The author of this book, a physicist and science writer, provides an interesting history of the man-made element plutonium beginning with the discovery of its naturally occurring parent element, uranium. The succinct history includes the events that led to the discoveries of radioactivity, nuclear structure, and the fission of uranium. It then proceeds to the synthesis of plutonium and other transuranic elements and the revelation in 1938 that plutonium can undergo fission when bombarded with neutrons. That phenomenon became known to physicists in the United States and Germany in 1942. The scene then switches to Los Alamos, New Mexico, where plutonium is refined and shaped into the material for the first implosion fission weapons. The chapter preceding the final one focuses on the unique chemical and physical properties of plutonium that make it difficult to handle. The book concludes with comments on the stockpiles of plutonium that exist worldwide and plutoniums potential dangers to mankind. ...
Nach der Aufnahme von Plutonium mit der Nahrung wird ein großer Teil mit dem Stuhl wieder ausgeschieden. Der Anteil von Plutonium, der aus der Nahrung im Magen-Darm-Trakt in den Körper aufgenommen (resorbiert) wird, ist im Wesentlichen abhängig von der Art der Plutoniumverbindung und dem Alter der Person. In grober Annäherung kann eine Resorptionsrate von Plutonium mit der Nahrung von 0,05 Prozent angegeben werden. Bei anorganischen Plutoniumverbindungen liegt diese etwa um den Faktor zehn niedriger. Für Kleinkinder ist eine um den Faktor zehn höhere Resorptionsrate anzunehmen. Nach der Resorption von Plutonium über den Magen-Darm-Trakt wird Plutonium im Körper verteilt und dort vorrangig in Knochen und in der Leber konzentriert.. Im Blut aufgenommenes Plutonium wird zu etwa fünfzig Prozent im Knochen, zu dreißig Prozent in der Leber und etwa zwanzig Prozent in anderen Geweben eingelagert. Die Verweilzeit von inkorporiertem Plutonium im Knochen beträgt etwa fünfzig bis hundert Jahre ...
4:00] Misconception #2 -- Pluto-kun addresses the fear that plutonium is deadly and causes cancer. Plutoniums danger to the human body stems from the alpha radiation it emits. Because alpha radiation is relatively weak, it does not penetrate the skin, and plutonium is not absorbed into the body if it comes into contact with skin. He explains that you would not die instantly if you were to drink plutonium. If swallowed, the vast majority simply passes through the digestive tract without being absorbed. If it enters the blood stream (through a cut, for example) it cannot be removed easily from the body. It accumulates in the lymph nodes before ending up in the bones or liver, where it continues emitting alpha radiation. Plutonium can also get into the liver or bones if it is inhaled into the lungs. It is important not to breathe it in or allow it to enter the blood stream.. [6:00] No human is ever known to have died because of inhaling or ingesting plutonium. [7:00] Pluto-kun explains what would ...
4:00] Misconception #2 -- Pluto-kun addresses the fear that plutonium is deadly and causes cancer. Plutoniums danger to the human body stems from the alpha radiation it emits. Because alpha radiation is relatively weak, it does not penetrate the skin, and plutonium is not absorbed into the body if it comes into contact with skin. He explains that you would not die instantly if you were to drink plutonium. If swallowed, the vast majority simply passes through the digestive tract without being absorbed. If it enters the blood stream (through a cut, for example) it cannot be removed easily from the body. It accumulates in the lymph nodes before ending up in the bones or liver, where it continues emitting alpha radiation. Plutonium can also get into the liver or bones if it is inhaled into the lungs. It is important not to breathe it in or allow it to enter the blood stream.. [6:00] No human is ever known to have died because of inhaling or ingesting plutonium. [7:00] Pluto-kun explains what would ...
ASTM-C697 Standard Test Methods for Chemical, Mass Spectrometric, and Spectrochemical Analysis of Nuclear-Grade Plutonium Dioxide Powders and Pellets - impurity content; isotopic composition; plutonium content; plutonium dioxide pellets; plutonium dioxide powders;; ICS Number Code 27.120.30 (Fissile materials and nuclear fuel technology)
Various theoretical studies have shown that highly diluted plutonium solutions could have a positive temperature effect but (up to now) no experimental program has confirmed this effect. The main goal of the French Plutonium Temperature Effect Experimental Program (or PU+ in short) is to effectively show that such a positive temperature effect exists for diluted plutonium solutions. The experiments were conducted in the Apparatus B facility at the CEA VALDUC research centre in France and involved several sub-critical approach type of experiments using plutonium nitrate solutions with concentrations of 14.3, 15 and 20 g/l at temperatures ranging from 20 to 40°C. A total number of 14 phase I experiments (consisting of independent subcritical approaches) have been performed (5 at 20 g/l, 4 at 15 g/l and 5 at 14.3 g/l) between 2006 and 2007. The impact of the uncertainties on the solution acidity and the plutonium concentration makes it difficult to clearly demonstrate the positive temperature ...
