TY - JOUR. T1 - Predictors and outcome of admission for invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infections at a Canadian Childrens Hospital. AU - Laupland, Kevin B.. AU - Davies, H. Dele. AU - Kellner, James D.. AU - Luzod, Nina Lynn. AU - Karan, Tulika. AU - Ma, Doreen. AU - Taub, Dina. AU - Nijssen-Jordan, Cheri. AU - Katzko, Gary. AU - Jadavji, Taj. AU - Church, Deirdre. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - Rates of admission for invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in children vary considerably between institutions. We performed a retrospective study to investigate factors used in the decision to admit patients with invasive S. pneumoniae infection to Alberta Childrens Hospital. Of 254 patients who were initially assessed in the emergency department, 38.2% were admitted to the hospital. Significant risk factors for admission as determined by a logistic regression model included murmur (odds ratio [OR], 18.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.08-88.23), focal infection (OR, 11.41; 95% CI, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A retrospective analysis of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in Trinidad.. AU - Williams, K. P.. AU - Monteil, M. A.. PY - 2000/3. Y1 - 2000/3. N2 - A retrospective analysis of culture-positive cases of S pneumoniae from normally sterile body fluids is reported. Over 40% of patients were 5 years old or less while 28% of patients were 50 years old or more. Meningitis (44%) was the commonest clinical presentation followed closely by pneumonia (31%). The commonest predisposing disorder was human immunodeficiency virus infection though there were no identifiable risk factors in the majority of patients. Mortality from invasive pneumococcal disease was significantly higher in elderly patients compared with other age groups (p = 0.0003). In this study, all S pneumoniae isolates, for which there were antibiotic sensitivity data, were penicillin and/or amoxycillin sensitive.. AB - A retrospective analysis of culture-positive cases of S pneumoniae from normally sterile body ...
Background. The prevalence of multiantimicrobial resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae continues to increase worldwide. In patients presenting with infection possibly due to pneumococci, recognition of risk factors that would identify those likely to have an antibiotic-resistant isolate might assist clinicians in choosing the most appropriate empirical therapy.. Methods. A prospective cohort study of invasive pneumococcal infection was conducted in Toronto, Canada. Risk factors for antimicrobial resistance were evaluated by means of univariate and multivariate modeling.. Results. A total of 3339 patients with invasive pneumococcal infection were identified between 1995 and 2002. Multivariate modeling revealed that risk factors for infection with penicillin-resistant as opposed to penicillin-susceptible pneumococci were year of infection (odds ratio [OR], 1.28; P , .001), absence of chronic organ system disease (OR, 1.72; P = .03), and previous use of penicillin (OR, 2.47; P = .006), ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in children≤5years with invasive pneumococcal disease in India - A systematic review. AU - Singh, Jyotsana. AU - Sundaresan, Suba. AU - Manoharan, Anand. AU - Shet, Anita. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of childhood diseases that result in significant morbidity and mortality in India. Commercially licensed and available pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) include ten (PCV-10) and 13 (PCV-13) pneumococcal serotypes. Vaccines with other serotype combinations are under development. Reviewing and reporting trends and distribution of pneumococcal serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease in India will be useful for policy making as PCV is being introduced into Indias universal immunization program. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review of hospital based observational studies (both peer reviewed and gray literature published in English) from ...
OBJECTIVES: The overall reported burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) varies among countries in Europe. This review describes the epidemiology and serotype distribution of IPD in European children from studies published from 1990 to 2008.. METHODS: Averages were derived from all studies from all countries that had available data.. RESULTS: Before widespread immunization with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), the overall mean annual incidence of IPD in children aged ,2 years was 44.4/100 000. The mean case fatality rate for IPD was 3.5%, and resistant rates were approximately 23% for penicillin G (minimum inhibitory concentration , or =2mg/l), 41% for erythromycin, and 9% (, or =5 years) for third-generation cephalosporins. The most common serotypes causing IPD were 14, 6B, 19F, and 23F, all of which are included in PCV7. Vaccine serotype coverage ranged from 37% to 100% for PCV7, with mean increases in coverage of 7% and 16% for investigational 10- and 13-valent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serotype and antibiotic resistance of isolates from patients with invasive pneumococcal disease in Japan. AU - Chiba, N.. AU - Morozumi, M.. AU - Sunaoshi, K.. AU - Takahashi, S.. AU - Takano, M.. AU - Komori, T.. AU - Sunakawa, K.. AU - Ubukata, K.. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is of concern in Japan, where the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) is unavailable. We determined serotypes, genotypes indicating -lactam resistance, and antibiotic susceptibilities of 496 isolates from normally sterile sites in patients (193 children, 303 adults) from 186 institutions between August 2006 and July 2007. Disease presentations included sepsis (462%), pneumonia (315%), and meningitis (175%). Mortality was 14% in children and 221% in adults, many of whom had underlying diseases. In children, serotype 6B (225%) was followed by 19F (141%), and 14 (131%); potential coverages of PCV7 and PCV13 were 754% and 937%, respectively. In adults, ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most common bacterial causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, causing life threatening infections such as meningitis, pneumonia and febrile bacteremia, particular among young children. The severity and frequency of S. pneumoniae infection and emergence of drug-resistant isolates have highlighted the need for prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) as the best method for controlling disease; to better achieve this, more information is needed about serotype distribution and patterns of antibiotic resistance in children in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Cases of pneumococcal infections in children aged ,5 years, recorded in hospitals throughout KSA from 2005 to 2010 were reviewed for serotyping and for antibiotic susceptibility. This covers the time period just before limited introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in 2006, to its introduction into the national immunization program in 2008, until right after a switch ...
Data & statistics on Invasive Pneumococcal Disease by Age Category and Outcome Capital Health: Demographics Capital Health, 2005, Invasive pneumococcal disease notification rates, by age group and Indigenous status, WA, SA and NT, 2004-2006, Invasive.Pneumococcal.Disease.Rates,.ICS.1999-2006 . Circumpolar Health Supplements 2009; 4...
In Canada before 2005, large outbreaks of pneumococcal disease, including invasive pneumococcal disease caused by serotype 5, were rare. Since then, an epidemic of serotype 5 invasive pneumococcal disease was reported: 52 cases during 2005, 393 during 2006, 457 during 2007, 104 during 2008, and 42 during in 2009. Of these 1,048 cases, 1,043 (99.5%) occurred in the western provinces of Canada. Median patient age was 41 years, and most (659 [59.3%]) patients were male. Most frequently representing serotype 5 cases (compared with a subset of persons with non-serotype 5 cases) were persons who were of First Nations heritage or homeless. Restriction fragment-length polymorphism typing indicated that the epidemic was caused by a single clone, which multilocus sequence typing identified as sequence type 289. Large pneumococcal epidemics might go unrecognized without surveillance programs to document fluctuations in serotype prevalence.
