaf and fascicle. Inflorescence - Axillary racemes in the upper 2/3 of the stem. Racemes very bracteate and the inflorescence appearing as just axillary flowers. Flowers single from each leaf (bract) axil, 1-2 per node, opposite. Pedicels 3-5mm long, shorter than or equaling the calyx, glabrous, ascending. Axis of the inflorescence angled, puberulent. Flowers - Corolla pink, to +2cm long, 5-lobed. Corolla tube densely antrorse pubescent externally, mostly glabrous internally, contracted in the basal 5mm (the portion surrounded by the calyx). Corolla tube with pink spots and two yellow stripes internally (ventrally). Corolla lobes rounded, with pilose margins, to +1cm broad, 1cm long, spreading, the upper two pilose-bearded at the base internally. Stamens 4, didynamous, mostly included. Filaments pale pink to whitish, pink pilose, to +1cm long, adnate at the apex of the contracted portion of the corolla tube. Anthers whitish, pilose dorsally, +/-3mm long, 1.5mm broad, with two acute basal lobes. ...
Add colour to your wardrobe with artwork printed headbands! Capturing the warm hues of a floral bouquet, the Pollination headband is created from the original painting, Pollination, a story of tropical beauty and a celebration of life and nature. Our versatile, micro-knit headbands are.... View full product details ...
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Researchers have found that pollination levels of some plants have dropped by up to 50 per cent in the last two decades.. Telegraph.co.uk, Published: 5:30AM BST 06 Sep ...
Pollinator Information Abstract: The health and diversity of pollinators has inrecent years become a concern on the local, state, national and internationallevels. Pollinators are essential tohuman nutrition and to the survival of natural ecosystems it has beenestimated that 75% of human food crops need animal pollination to produce theirfull yield potential (Klein et al. ...
Abiotic pollination refers to situations where pollination is mediated without the involvement of other organisms. The most common form of abiotic pollination, anemophily, is pollination by wind. This form of pollination is predominant in grasses, most conifers, and many deciduous trees. Of the 20% of abiotically pollinated species, 98% are anemophilous and 2% hydrophilous, being pollinated by water. ...
The hedgehog lily a.k.a. Massonia depressa hails from arid regions of South Africa. As with most plants from this region, it is highly adapted to its semi-desert environment. Its bizarre yet beautiful appearance belies something peculiar - a pollination syndrome that may surprise you. The hedgehog lily is pollinated by desert rodents such as gerbils.. Lets back up a second though. The genus Massonia has a certain level of confusion hanging around. For starters, despite its common name, it is not a lily at all. It was originally placed in the family Hyacinthaceae but now resides in the family Asparagaceae.. During the hot summer months this plant goes dormant, retreating underground in the form of a bulb. Come winter, two broad leaves are produced that lay flat on the ground. The positioning of the leaves in such a way may serve a few different purposes for the hedgehog lily. For starters, leaves laying flat on the ground may help the plant avoid herbivory. It may also help reduce water loss ...
During the past several decades, scientists have studied the molecular mechanisms that cause plants to reject their own pollen. They have found that in the Solanaceae (nightshade) plant family, which includes tomatoes, prevention of self-pollination is controlled by the "S-locus." This is a genetic region responsible for producing distinct proteins in the flowers pollen and in its pistil, the female organ where pollination occurs ...
The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) has announced the 2016 application and renewal period for the Conservation Stewardship Program (CSP), the nations largest conservation program for working lands. The program provides farmers and ranchers with annual payments for implementing specific conservation activities on their land.… ...
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The representation of ecological communities as networks of interacting species is currently a particularly widespread approach in community ecology. The prevalence of networks has led to a broad literature that sheds light on the links between ecological network structure and stability, the explanatory role of traits and evolutionary history with regard to interaction patterns, and the persistence and dynamics of networks across time and space. In addition to the long-established study of trophic and competitive interactions, the importance of networks of positive interactions to ecological communities is also becoming increasing apparent. Despite these many advances, it is often sidestepped that each interaction network---be it a food-web, pollination network, or host-parasite network---is but one component in a greater, connected whole. That is, each and every ecological community is actually composed of multiple interaction networks that do not operate independent from one another. Indeed, ...
The intern will collaborate with MGS Horticultural, a major supplier of fertilizer and pest management controls, to study the relationship between scent and pollination success in commercial greenhouses. Previous (unpublished) research has suggested that scent is an integral component of pollination in greenhouse tomato, and that scent can be affected by growth conditions within a greenhouse. The research proposed will attempt to not only confirm this, but use it in developing a course of action for tomato crops which are experiencing a deficit of pollination. ...
The TTP grant has been an honor for our small group of volunteers. It has validated our efforts to create a sanctuary for insect pollinators and human visitors…
Designed primarily for NRCS and SWCD personnel, or other natural resource professionals, this workshop will cover the latest research on crop pollination by native bees and the most important steps you can take to help ensure that conservation buffers provide the best possible habitat for these insects. You will also learn about the new NRCS Plant Materials Technology Note on pollinator habitat specific to Oregon that is scheduled for release in June. We will spend the first half indoors and then go into the field to look at habitat features for pollinators ...
... is a podcast from Oregon State University Extension Service that tells the stories of researchers, land managers and concerned citizens who are making bold strides to improve the health of pollinators.
This 2684 word essay is about Pollination, Plant morphology, Plant reproduction, Plant sexuality, Plant anatomy, Gametophyte, Gymnosperm. Read the full essay now!
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pollination: Transfer of pollen grains from the stamens, the flower parts that produce them, to the ovule-bearing organs or to the ovules (seed precursors) themselves. In plants such as conifers...