TY - JOUR. T1 - Predictors and outcome of admission for invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infections at a Canadian Childrens Hospital. AU - Laupland, Kevin B.. AU - Davies, H. Dele. AU - Kellner, James D.. AU - Luzod, Nina Lynn. AU - Karan, Tulika. AU - Ma, Doreen. AU - Taub, Dina. AU - Nijssen-Jordan, Cheri. AU - Katzko, Gary. AU - Jadavji, Taj. AU - Church, Deirdre. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - Rates of admission for invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in children vary considerably between institutions. We performed a retrospective study to investigate factors used in the decision to admit patients with invasive S. pneumoniae infection to Alberta Childrens Hospital. Of 254 patients who were initially assessed in the emergency department, 38.2% were admitted to the hospital. Significant risk factors for admission as determined by a logistic regression model included murmur (odds ratio [OR], 18.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.08-88.23), focal infection (OR, 11.41; 95% CI, ...
Background. The prevalence of multiantimicrobial resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae continues to increase worldwide. In patients presenting with infection possibly due to pneumococci, recognition of risk factors that would identify those likely to have an antibiotic-resistant isolate might assist clinicians in choosing the most appropriate empirical therapy.. Methods. A prospective cohort study of invasive pneumococcal infection was conducted in Toronto, Canada. Risk factors for antimicrobial resistance were evaluated by means of univariate and multivariate modeling.. Results. A total of 3339 patients with invasive pneumococcal infection were identified between 1995 and 2002. Multivariate modeling revealed that risk factors for infection with penicillin-resistant as opposed to penicillin-susceptible pneumococci were year of infection (odds ratio [OR], 1.28; P , .001), absence of chronic organ system disease (OR, 1.72; P = .03), and previous use of penicillin (OR, 2.47; P = .006), ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in children≤5years with invasive pneumococcal disease in India - A systematic review. AU - Singh, Jyotsana. AU - Sundaresan, Suba. AU - Manoharan, Anand. AU - Shet, Anita. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of childhood diseases that result in significant morbidity and mortality in India. Commercially licensed and available pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) include ten (PCV-10) and 13 (PCV-13) pneumococcal serotypes. Vaccines with other serotype combinations are under development. Reviewing and reporting trends and distribution of pneumococcal serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease in India will be useful for policy making as PCV is being introduced into Indias universal immunization program. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review of hospital based observational studies (both peer reviewed and gray literature published in English) from ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serotype and antibiotic resistance of isolates from patients with invasive pneumococcal disease in Japan. AU - Chiba, N.. AU - Morozumi, M.. AU - Sunaoshi, K.. AU - Takahashi, S.. AU - Takano, M.. AU - Komori, T.. AU - Sunakawa, K.. AU - Ubukata, K.. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is of concern in Japan, where the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) is unavailable. We determined serotypes, genotypes indicating -lactam resistance, and antibiotic susceptibilities of 496 isolates from normally sterile sites in patients (193 children, 303 adults) from 186 institutions between August 2006 and July 2007. Disease presentations included sepsis (462%), pneumonia (315%), and meningitis (175%). Mortality was 14% in children and 221% in adults, many of whom had underlying diseases. In children, serotype 6B (225%) was followed by 19F (141%), and 14 (131%); potential coverages of PCV7 and PCV13 were 754% and 937%, respectively. In adults, ...
Data & statistics on Invasive Pneumococcal Disease by Age Category and Outcome Capital Health: Demographics Capital Health, 2005, Invasive pneumococcal disease notification rates, by age group and Indigenous status, WA, SA and NT, 2004-2006, Invasive.Pneumococcal.Disease.Rates,.ICS.1999-2006 . Circumpolar Health Supplements 2009; 4...
The primary findings of this study are a strong association between day care attendance and an increased risk of invasive pneumococcal disease, and confirmation of the importance of underlying disease as a risk factor in young children. In addition, this analysis demonstrated an association between antecedent antibiotic use and penicillin-resistant invasive pneumococcal disease.11 This association supports the concept that unnecessary antibiotic use may be harmful to a child and emphasizes the need to promote judicious antibiotic use.11. The proportion of case-patients with an underlying disease in this population-based surveillance system (10%) was substantially lower than that observed recently from a national surveillance system based on patients from eight large childrens hospitals (27% of episodes were associated with an underling illness).12 This may reflect differences in blood culturing patterns or the tendency for children with underlying diseases to be overrepresented among the ...