The primary findings of this study are a strong association between day care attendance and an increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease, and confirmation of the importance of underlying disease as a risk factor in young children. In addition, this analysis demonstrated an association between antecedent antibiotic use and penicillin-resistant invasive pneumococcal disease.11 This association supports the concept that unnecessary antibiotic use may be harmful to a child and emphasizes the need to promote judicious antibiotic use.11. The proportion of case-patients with an underlying disease in this population-based surveillance system (10%) was substantially lower than that observed recently from a national surveillance system based on patients from eight large childrens hospitals (27% of episodes were associated with an underling illness).12 This may reflect differences in blood culturing patterns or the tendency for children with underlying diseases to be overrepresented among the ...
Background: Little is known about pneumococcal carrier states in older adults. The main aim of this study was to evaluate pneumococcal colonization patterns among older adults in two centres in Milan, Italy, before the widespread use of the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) in this age group, to investigate demographic and clinical features that are associated with pneumococcal colonization and to estimate the potential coverage offered by PCV13. Results: Among 417 adults ≥65 years old (171, 41.1 %, ≥75 years), 41 (9.8 %) were pneumococcal carriers. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that pneumococcal colonization was significantly less common among individuals with underlying co-morbidities than among those without (odds ratio [OR] 0.453, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.235-0.875, p = 0.018; adjusted OR 0.503, 95 % CI 0.255-0.992, p = 0.047). Moreover, among these patients, those with cardiac disease had a significantly lower risk of colonization (OR 0.308, 95 % CI ...
Adolescent Vaccination Recommendations: Pneumococcal. National Foundation for Infectious Diseases (NFID). Enfermedad neumocócica - Informacion para los padres. Pneumococcal disease information in Spanish for parents from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Gift of Health Campaign. NFID shareable visuals to help convey important prevention messages around the Holidays. Immunization Action Coalition. Pneumococcal Disease (PCV). Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine: What a Parent Needs to Know. American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP). Pneumococcal Disease Fact Sheet for the Media. National Foundation for Infectious Diseases (NFID). Pneumococcal Disease Facts for Consumers. National Foundation for Infectious Diseases (NFID). Pneumococcal Disease Myths and Facts for Consumers. National Foundation for Infectious Diseases (NFID). Pneumococcal Disease Professional Practice Toolkit National ...
ICD-9 038.2 is pneumococcal septicemia [streptococcus pneumoniae septicemia] (0382). This code is grouped under diagnosis codes for infectious and parasitic diseases.
Two classes of pneumococcal vaccines are currently available, one based on polysaccharides and the other based on polysaccharides conjugated to a carrier protein. The polysaccharide vaccine consists of purified capsular polysaccharides from the 23 serotypes causing about 90% of invasive pneumococcal infection in industrialized countries. Responses are age-dependent and serotype-dependent. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines contain polysaccharides from 7 serotypes covering 65-80% of serotypes associated with invasive pneumococcal disease among young children in western industrialized countries. The polysaccharides are conjugated to a carrier protein which makes them more immunogenic and effective in protecting against infection, in particular in young children less than 2 years of age. Furthermore, the vaccine protects against both systemic and mucosal infection and prevents nasopharyngeal colonization, thereby reducing transmission in the community.. ...
In This Topic Pneumococcal Infections Symptoms and Diagnosis Prevention and Treatment Back to Top Section Infections Subject Bacterial Infections Topics Introduction· Actinomycosis· Anthrax· Bejel ... pneumococcal vaccine. Penicillin is the preferred antibiotic for most pneumococcal infections. It is taken by mouth for ear and sinus infections and given intravenously for more severe infections ... ...
Older adults with pneumococcal pneumonia may experience confusion or low alertness, rather than the more common symptoms listed above.. There are vaccines to help prevent pneumococcal disease.. Pneumococcal disease is common in young children, but older adults are at greatest risk of serious illness and death. Vaccines are the best way to prevent pneumococcal disease. CDC Recommends Pneumococcal Vaccination for Young Children, Older Adults, and Certain Other People.. Read more: https://www.cdc.gov/pneumococcal/vaccination.html. ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) remains one of the major human pathogens and one of the most common causes of community-acquired pneumonia, otitis media, sinusitis, and meningitis. Aside from the threats posed by emerging antibiotic resistance and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus, the mortality rate among those patients with severe pneumococcal disease who receive seemingly appropriate antimicrobial chemotherapy remains unacceptably high. Because of its involvement in the pathogenesis of invasive disease, pneumolysin, one of the best-characterized virulence factors of the pneumococcus, represents not only a potential vaccine target, but also a target for adjunctive therapy to antibiotics in patients with acute pneumococcal disease. In this paper we review the cytolytic and pro-inflammatory properties of pneumolysin and their involvement in sub-version of host defenses and extra-pulmonary dissemination of the pneumococcus, as well as strategies, both immunological and ...
Introduction. Pneumococcal diseases are a worldwide public health problem. S. pneumonia is the leading cause of severe pneumonia in children under 5 years of age, causing over one (1) million deaths each year mainly in developing countries. In industrialized countries most infection occurs in the elderly. Causative agent: Pneumococcal disease refers to a group of clinical conditions caused by the bacterium Steptococcus pneumonia. Invasive pneumococcal infections include pneumonia, meningitis and febrile bacteraemia. The common non-invasive conditions include otitis media, sinusitis and bronchitis.. Transmission: Infection is acquired by direct person-to-person contact via respiratory droplets or oral contact or indirectly through articles freshly soiled with respiratory discharges.. Incubation period: Not well determined. May be as short as 1 - 3 days. Travelers with certain chronic conditions such as chronic renal failure, chronic liver disease, Diabetes mellitus, HIV/AIDS, immunosuppression ...
Since 2000, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) and WHO have supported the introduction of the Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV) in the immunization programs of developing countries. The highest pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage rates have been reported (40-60%) in these countries, and the highest incidence and case fatality rates of pneumococcal infections have been demonstrated in Africa. Studies concerning nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage and pneumococcal infection in children less than 5 years old were conducted in Dakar from 2007 to 2008. Serotype, antibiotic susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined. In addition, among 17 overall publications, 6 manuscripts of the Senegalese literature published from 1972 to 2013 were selected for data comparisons. Among the 264 children observed, 132 (50%) children generated a nasopharyngeal (NP) positive culture with Streptococcus pneumoniae. The five most prevalent serotypes, were 6B (9%), 19 F (9%), 23
OBJECTIVE: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) primarily affects children less than 5 years old, the elderly and certain at-risk groups; especially people infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The objective of this study was to analyze invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in children and adolescents infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with relation to morbidity, the case fatality ratio, pneumococcus serotypes, susceptibility to penicillin and ceftriaxone and to the proportion of susceptible and resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) included in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine that has already been licensed. METHODS: A total of 19 cases of IPD were identified among HIV seropositive patients aged from 1 month to 20 years and hospitalized between 1993 and 2000. Data were recorded on standardized charts containing information on age, clinical diagnosis and progression, serotypes and the susceptibility to penicillin and ceftriaxone of the Sp strains ...
This report published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 27, No 4, December 2003 reports the results of comprehensive laboratory surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Australia during 2001 and 2002.
This report provides an analysis of enhanced surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) carried out in all Australian states and territories in 2005 with comparative data available since 2001.
Pneumococcal infections are caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive, catalase-negative organism commonly referred to as pneumococcus. S pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), bacterial meningitis, bacteremia, and otitis media, as well as an important cause of sinusitis, septic arthritis, osteomy...
The best way to prevent this disease is vaccination; especially for young children, seniors, and if you have a high risk medical condition.. Presently, there are two types of pneumococcal vaccines available. Both are publicly funded depending on age and risk factors. Avoid sharing anything that has come in contact with someone elses mouth. Cover your mouth or nose when coughing or sneezing, throw away any used tissues and wash your hands. It is also recommended to get your vaccination against influenza each year because bacterial pneumonia is a common complication of influenza.. Speak to your health care provider about your immunization status. If you do not have a health care provider, call the Vaccine Preventable Disease Team at the health unit for more information 705-721-7520 ext. 8806.. For data on the incidence of invasive Pneumococcal disease in Simcoe Muskoka and Ontario, please visit the invasive Pneumococcal disease page on the health units HealthSTATS site.. ...
Vaccine. 2015 Nov 18. pii: S0264-410X(15)01635-7. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.11.015. [Epub ahead of print]. Serotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility, and molecular epidemiology of invasive and non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in paediatric patients after the introduction of 13-valent conjugate vaccine in a nationwide surveillance study conducted in Japan in 2012-2014.. Nakano S1, Fujisawa T2, Ito Y3, Chang B4, Suga S2, Noguchi T1, Yamamoto M1, Matsumura Y1, Nagao M1,Takakura S1, Ohnishi M4, Ihara T5, Ichiyama S1.. Author information. Abstract. Pneumococcal infection in children is a major public health problem worldwide, including in Japan. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 7 (PCV7) was licensed for use in Japan in 2010 followed by PCV13 in 2013. This report includes the results of a nationwide surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and non-IPD in paediatric patients from January 2012 to December 2014. We collected 343 isolates from 337 IPD patients and 286 isolates ...
About the disease - Pneumococcal disease. Pneumococcal disease is an infection caused by the pneumococcus bacteria.. When the bacteria infects the lungs, it can cause pneumonia. People with pneumonia often have fever, chills, cough, pain with breathing, and are short of breath. Pneumonia can be life-threatening if not treated properly. Pneumococcus can spread to other parts of your body as well, such as the blood and brain. Because these places are normally bacteria-free, an infection in these areas is very serious and can lead to meningitis, bacteremia (bloodstream infection), brain damage, and even death.. Am I at risk?. The pneumococcus bacteria is spread from person-to-person through coughing or sneezing. Many healthy people, particularly young children, carry the bacteria in their nose and throat without it causing them any problems, but can spread the bacteria to others.. There are many people who are at higher risk of pneumococcal disease when they come into contact with the bacteria, ...
The epidemiology of IPD and single serotypes has constantly changed over the past 7 decades. PCV serotypes appeared to dominate the pneumococcal population.
Following introduction of the 7-valent PCV (PCV7) in 2000, overall IPD and pneumonia rates substantially decreased for vaccinated and unvaccinated children, and racial disparities in pneumococcal diseases declined. Studies in recent years indicate a further decrease in IPD and pneumonia rates as well as racial disparities following introduction of the 13-valent PCV (PCV13) in 2010. Dr. Schaffner and colleagues used the CDCs Active Bacterial Core surveillance data from 1998 to 2013 for more than 8,000 patients in Tennessee to better understand the impact of these vaccines on potential gender differences in IPD rates.. While introduction of PCV7 nearly eliminated differences in IPD rates by geography, age, and race, gender differences have persisted, although in a muted fashion, according to Dr. Schaffner. Throughout the study period, IPD rates were higher among males than females, especially among children younger than 2 and adults aged 40 to 64, with males having IPD rates 1.5 to 2 times higher ...
Invasive pneumococcal infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide despite the availability of pneumococcal vaccines. The aim of this study was to re-evaluate the clinical syndromes, prognostic factors and outcomes for pneumococcal disease in adults and children in Singapore during the period before and after the introduction of the pneumococcal vaccine. We retrospectively analyzed a large cohort of patients admitted to the four main public hospitals in Singapore with S. pneumoniae infection between 1997 and 2013. A total of 889 (64% of all isolates identified in the clinical laboratories) cases were included in the analysis; 561 (63.1%) were adult (≥16 years) cases with a median age of 62 years and 328 (36.9%) were paediatric cases with a median age of 3 years. Bacteraemic pneumonia was the most common syndrome in both groups (69.3% vs. 44.2%), followed by primary bacteraemia without pneumonia (14.3% vs. 13.4%), meningitis (6.4% vs. 7.6%) and non-bacteraemic pneumonia (5.2% ...
pneumococcal surface protein A: present on nonencapsulated & some encapsulated strains; monoclonal antibodies against it can protect mice from fatal pneumococcal infection
Recent nasopharyngeal colonization with a new serotype almost always precedes infection.4,5 Colonization rates are highest in infants and preschool children, where they may be as high as 35%.4 Children may carry different serotypes at different times but are almost always colonized by those limited serotypes responsible for infections in this age group.2 Carriage rates are lower in older children (40-50%) and in adults (5-30%).6,7 PCV7 includes the 7 most common serotypes causing colonization and infection in children (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F). These serotypes and the cross-reactive serotypes (6A, 9A, 9L, 18B, 18F) caused 86% of cases of bacteremia, 83% of cases of meningitis, and 65% of cases of acute otitis media in children younger than 6 years.3 These serotypes also accounted for more than 80% of penicillin-resistant colonizing serotypes.8 ...