Adolescent Vaccination Recommendations: Pneumococcal. National Foundation for Infectious Diseases (NFID). Enfermedad neumocócica - Informacion para los padres. Pneumococcal disease information in Spanish for parents from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Gift of Health Campaign. NFID shareable visuals to help convey important prevention messages around the Holidays. Immunization Action Coalition. Pneumococcal Disease (PCV). Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine: What a Parent Needs to Know. American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP). Pneumococcal Disease Fact Sheet for the Media. National Foundation for Infectious Diseases (NFID). Pneumococcal Disease Facts for Consumers. National Foundation for Infectious Diseases (NFID). Pneumococcal Disease Myths and Facts for Consumers. National Foundation for Infectious Diseases (NFID). Pneumococcal Disease Professional Practice Toolkit National ...
Two classes of pneumococcal vaccines are currently available, one based on polysaccharides and the other based on polysaccharides conjugated to a carrier protein. The polysaccharide vaccine consists of purified capsular polysaccharides from the 23 serotypes causing about 90% of invasive pneumococcal infection in industrialized countries. Responses are age-dependent and serotype-dependent. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines contain polysaccharides from 7 serotypes covering 65-80% of serotypes associated with invasive pneumococcal disease among young children in western industrialized countries. The polysaccharides are conjugated to a carrier protein which makes them more immunogenic and effective in protecting against infection, in particular in young children less than 2 years of age. Furthermore, the vaccine protects against both systemic and mucosal infection and prevents nasopharyngeal colonization, thereby reducing transmission in the community.. ...
In This Topic Pneumococcal Infections Symptoms and Diagnosis Prevention and Treatment Back to Top Section Infections Subject Bacterial Infections Topics Introduction· Actinomycosis· Anthrax· Bejel ... pneumococcal vaccine. Penicillin is the preferred antibiotic for most pneumococcal infections. It is taken by mouth for ear and sinus infections and given intravenously for more severe infections ... ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) remains one of the major human pathogens and one of the most common causes of community-acquired pneumonia, otitis media, sinusitis, and meningitis. Aside from the threats posed by emerging antibiotic resistance and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus, the mortality rate among those patients with severe pneumococcal disease who receive seemingly appropriate antimicrobial chemotherapy remains unacceptably high. Because of its involvement in the pathogenesis of invasive disease, pneumolysin, one of the best-characterized virulence factors of the pneumococcus, represents not only a potential vaccine target, but also a target for adjunctive therapy to antibiotics in patients with acute pneumococcal disease. In this paper we review the cytolytic and pro-inflammatory properties of pneumolysin and their involvement in sub-version of host defenses and extra-pulmonary dissemination of the pneumococcus, as well as strategies, both immunological and ...
Introduction. Pneumococcal diseases are a worldwide public health problem. S. pneumonia is the leading cause of severe pneumonia in children under 5 years of age, causing over one (1) million deaths each year mainly in developing countries. In industrialized countries most infection occurs in the elderly. Causative agent: Pneumococcal disease refers to a group of clinical conditions caused by the bacterium Steptococcus pneumonia. Invasive pneumococcal infections include pneumonia, meningitis and febrile bacteraemia. The common non-invasive conditions include otitis media, sinusitis and bronchitis.. Transmission: Infection is acquired by direct person-to-person contact via respiratory droplets or oral contact or indirectly through articles freshly soiled with respiratory discharges.. Incubation period: Not well determined. May be as short as 1 - 3 days. Travelers with certain chronic conditions such as chronic renal failure, chronic liver disease, Diabetes mellitus, HIV/AIDS, immunosuppression ...