The important work of Gilks suggests that the epidemiology and clinical spectrum of pneumococcal disease in HIV-infected patients is strikingly similar in the United States and Kenya. In both locations, HIV-infected patients comprise a significant proportion of patients with pneumococcal bacteremia, and Streptococcus pneumoniae is among the most common causes of bacteremia and pneumonia in patients with HIV. Moreover, rates of recurrent disease (relapse or reinfection) may be high, whereas mortality is often lower than among bacteremic, HIV-seronegative patients. Delineation of associated risk factors in Africa such as sickle cell disease, malnutrition, or malaria would be of interest ...
In addition to the seasonal and H1N1 flu vaccines, the pneumococcal vaccination is a good idea for those with health conditions that put them at higher risk for complications and illness, said State Health Commissioner Karen Remley, M.D., MBA.. In a typical, non-pandemic year, most serious pneumococcal infections occur in people age 65 and older. But in the 2009 flu pandemic, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports an increase in pneumococcal infections in younger persons.. Most of those with high-risk conditions for pneumococcal disease are also at high risk for severe complications from influenza. The CDC recommends pneumococcal vaccination for all people 65 years of age and older and for persons 2 through 64 years of age with certain high-risk conditions. Risk factors include cardiovascular or lung disease, sickle cell disease, diabetes, alcoholism, chronic liver disease, cerebrospinal fluid leak, a cochlear implant, a weakened immune system due to illnesses such as ...
In 2010, a new enhanced surveillance system for invasive pneumococcal disease was established in the European Union, coordinated by ECDC, and this report describes the results of the first year of data collection (2010 data). The main aim is to provide information on the epidemiological trends and morbidity caused by the circulating S. pneumoniae serotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility and certain other epidemiological features of invasive pneumococcal disease. ...
In 2010, a new enhanced surveillance system for invasive pneumococcal disease was established in the European Union, coordinated by ECDC, and this report describes the results of the first year of data collection (2010 data). The main aim is to provide information on the epidemiological trends and morbidity caused by the circulating S. pneumoniae serotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility and certain other epidemiological features of invasive pneumococcal disease. ...
Pneumococcal colonization allows for spread of organisms into the adjacent paranasal sinuses, middle ear, and/or tracheobronchial tree down to the lower respiratory tract. This spread results in speci... more
Some types of pneumococcal infections are prevented with vaccination. Infants in BC receive pneumococcal vaccine at 2, 4, and 12 months of age. People age 2 and older who have medical conditions that increase their risk of complications from pneumococcal infection get an additional pneumococcal vaccine. This vaccine is also given to all people at age 65. ...
Community Health Highlights Report Indicator Page - Bernalillo County, Invasive Pneumococcal Disease - Persons Aged 65 Years and Older
Community Health Highlights Report Indicator Page - Rio Arriba County, Invasive Pneumococcal Disease - Persons Aged 65 Years and Older
A total of 4795 pneumococcal isolates from nine European countries and Israel were reported to a European surveillance project on pneumococcal serotypes for 1999 (1). The aim of the surveillance was not to describe the incidence of pneumococcal infection, but to monitor pneumococcal serotypes. Considerable variation was found in country and age distribution.
ASM journals are the most prominent publications in the field, delivering up-to-date and authoritative coverage of both basic and clinical microbiology.. About ASM , Contact Us , Press Room. ASM is a member of. ...
Nonspecific laboratory tests that may support the diagnosis include the following: Complete blood count and differential Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) C-reactive protein (CRP)
Pharmacists can watch a video to learn more about talking to their patients at increased risk for pneumococcal disease about vaccination.
Do you know that there are 1.6 million children and adults die each year as a result of pneumococcal disease (PD) among all age groups according to World Health Organization (WHO) . Of these, between 0.70 million to 1 million deaths occur in children under five years old.. Read morePneumococcal Disease, Now A Preventable Disease. ...
To accelerate the development and availability of new vaccines against pneumococcal disease, Italy, the UK, Canada, Norway, Russia, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation together committed US$ 1.5 billion to finance a pilot Advance Market Commitment (AMC).
This report published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 27, No 1, March 2003 contains contains information on a pneumococcal disease in Australia workshop held in Sydney in November 2002 and subsequent papers.
To boost our understanding approximately the severe nature of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), we investigated the association between your genotype of and disease final results for 349 bacteremic sufferers. been extensively researched in is basically unknown. Platelets are essential in immunity and irritation, and extreme platelet activation plays a part in microvascular blockage and multiorgan failing, resulting in mortality. We as a result developed this research to assess if the appearance of might raise the risk AM251 manufacture of loss of life for IPD sufferers through its influence on improved platelet activation. This research also shows the worthiness of integrating considerable bacterial genomics and medical data in predicting and understanding pathogen virulence, which will improve prognosis and therapy. Intro or the pneumococcus is really a frequent colonizer from the nasopharynx. Inside a minority of service providers, infection advances to pneumococcal disease, that leads to ...
PPV Prevent Pneumonia Mouse Pad. An estimated 40,000 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease occur annually and kill approximately 1 out of 20 people who are affected, according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Anyone can get pneumococcal disease, but some individuals are at greater risk for serious illness and/or death, including those over the age of 65. This mouse pad was developed as a tool to remind providers and their clinical staff of the importance for engaging patients and encouraging them to take advantage of this life-saving vaccine as part of a comprehensive vaccine preventable disease program.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunogenicity and safety of concomitant MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine administration in older adults. AU - Song, Joon-Young. AU - Cheong, Hee-Jin. AU - Tsai, T. F.. AU - Chang, Hyun ah. AU - Choi, Min Joo. AU - Jeon, Ji Ho. AU - Kang, Seong Hee. AU - Jeong, Eun Ju. AU - Noh, Ji Yun. AU - Kim, Woo Joo. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Background: Concomitant administration of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines facilitates their uptake by older adults; however, data on immunogenicity and safety of concomitant administration of adjuvanted trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (aIIV3) and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) have not been reported. Methods: Subjects aged ≥65 years (. N=. 224) were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive MF59-aIIV3 alone, MF59-aIIV3. +. PPSV23 in contralateral arms, MF59-aIIV3. +. PPSV23 in the same arm or PPSV23 alone (Clinical Trial Number - NCT02225327). Hemagglutination ...