OBJECTIVE: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) primarily affects children less than 5 years old, the elderly and certain at-risk groups; especially people infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The objective of this study was to analyze invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in children and adolescents infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with relation to morbidity, the case fatality ratio, pneumococcus serotypes, susceptibility to penicillin and ceftriaxone and to the proportion of susceptible and resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) included in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine that has already been licensed. METHODS: A total of 19 cases of IPD were identified among HIV seropositive patients aged from 1 month to 20 years and hospitalized between 1993 and 2000. Data were recorded on standardized charts containing information on age, clinical diagnosis and progression, serotypes and the susceptibility to penicillin and ceftriaxone of the Sp strains ...
This report published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 27, No 4, December 2003 reports the results of comprehensive laboratory surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Australia during 2001 and 2002.
This report provides an analysis of enhanced surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) carried out in all Australian states and territories in 2005 with comparative data available since 2001.
Pneumococcal infections are caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive, catalase-negative organism commonly referred to as pneumococcus. S pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), bacterial meningitis, bacteremia, and otitis media, as well as an important cause of sinusitis, septic arthritis, osteomy...
The best way to prevent this disease is vaccination; especially for young children, seniors, and if you have a high risk medical condition.. Presently, there are two types of pneumococcal vaccines available. Both are publicly funded depending on age and risk factors. Avoid sharing anything that has come in contact with someone elses mouth. Cover your mouth or nose when coughing or sneezing, throw away any used tissues and wash your hands. It is also recommended to get your vaccination against influenza each year because bacterial pneumonia is a common complication of influenza.. Speak to your health care provider about your immunization status. If you do not have a health care provider, call the Vaccine Preventable Disease Team at the health unit for more information 705-721-7520 ext. 8806.. For data on the incidence of invasive Pneumococcal disease in Simcoe Muskoka and Ontario, please visit the invasive Pneumococcal disease page on the health units HealthSTATS site.. ...
Vaccine. 2015 Nov 18. pii: S0264-410X(15)01635-7. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.11.015. [Epub ahead of print]. Serotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility, and molecular epidemiology of invasive and non-invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in paediatric patients after the introduction of 13-valent conjugate vaccine in a nationwide surveillance study conducted in Japan in 2012-2014.. Nakano S1, Fujisawa T2, Ito Y3, Chang B4, Suga S2, Noguchi T1, Yamamoto M1, Matsumura Y1, Nagao M1,Takakura S1, Ohnishi M4, Ihara T5, Ichiyama S1.. Author information. Abstract. Pneumococcal infection in children is a major public health problem worldwide, including in Japan. The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 7 (PCV7) was licensed for use in Japan in 2010 followed by PCV13 in 2013. This report includes the results of a nationwide surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and non-IPD in paediatric patients from January 2012 to December 2014. We collected 343 isolates from 337 IPD patients and 286 isolates ...
The epidemiology of IPD and single serotypes has constantly changed over the past 7 decades. PCV serotypes appeared to dominate the pneumococcal population.
Following introduction of the 7-valent PCV (PCV7) in 2000, overall IPD and pneumonia rates substantially decreased for vaccinated and unvaccinated children, and racial disparities in pneumococcal diseases declined. Studies in recent years indicate a further decrease in IPD and pneumonia rates as well as racial disparities following introduction of the 13-valent PCV (PCV13) in 2010. Dr. Schaffner and colleagues used the CDCs Active Bacterial Core surveillance data from 1998 to 2013 for more than 8,000 patients in Tennessee to better understand the impact of these vaccines on potential gender differences in IPD rates.. While introduction of PCV7 nearly eliminated differences in IPD rates by geography, age, and race, gender differences have persisted, although in a muted fashion, according to Dr. Schaffner. Throughout the study period, IPD rates were higher among males than females, especially among children younger than 2 and adults aged 40 to 64, with males having IPD rates 1.5 to 2 times higher ...
pneumococcal surface protein A: present on nonencapsulated & some encapsulated strains; monoclonal antibodies against it can protect mice from fatal pneumococcal infection
Recent nasopharyngeal colonization with a new serotype almost always precedes infection.4,5 Colonization rates are highest in infants and preschool children, where they may be as high as 35%.4 Children may carry different serotypes at different times but are almost always colonized by those limited serotypes responsible for infections in this age group.2 Carriage rates are lower in older children (40-50%) and in adults (5-30%).6,7 PCV7 includes the 7 most common serotypes causing colonization and infection in children (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F). These serotypes and the cross-reactive serotypes (6A, 9A, 9L, 18B, 18F) caused 86% of cases of bacteremia, 83% of cases of meningitis, and 65% of cases of acute otitis media in children younger than 6 years.3 These serotypes also accounted for more than 80% of penicillin-resistant colonizing serotypes.8 ...