Background: In Australia in June 2001, a unique pneumococcal vaccine schedule commenced for Indigenous infants; seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7PCV) given at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23PPV) at 18 months of age. This study presents carriage serotypes following this schedule.. Methods: We conducted cross sectional surveys of pneumococcal carriage in Aboriginal children 0 to 6 years of age living in remote Aboriginal communities (RACs) in 2003 and 2005. Nasal secretions were collected and processed according to published methods.. Results: 902 children (mean age 25 months) living in 29 communities in 2003 and 818 children (mean age 35 months) in 17 communities in 2005 were enrolled. 87% children in 2003 and 96% in 2005 had received two or more doses of 7PCV. From 2003 to 2005, pneumococcal carriage was reduced from 82% to 76% and reductions were apparent in all age groups; 7PCV-type carriage was reduced from 11% to 8%, and ...
The increasing use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and pneumococcal immunization along with shifting community exposures may have altered the burden of Streptococcus pneumoniae disease in HIV-infected persons. We describe the burden and risk factors for pneumococcal disease in the modern era of HIV care and evaluate the use of a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV-23). The incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) between January 1st, 2000 and January 1st, 2010 in a regional HIV population in Southern Alberta, Canada was determined by linking comprehensive laboratory and hospital surveillance data. Clinical and epidemiologic data including risk factors for S. pneumoniae, history of pneumococcal immunization, serotypes of infections, and length of any hospitalizations for pneumococcal disease were evaluated with multivariate analysis. CD4 count and viral load at immunization were evaluated with a nested case-control analysis. In 1946 HIV-patients with 11,099 person
Pneumovax® 23 (23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, 23vPPBV) (1 dose), Pneumovax 23, Swindon Medical Company Limited. Administered a single dose to 2 years of age and older.Pneumonia is the 2nd leading cause of death in HK. Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the common bacteria causing pneumonia (lung infection) and serious diseases; for example, meningitis, otitis media, sepsis and even death.According to the recommendations of the Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection: All aged 2 or above or high-risk elderly persons aged 65 or above should have pneumococcal vaccination, and high-risk individuals should be vaccinated with a 13-valent conjugate -The vaccination injection process is handled by medical professional.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Statins protect against fulminant pneumococcal infection and cytolysin toxicity in a mouse model of sickle cell disease. AU - Rosch, Jason W.. AU - Boyd, Angela R.. AU - Hinojosa, Ernesto. AU - Pestina, Tamara. AU - Hu, Yunming. AU - Persons, Derek A.. AU - Orihuela, Carlos J.. AU - Tuomanen, Elaine I.. PY - 2010/2/1. Y1 - 2010/2/1. N2 - Sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by intravascular hemolysis and inflammation coupled to a 400-fold greater incidence of invasive pneumococcal infection resulting in fulminant, lethal pneumococcal sepsis. Mechanistically, invasive infection is facilitated by a proinflammatory state that enhances receptor-mediated endocytosis of pneumococci into epithelial and endothelial cells. As statins reduce chronic inflammation, in addition to their serum cholesterol-lowering effects, we hypothesized that statin therapy might improve the outcome of pneumococcal infection in SCD. In this study, we tested this hypothesis in an experimental SCD mouse ...
Invasive disease from Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a major cause of illness and death in the United States, with an estimated 43,500 cases and 5,000 deaths among persons of all ages in 2009 (1). This report provides updated recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) (i.e., bacteremia, meningitis, or infection of other normally sterile sites [2]) through use of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) among all adults aged ≥65 years and those adults aged 19--64 years with underlying medical conditions that put them at greater risk for serious pneumococcal infection. The new recommendations include the following changes from 1997 ACIP recommendations (2): 1) the indications for which PPSV23 vaccination is recommended now include smoking and asthma, and 2) routine use of PPSV23 is no longer recommended for Alaska Natives or American Indians aged ,65 years unless they have ...
Routine use of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), available since 2000, has resulted in a dramatic reduction in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) attributable to serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae contained in the vaccine. However, IPD caused by nonvaccine pneumococcal serotypes has increased, and nonvaccine serotypes are now responsible for the majority of the remaining cases of IPD occurring in children. A 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has been licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration, which, in addition to the 7 serotypes included in the original PCV7, contains the 6 pneumococcal serotypes responsible for 63% of IPD cases now occurring in children younger than 5 years. Because of the expanded coverage provided by PCV13, it will replace PCV7. This statement provides recommendations for (1) the transition from PCV7 to PCV13; (2) the routine use of PCV13 for healthy children and children with an underlying medical condition that increases ...
Purpose: To describe and compare the impact of universal infant immunization with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infection, nasopharyngeal carriage, and antibiotic resistance in Alaskan Native and non-Native children and adults. Methods: The medical literature concerning the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and the effects of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the incidence, nasopharyngeal carriage, and antibiotic resistance of S pneumoniae was reviewed with special emphasis on the effects in the Alaska Native population. Results: Alaska Native children experienced the highest incidence of IPD in the United States. The greatest difference in IPD was among children younger than 2 years for whom the annualized rate in Alaskan Native children (450/100,000 per year) was 3 times higher than for non-Native Alaskan children younger than 2 years who had rates similar to the overall US population. In the first 3 years after beginning routine
Question: Some of the physicians I work with are reluctant to administer 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) to adults, stating that it is not very effective.
Find everything you need to know about Pneumovax 23 (Pneumococcal Polysaccharides Vaccine (PPSV), 23-Valent), including what it is used for, warnings, reviews, side effects, and interactions. Learn more about Pneumovax 23 (Pneumococcal Polysaccharides Vaccine (PPSV), 23-Valent) at EverydayHealth.com.
Using a cross-sectional study, Stefan Flasche and colleagues investigated the effects of the UK pneumococcal vaccination program on serotype-specific carriage and invasive pneumococcal disease.. There are more than 90 Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes that can cause invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine PCV7 contains antigens from seven serotypes responsible for IPD. Immunization with PCV7 prevents both IPD disease and carriage of these seven serotypes, but after vaccination non-vaccine serotypes could colonize the nasopharynx. There are concerns that this serotype replacement could reduce the benefits of vaccination. This cross-sectional study examined nasopharyngeal swabs taken from PCV7-vaccinated children and their families for S. pneumoniae, determined the serotype of any bacteria found, and compared the proportion of people carrying S. pneumoniae (carrier prevalence) and the distribution of serotypes in this study population with a similar population ...