The important work of Gilks suggests that the epidemiology and clinical spectrum of pneumococcal disease in HIV-infected patients is strikingly similar in the United States and Kenya. In both locations, HIV-infected patients comprise a significant proportion of patients with pneumococcal bacteremia, and Streptococcus pneumoniae is among the most common causes of bacteremia and pneumonia in patients with HIV. Moreover, rates of recurrent disease (relapse or reinfection) may be high, whereas mortality is often lower than among bacteremic, HIV-seronegative patients. Delineation of associated risk factors in Africa such as sickle cell disease, malnutrition, or malaria would be of interest ...
In addition to the seasonal and H1N1 flu vaccines, the pneumococcal vaccination is a good idea for those with health conditions that put them at higher risk for complications and illness," said State Health Commissioner Karen Remley, M.D., MBA.. In a typical, non-pandemic year, most serious pneumococcal infections occur in people age 65 and older. But in the 2009 flu pandemic, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports an increase in pneumococcal infections in younger persons.. Most of those with high-risk conditions for pneumococcal disease are also at high risk for severe complications from influenza. The CDC recommends pneumococcal vaccination for all people 65 years of age and older and for persons 2 through 64 years of age with certain high-risk conditions. Risk factors include cardiovascular or lung disease, sickle cell disease, diabetes, alcoholism, chronic liver disease, cerebrospinal fluid leak, a cochlear implant, a weakened immune system due to illnesses such as ...
In 2010, a new enhanced surveillance system for invasive pneumococcal disease was established in the European Union, coordinated by ECDC, and this report describes the results of the first year of data collection (2010 data). The main aim is to provide information on the epidemiological trends and morbidity caused by the circulating S. pneumoniae serotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility and certain other epidemiological features of invasive pneumococcal disease. ...
In 2010, a new enhanced surveillance system for invasive pneumococcal disease was established in the European Union, coordinated by ECDC, and this report describes the results of the first year of data collection (2010 data). The main aim is to provide information on the epidemiological trends and morbidity caused by the circulating S. pneumoniae serotypes, antimicrobial susceptibility and certain other epidemiological features of invasive pneumococcal disease. ...
Some types of pneumococcal infections are prevented with vaccination. Infants in BC receive pneumococcal vaccine at 2, 4, and 12 months of age. People age 2 and older who have medical conditions that increase their risk of complications from pneumococcal infection get an additional pneumococcal vaccine. This vaccine is also given to all people at age 65. ...
Community Health Highlights Report Indicator Page - Rio Arriba County, Invasive Pneumococcal Disease - Persons Aged 65 Years and Older
Community Health Highlights Report Indicator Page - Bernalillo County, Invasive Pneumococcal Disease - Persons Aged 65 Years and Older
A total of 4795 pneumococcal isolates from nine European countries and Israel were reported to a European surveillance project on pneumococcal serotypes for 1999 (1). The aim of the surveillance was not to describe the incidence of pneumococcal infection, but to monitor pneumococcal serotypes. Considerable variation was found in country and age distribution.
Do you know that there are 1.6 million children and adults die each year as a result of pneumococcal disease (PD) among all age groups according to World Health Organization (WHO) . Of these, between 0.70 million to 1 million deaths occur in children under five years old.. Read morePneumococcal Disease, Now A Preventable Disease. ...
To accelerate the development and availability of new vaccines against pneumococcal disease, Italy, the UK, Canada, Norway, Russia, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation together committed US$ 1.5 billion to finance a pilot Advance Market Commitment (AMC).
This report published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 27, No 1, March 2003 contains contains information on a pneumococcal disease in Australia workshop held in Sydney in November 2002 and subsequent papers.