We investigated changes in serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibilities among 386 isolates of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae collected from numerous hospitals in Korea from 1996 to 2008. Serotypes 19F (9.8 %), 23F (8.3 %), 19A (7.8 %), 6A (7.5 %), 3 (7.3 %), 9V (6.5 %), 6B (6.2 %), 14 (4.9 %), 1 (3.9 %), 11A (3.9 %) and 4 (3.1 %) represented 69.2 % of all isolates. While the overall proportion of PCV7 serotypes was stable over time, we observed modest decreases in children <5 years old and in adults ≥65 years old between 1996-1999 and 2007-2008. An increased prevalence of non-PCV7 serotypes in these age groups was primarily attributable to an increase in serotypes 3, 6A and 19A. Most invasive S. pneumoniae isolates showed high resistance rates to erythromycin (74.9 %), tetracycline (71.1 %) and clindamycin (61.7 %). Between 1996-2003 and 2004-2008, non-susceptibility rates to cefotaxime and multi-drugs (three or more classes) in PCV7 serotypes showed a declining trend, while in non-PCV7
Abstract(#br) Background(#br) Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 5 is among the most common serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in The Gambia. We anticipate that introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) into routine vaccination in The Gambia will reduce serotype 5 IPD. However, the emergence of new clones that have altered their genetic repertoire through capsular switching or genetic recombination after vaccination with PCV-13 poses a threat to this public health effort. In order to monitor for potential genetic changes post-PCV-13 vaccination, we established the baseline population structure, epidemiology, and antibiotic resistance patterns of serotype 5 before the introduction of PCV-13.(#br) Methods(#br)Fifty-five invasive S. pneumoniae... serotype 5 isolates were recovered from January 2009 to August 2011 in a population-based study in the Upper River Region of The Gambia. Serotyping was done by latex agglutination and confirmed by ...
Acquired causes of Fanconi syndrome in adults are usually due to drugs, toxins or paraproteinaemias. Infectious causes are rarely described. We report a case of invasive pneumococcal disease in a patient who developed a Fanconi-like syndrome during the course of her illness. This patient presented with multiple electrolyte derangements consisting predominantly of hypokalaemia, hypomagnesaemia and hypophosphataemia during hospitalization for invasive pneumococcal disease with possible Austrian syndrome. Further evaluation revealed significant urinary losses of these electrolytes, uric acid and ?2-microglobulin. Together with evidence of hypouricaemia, this is suggestive of proximal renal tubulopathy, and hence a Fanconi-like syndrome. The patients clinical condition and biochemical anomalies improved following pneumococcus treatment.. ...
In South Africa, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was introduced in April 2009 and replaced with 13-valent PCV in April 2011. We describe the epidemiology of serotype 1 Streptococcus pneumoniae disease during the pre- and post-PCV eras (2003-2013). Using laboratory-based invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) surveillance, we calculated annual incidences, identified IPD clusters, and determined serotype 1-associated factors. Of 46,483 IPD cases, 4,544 (10%) were caused by serotype 1. Two clusters of serotype 1 infection were detected during 2003-2004 and 2008-2012, but incidence decreased after 2011. Among children ...
To the Editors: We read with interest the article by Makwana et al.1 The authors note that most childhood invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) cases are now due to non-13 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) serotypes though PCV13 serotypes remain in circulation with serotypes 3 and 19A listed among the top 10 that caused IPD in children in 2015/16. Of the 25 cases with PCV13-type IPD in 2015/16, 11 (44%) were due to serotype 19A.To the Editors: We read with interest the article by Makwana et al.1 The authors note that most childhood invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) cases are now due to non-13 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) serotypes though PCV13 serotypes remain in circulation with serotypes 3 and 19A listed among the top 10 that caused IPD in children in 2015/16. Of the 25 cases with PCV13-type IPD in 2015/16, 11 (44%) were due to serotype 19A ...
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Active Bacterial Core Surveillance (ABCs) Abstract: The Connecticut Active Bacterial Core Surveillance (ABCs)project is a collaboration between the Connecticut Department of Public Health(DPH) and the Centersfor Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The objective of thisproject is to determine the incidence and epidemiology of invasive disease dueto group A Streptococcus, group B Streptococcus, Haemophilus influenza, Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Neisseriameningitidis, and Streptococcuspneumoniae. ...
An annual report on invasive pneumococcal disease is produced each year. The report includes information on incidence of disease and on laboratory surveillance. This page contains links to the annual reports from 2001.
An annual report on invasive pneumococcal disease is produced each year. The report includes information on incidence of disease and on laboratory surveillance. This page contains links to the annual reports from 2001.
We undertook active population-based surveillance in 5,000 urban households among children < 5 years old to determine invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence, serotype distribution, clinical presentation, and antimicrobial resistance, which have not been previously described in population-based studies from the region. IPD was documented by blood culture isolation. From 01 April 2004 to 31 March 2006, 5,903 blood cultures were collected from 6,167 eligible children. Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from 34 pneumococcal patients; IPD was clinically associated with pneumonia (24%), upper respiratory infection (62%), and febrile syndromes (14%). Overall, IPD and 13-valent serotype-related IPD incidences were 447 and 276 episodes/100,000 child-years, respectively. Peak IPD incidence occurred during the cool dry seasons. Penicillin, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin resistances were 2.9%, 82.4%, 14.7%, and 24.1%, respectively. Current conjugate vaccines should substantially
We collected nasopharyngeal specimens from 1011 children, 290 (29%) of whom were colonized with pneumococcus. Non-PCV7 serotypes accounted for 98% of pneumococcal isolates, most commonly 19A (14%), 6C (11%), and 15B/C (11%). In 2008-2009, newly targeted PCV13 serotypes accounted for 20% of carriage isolates and 41% of penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae. In multivariate models, younger age, child care, young siblings, and upper respiratory illness remained predictors of pneumococcal carriage, despite near-complete serotype replacement. Only young age and child care were significantly associated with penicillin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae carriage. ...
Modern biotechnology has made possible the rapid development and introduction into clinical care of a wide spectrum of potent antimicrobial agents. However, the battle against Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) has remained fierce, as acquisition of resistance is even more rapid and these antimicrobial agents are rendered ineffective. Obtaining appropriate antibiotic treatment for severe invasive pneumococcal infections is now a major challenge in many regions of the world. The ground-breaking success of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine has brought hope for the conquest of other capsulate bacteria. Recent results of efficacy trials of a heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine bring hope that protein conjugate vaccines will have a similar impact on pneumococcal disease. These multivalent vaccine formulations include pneumococcal serotypes that most often acquire antibiotic resistance and there is hope that the widespread application of these vaccines will decrease the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevalence, determinants, and molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates colonizing the nasopharynx of healthy children in Rome. AU - Petrosillo, N.. AU - Pantosti, A.. AU - Bordi, E.. AU - Spanó, A.. AU - Del Grosso, M.. AU - Tallarida, B.. AU - Ippolito, G.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - The aim of this study was to determine the factors favouring Streptococcus pneumoniae nasopharyngeal colonization of healthy children attending daycare centres and to describe the circulation of penicillin-nonsusceptible strains using molecular techniques. A single nasopharyngeal swab was obtained from 610 children attending daycare centres in the southeast area of Rome. Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were serotyped, and antibiotic susceptibility was assayed by the E test. The genetic determinants of erythromycin resistance were detected by a duplex polymerase chain reaction, and the penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The overall ...
Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is a major cause of illness and death among children worldwide. 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced as part of the Mozambican routine immunization program in April 2013. We characterized the IPD burden in a rural area of Mozambique before PCV introduction and estimated the potential impact of this intervention.. METHODS ...
To study the impact of meteorological data and respiratory viral infections on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) rates. We analysed all notifications of IPD and respiratory viral infections to the Microbiological Reporting System of Catalonia (2006-2012). Correlations between rates of IPD and viral infections (influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus [RSV] and adenovirus), and meteorological variables (temperature, humidity, hours of sunshine, wind speed and number of days with rainfall) were assessed using Spearmans correlation coefficient and negative binomial regression models. We found significant correlations between monthly rates of IPD and monthly rates of all respiratory viruses and meteorological factors. However, after multiple regression analysis, associations remained between IPD rates and influenza rates and reductions in temperature in the total population, and between IPD rates and adenovirus rates in children aged |5 years. When models were repeated for the total population using
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential impact of various pneumococcal conjugate vaccination strategies, it is critical to ascertain the pre-vaccination epidemiology and to have a detailed evaluation of the current burden of pneumococcal disease. METHOD: A variety of national data sources and GP sentinel surveillance systems were used to estimate the incidence, number of hospital admissions, deaths, and GP consultations due to pneumococcal disease in England and Wales. Clinical outcomes included pneumococcal meningitis, bacteraemia, pneumonia and otitis media. A statistical model was used to attribute GP consultation recorded as pneumonia and acute otitis media to specific aetiological causes when these were not recorded. RESULTS: The burden of pneumococcal disease is considerable, with incidence rates of both invasive and non-invasive disease peaking in children (,5 years) and in the elderly (75+ years). Around 5800 hospitalisations specifically mentioning Streptococcus pneumoniae are estimated to ...
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a major global health problem and a leading cause of death in children worldwide. The factors that influence development of pneumococcal sepsis remain poorly understood, although increasing evidence points towards a role for genetic variation in the hosts immune response. Recent insights from the study of animal models, rare human primary immunodeficiency states, and population-based genetic epidemiology have focused attention on the role of the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB in pneumococcal disease pathogenesis. The possible role of genetic variation in the atypical NF-κB inhibitor IκB-R, encoded by NFKBIL2, in susceptibility to invasive pneumococcal disease has not, to our knowledge, previously been reported upon. METHODS: An association study was performed examining the frequencies of nine common NFKBIL2 polymorphisms in two invasive pneumococcal disease case-control groups: European individuals from hospitals in Oxfordshire, UK (275
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a major global health problem and a leading cause of death in children worldwide. The factors that influence development of pneumococcal sepsis remain poorly understood, although increasing evidence points towards a role for genetic variation in the hosts immune response. Recent insights from the study of animal models, rare human primary immunodeficiency states, and population-based genetic epidemiology have focused attention on the role of the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB in pneumococcal disease pathogenesis. The possible role of genetic variation in the atypical NF-κB inhibitor IκB-R, encoded by NFKBIL2, in susceptibility to invasive pneumococcal disease has not, to our knowledge, previously been reported upon. METHODS: An association study was performed examining the frequencies of nine common NFKBIL2 polymorphisms in two invasive pneumococcal disease case-control groups: European individuals from hospitals in Oxfordshire, UK (275
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Pneumococcal infections are caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive, catalase-negative organism commonly referred to as pneumococcus. S pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), bacterial meningitis, bacteremia, and otitis media, as well as an important cause of sinusitis, septic arthritis, osteomy...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of early childhood morbidity and mortality. A heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PnC7) is licensed for use and could prevent the majority of infant invasive pneumococcal infections. A recent announcement confirmed its inclusion into the U.K. childhood immunisation programme. In anticipation of PnC7 being recommended for use, this study explored parental understanding of pneumococcal disease and their views on the possible introduction of this vaccine. Twenty three interviews and two focus groups were held with parents of children under two years of age. Four main themes emerged from the data analysis: Confidence and belief in immunisation; Anxiety about immunisation; Trust and understanding of immunisation information and Response to a new immunisation. Overall parental confidence in immunisation has been affected by the MMR controversy. With little knowledge of pneumococcal disease, parents want information about the safety and effectiveness of
Systemic lupus erythematosus presenting as pneumococcal septicaemia and septic arthritis. Possible involvement of interferon alfa in the pathogenesis of fever in systemic lupus erythematosus
Universal infant vaccination with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has nearly eliminated PCV7-serotype invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in young U.S. children, but has been accompanied by increases in the incidence of serotype 19A IPD. Because antibiotic-non-susceptible 19A has increased more than antibiotic-susceptible 19A, antibiotic selection pressure could be contributing to this trend. We developed a dynamic compartmental transmission model of pneumococcus to better understand the causes of this rise and to estimate the impact of vaccines or changes in antibiotic use on future IPD incidence in the U.S. in |2 year-olds. The model predicted that with current practices, serotype 19A IPD incidence will plateau at about the 2007 level over the next few years. The model suggests that antibiotic usage played a major role in the rise in antibiotic-non-susceptible 19A IPD, with a lesser contribution from PCV7 vaccination. However, hypothetical large decreases in antibiotic use starting
Streptococcus pneumoniae is associated with high morbidity in children, especially when related with the respiratory tract and otitis infections. The most severe complication of pneumococcal infection is invasive pneumococcal disease, including sepsis or meningitis. Although these forms of pneumococcal infection are relatively infrequent, in the neonatal period they are related with high morbidity and mortality.. Diagnosis of pneumococcal bacteremia typically relies on performing a blood culture, which is followed by gram staining, subculturing on sheep blood agar, and biochemical tests such as the bile solubility and the optochin susceptibility tests. The detection of pneumococcus may, however, take up to three days using the conventional methods. Furthermore, S. pneumoniae has a strong tendency of autolysis, which may significantly delay or hamper the diagnosis. Additionally, issues remain in the differentiation between S. pneumoniae and the closely related viridans species. GenomEra® S. ...