PPV Prevent Pneumonia Mouse Pad. An estimated 40,000 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease occur annually and kill approximately 1 out of 20 people who are affected, according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Anyone can get pneumococcal disease, but some individuals are at greater risk for serious illness and/or death, including those over the age of 65. This mouse pad was developed as a tool to remind providers and their clinical staff of the importance for engaging patients and encouraging them to take advantage of this life-saving vaccine as part of a comprehensive vaccine preventable disease program.. ...
This study provides an interesting insight on epidemiological changes on incidence and serotype distribution of invasive pneumococcal disease in the general senior population of Southern Catalonia across several years. If confirmed, these findings urge the development of new PCVs in the future to cover more serotypes, especially those emerging due to epidemiological changes.. ...
To help CDC contribute to research about genetic changes in pneumococcal bacteria that impact the effectiveness of vaccination in developing countries. CDC will provide isolates from their Global Pneumococcal Strain Bank, sequence isolates from the Active Bacterial Core surveillance collaboration, and provide expert guidance on analysis and interpretation of the data ...
Weekly cases of selected notifiable diseases ( ≥ 1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and selected low frequency diseases, United States and U.S. territories, week ending June 2, 2018 (WEEK 22). TABLE 2k, Invasive pneumococcal disease, age < ...
Vaccines may be available for pneumococcal infections, but none of them, including the widely used Prevnar 13, can cover all strains. SutroVax is one of th
Vaccines may be available for pneumococcal infections, but none of them, including the widely used Prevnar 13, can cover all strains. SutroVax is one of th
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In an ever-changing healthcare industry landscape, KPJ continued to build its capability and capacity in 2008 to not only strengthen its position in the marketplace but also to ensure that it delivers its firm commitment towards safeguarding the interests of all its stakeholders, foremost of whom were its customers from all levels of society. ...
Arctic Investigations Program, Division of Preparedness and Emerging Infections, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Disease, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Anchorage, AK. Both authors are investigators on a study supported by Pfizer Inc. (grant only, no input into study design or data analysis) to evaluate the impact of Prevnar 13 on pneumococcal colonization. The authors have no other funding or conflicts of interest to disclose.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunogenicity and safety of concomitant MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine administration in older adults. AU - Song, Joon-Young. AU - Cheong, Hee-Jin. AU - Tsai, T. F.. AU - Chang, Hyun ah. AU - Choi, Min Joo. AU - Jeon, Ji Ho. AU - Kang, Seong Hee. AU - Jeong, Eun Ju. AU - Noh, Ji Yun. AU - Kim, Woo Joo. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Background: Concomitant administration of influenza and pneumococcal vaccines facilitates their uptake by older adults; however, data on immunogenicity and safety of concomitant administration of adjuvanted trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (aIIV3) and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) have not been reported. Methods: Subjects aged ≥65 years (. N=. 224) were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive MF59-aIIV3 alone, MF59-aIIV3. +. PPSV23 in contralateral arms, MF59-aIIV3. +. PPSV23 in the same arm or PPSV23 alone (Clinical Trial Number - NCT02225327). Hemagglutination ...
Background: In Australia in June 2001, a unique pneumococcal vaccine schedule commenced for Indigenous infants; seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7PCV) given at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23PPV) at 18 months of age. This study presents carriage serotypes following this schedule.. Methods: We conducted cross sectional surveys of pneumococcal carriage in Aboriginal children 0 to 6 years of age living in remote Aboriginal communities (RACs) in 2003 and 2005. Nasal secretions were collected and processed according to published methods.. Results: 902 children (mean age 25 months) living in 29 communities in 2003 and 818 children (mean age 35 months) in 17 communities in 2005 were enrolled. 87% children in 2003 and 96% in 2005 had received two or more doses of 7PCV. From 2003 to 2005, pneumococcal carriage was reduced from 82% to 76% and reductions were apparent in all age groups; 7PCV-type carriage was reduced from 11% to 8%, and ...