Children who have siblings and/or who attend day care have higher rates of nasopharyngeal colonization with pneumococci than lone children do. Pneumococcal colonization is usually asymptomatic but is a prerequisite for invasive disease. We studied the effect of social mixing with other children on immunity to a pneumococcal vaccine. One hundred sixty children aged 1 year were immunized with a 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine. A blood sample was obtained before and 9 to 11 days after the vaccine. The concentration and avidity of antibody against vaccine pneumococcal serotypes (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F) were studied in relation to pneumococcal carriage rate and measures of social mixing. Children with increased social mixing had higher antibody concentrations against serotypes 4, 9V, 14, and 23F than lone children did. The least-carried serotype, serotype 4, was the one of the most immunogenic. This contrasts with serotype 6B, the most common nasopharyngeal isolate but the least immunogenic
When informed consent was obtained prior to the study initiation, PPV23 vaccine recommendations were made, and only participants who responded affirmatively received the vaccination. This method may be associated with these results: the vaccination rate increased significantly in high-risk patients who had at least one episode of bacterial pulmonary infection during the prevaccine period or chronic respiratory failure, and the mortality was higher in vaccinated patients, although the presence of adverse effects of PPV23 is unlikely because PPV23 had generally been considered safe based on clinical experience since 1977.7 In the Cox proportional hazards model, PPV23 was not a risk factor for the events. All of the participants in this study were older patients with chronic pulmonary disease, and all of them could be categorised into groups for which PPV23 vaccination is recommended in the USA and some European countries.3 7 14 In Japan, no vaccine recommendations against pneumococcal infection ...
It is unclear whether HIV-infected individuals remain at higher risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) compared with HIV-uninfected individuals. We conducted a cohort study of HIV-infected and demographically matched HIV-uninfected adults within Kaiser Permanente Northern California during the period 1996-2011. We used Poisson models to obtain rate ratios (RRs) for incident IPD associated with HIV infection and other risk factors. Among 13,079 HIV-infected and 137,643 HIV-uninfected adults, the IPD rate per 100,000 person-years was 160 (n = 109 events) for HIV-infected and 8 (n = 75 events) for HIV-uninfected subjects, with an adjusted RR of 13.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-18.7]. For HIV-infected individuals, IPD incidence per 100,000 person-years decreased by 71% during study follow-up, from 305 in 1996-1999 to 88 in 2010-2011 (p , 0.001), with an adjusted RR of 6.6 (95% CI: 2.7-16.1) compared with HIV-uninfected subjects in 2010-2011. Risk factors for IPD among HIV-infected ...
The relative invasive disease potential of Streptococcus pneumoniae among children after PCV introduction: A systematic review and meta-analysis ...
The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of and risk factors for drug resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae, and its impact on the outcome among hospitalized patients of pneumococcal pneumonia acquired in the community. Consecutive patients with culture-proven pneumococcal pneumonia were prospectively studied with regard to the...
What does PPV23 stand for? Hop on to get the meaning of PPV23. The Acronym /Abbreviation/Slang PPV23 means Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine (23-valent) (replaced by the term PPSV23). by AcronymAndSlang.com
The aim of this study was to analyze trends in adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) due to macrolide-resistant strains and to study the evolution of serotypes, genotypes, and macrolide-resistant determinants of strains collected in a prospective study between 1999 and 2007 in Barcelona, Spain. IPD due to macrolide-resistant strains of serotypes included in the 7-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV7) decreased from 2.16/100,000 (pre-PCV7 period, 1999 to 2001) to 0.80/100,000 (late-PCV7 period, 2005 to 2007) (P = 0.001), whereas IPD due to macrolide-resistant strains of non-PCV7 serotypes increased from 1.08/100,000 to 2.83/100,000 (P , 0.001). These changes were related to a fall of clones of PCV7 serotypes (ST81 [P , 0.05], ST90, ST315, and ST17) and an increase in new clones of serotypes 19A and 24F (ST230) and 33F (ST717) in the late-PCV7 period. The most common phenotype was MLSB (90.9%), related to the erm(B) gene. The frequent association between MLSB phenotype and tetracycline resistance ...
Pneumococcal disease, which includes pneumococcal pneumonia, meningitis, and bacteremia, is associated with substantial morbidity, mortality, and health care costs in adults. Advanced age, chronic lung or cardiovascular disease, immunosuppressive conditions, and smoking increase the risk for infection. Despite the availability of an effective pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23), vaccination rates among adults remain suboptimal. This is of immediate concern given the current H1N1 pandemic, since secondary bacterial infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae is common and can contribute to morbidity and mortality. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recently called for increased efforts to vaccinate recommended persons against pneumococcal disease. Long-term trends including the growth of the elderly population and an increase in the number of patients with chronic conditions also underscore the importance of improving pneumococcal vaccination rates. It is important for health ...
Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Alaskan Children A 2010 study by Wenger and colleagues that found higher rates of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among Alaskan children who did not have access to piped water. Invasive pneumococcal disease is a class of diseases that includes very serious infections of the brain, blood and lungs. Residents of Southwest Alaska suffer rates of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) that are among the highest in the world ...
The prevalence of serotypes covered by the 7-valent conjugate vaccine increased in the first year of life. Siblings, day care attendance, and previous pneumococcal carriage were independent factors associated with pneumococcal carriage.
Pediatric Annals | Up to 1 million children, mostly in developing countries, die annually from infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.1 Although pneumococcus is a well-documented cause of acute otitis media, it also contributes substantially to a variety of invasive disease processes that produce significant morbidity and mortality. For more than 20 years, rising antibiotic resistance rates have made
Streptococcus pneumoniae causes a high burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) globally, especially in children from resource-poor settings. Like many bacteria, the pneumococcus can import DNA from other strains or even species by transformation and homologous recombination, which has allowed the pneumococcus to evade clinical interventions such as antibiotics and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). Pneumococci are enclosed in a complex polysaccharide capsule that determines the serotype; the capsule varies in size and is associated with properties including carriage prevalence and virulence. We determined and quantified the association between capsule and recombination events using genomic data from a diverse collection of serotypes sampled in Malawi. We determined both the amount of variation introduced by recombination relative to mutation (the relative rate) and how many individual recombination events occur per isolate (the frequency). Using univariate analyses, we found an ...