The increasing use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and pneumococcal immunization along with shifting community exposures may have altered the burden of Streptococcus pneumoniae disease in HIV-infected persons. We describe the burden and risk factors for pneumococcal disease in the modern era of HIV care and evaluate the use of a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV-23). The incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) between January 1st, 2000 and January 1st, 2010 in a regional HIV population in Southern Alberta, Canada was determined by linking comprehensive laboratory and hospital surveillance data. Clinical and epidemiologic data including risk factors for S. pneumoniae, history of pneumococcal immunization, serotypes of infections, and length of any hospitalizations for pneumococcal disease were evaluated with multivariate analysis. CD4 count and viral load at immunization were evaluated with a nested case-control analysis. In 1946 HIV-patients with 11,099 person
Pneumovax® 23 (23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, 23vPPBV) (1 dose), Pneumovax 23, Swindon Medical Company Limited. Administered a single dose to 2 years of age and older.Pneumonia is the 2nd leading cause of death in HK. Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the common bacteria causing pneumonia (lung infection) and serious diseases; for example, meningitis, otitis media, sepsis and even death.According to the recommendations of the Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection: All aged 2 or above or high-risk elderly persons aged 65 or above should have pneumococcal vaccination, and high-risk individuals should be vaccinated with a 13-valent conjugate -The vaccination injection process is handled by medical professional.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Statins protect against fulminant pneumococcal infection and cytolysin toxicity in a mouse model of sickle cell disease. AU - Rosch, Jason W.. AU - Boyd, Angela R.. AU - Hinojosa, Ernesto. AU - Pestina, Tamara. AU - Hu, Yunming. AU - Persons, Derek A.. AU - Orihuela, Carlos J.. AU - Tuomanen, Elaine I.. PY - 2010/2/1. Y1 - 2010/2/1. N2 - Sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by intravascular hemolysis and inflammation coupled to a 400-fold greater incidence of invasive pneumococcal infection resulting in fulminant, lethal pneumococcal sepsis. Mechanistically, invasive infection is facilitated by a proinflammatory state that enhances receptor-mediated endocytosis of pneumococci into epithelial and endothelial cells. As statins reduce chronic inflammation, in addition to their serum cholesterol-lowering effects, we hypothesized that statin therapy might improve the outcome of pneumococcal infection in SCD. In this study, we tested this hypothesis in an experimental SCD mouse ...
Invasive disease from Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a major cause of illness and death in the United States, with an estimated 43,500 cases and 5,000 deaths among persons of all ages in 2009 (1). This report provides updated recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) for prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) (i.e., bacteremia, meningitis, or infection of other normally sterile sites [2]) through use of the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) among all adults aged ≥65 years and those adults aged 19--64 years with underlying medical conditions that put them at greater risk for serious pneumococcal infection. The new recommendations include the following changes from 1997 ACIP recommendations (2): 1) the indications for which PPSV23 vaccination is recommended now include smoking and asthma, and 2) routine use of PPSV23 is no longer recommended for Alaska Natives or American Indians aged ,65 years unless they have ...
Routine use of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), available since 2000, has resulted in a dramatic reduction in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) attributable to serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae contained in the vaccine. However, IPD caused by nonvaccine pneumococcal serotypes has increased, and nonvaccine serotypes are now responsible for the majority of the remaining cases of IPD occurring in children. A 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has been licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration, which, in addition to the 7 serotypes included in the original PCV7, contains the 6 pneumococcal serotypes responsible for 63% of IPD cases now occurring in children younger than 5 years. Because of the expanded coverage provided by PCV13, it will replace PCV7. This statement provides recommendations for (1) the transition from PCV7 to PCV13; (2) the routine use of PCV13 for healthy children and children with an underlying medical condition that increases ...
Purpose: To describe and compare the impact of universal infant immunization with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infection, nasopharyngeal carriage, and antibiotic resistance in Alaskan Native and non-Native children and adults. Methods: The medical literature concerning the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and the effects of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the incidence, nasopharyngeal carriage, and antibiotic resistance of S pneumoniae was reviewed with special emphasis on the effects in the Alaska Native population. Results: Alaska Native children experienced the highest incidence of IPD in the United States. The greatest difference in IPD was among children younger than 2 years for whom the annualized rate in Alaskan Native children (450/100,000 per year) was 3 times higher than for non-Native Alaskan children younger than 2 years who had rates similar to the overall US population. In the first 3 years after beginning routine
Question: Some of the physicians I work with are reluctant to administer 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) to adults, stating that it is not very effective.