PF-4 is also crowded because of its other plutonium missions. In addition to pit production, the facility converts excess weapons-grade plutonium into plutonium dioxide in preparation for its storage or disposition. It also supports NASA by processing plutonium-238, which is used as an energy source for space missions. Yet, there are limits on how much plutonium can be in an area at any one time. It is not clear that PF-4 can expand pit production without shortchanging disposition activities or NASA or violating safety standards.. Los Alamoss planning of pit-related facilities has also been problematic. Technical analysis on pit sample material was to be performed at a new Chemistry and Metallurgy Research Replacement-Nuclear Facility. That project was terminated in 2014 after significant cost overruns and a failure to meet environmental regulations for the handling and disposal of nuclear waste. The Radiological Laboratory Utility Office Building, which provides facilities for a variety of ...
Plutonium adalah suatu unsur kimia dalam tabel periodik yang memiliki lambang Pu dan nomor atom 94. Ia merupakan unsur radioaktif transuranium yang langka dan merupakan logam aktinida dengan penampilan berwarna putih keperakan. Ketika terpapar dengan udara, ia akan mengusam oleh karena pembentukan plutonium(IV) oksida yang menutupi permukaan logam. Unsur ini pada dasarnya memiliki enam alotrop dan empat keadaan oksidasi. Ia bereaksi dengan karbon, halogen, nitrogen, dan silikon. Ketika terpapar oleh kelembaban udara, ia akan membentuk oksida dan hidrida dengan volume 70% lebih besar dan menjadi bubuk yang dapat menyala secara spontan. Ia juga merupakan racun radiologis yang dapat berakumulasi dalam sumsum tulang. Oleh karena sifat-sifat seperti inilah, proses penanganan plutonium cukup berbahaya, walaupun tingkat toksisitas keseluruhan logam ini terkadang dibesar-besarkan. Istotop terpenting plutonium adalah plutonium-239 yang memiliki umur paruh 24.100 tahun. Plutonium-239 merupakan fisil, ...
There have been few systematic studies of the non-malignant health effects of a-radiation in humans. Animal studies and a recent report from the former Soviet Union suggest an association between plutonium exposure and the development of fibrotic lung disease. Prompted by a case of lung fibrosis in a retired plutonium worker in the United States, we sought to explore whether plutonium inhalation i
H-Canyon and HB-Line are tasked with the production of plutonium oxide (PuO 2) from a feed of plutonium (Pu) metal. The PuO 2 will provide feed material for the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility. After dissolution of the Pu metal in H-Canyon, plans are to transfer the solution to HB-Line for purification by anion exchange. Anion exchange will be followed by plutonium(IV) oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination to form PuO 2. The filtrate solutions, remaining after precipitation, contain low levels of Pu ions, oxalate ions, and may include solids. These solutions are transferred to H-Canyon for disposition. To mitigate the criticality concern of Pu solids in a Canyon tank, past processes have used oxalate destruction or have pre-filled the Canyon tank with a neutron poison. The installation of a filter on the process lines from the HB-Line filtrate tanks to H-Canyon Tank 9.6 is proposed to remove plutonium oxalate solids. This report describes SRNLs efforts to determine the ...
Since the mid-20th century, plutonium in the environment has been primarily produced by human activity. The first plants to produce plutonium for use in cold war atomic bombs were at the Hanford nuclear site, in Washington, and Mayak nuclear plant, in Russia. Over a period of four decades, "both released more than 200 million curies of radioactive isotopes into the surrounding environment -- twice the amount expelled in the Chernobyl disaster in each instance". The majority of plutonium isotopes are short-lived on a geological timescale, though it has been argued that traces of the long-lived 244Pu isotope, still exist in nature. This isotope has been found in lunar soil, meteorites, and in the Oklo natural reactor. However, one paper on marine sediments for plutonium in marine sediments, atomic bomb fallout is responsible for 66% of the 239Pu and 59% 240Pu found in the English Channel, while nuclear reprocessing is responsible for the majority of the 238Pu and 241Pu present in the Earths ...
A new study details how scientists developed the conceptual nuclear reactor design of high plutonium breeding by light water cooling, which may help advanced countries meet the growth rate of energy demand.. Professor Okas research team succeeded to develop the conceptual nuclear reactor design of high plutonium breeding by light water cooling for the first time in the world. He devised a new fuel assembly where fuel rods are closely packed for reducing reactor coolant to fuel volume fraction for high breeding. With computational analysis he succeeded high plutonium breeding with light water cooling. The study will open the way of commercialization of fast reactor and nuclear fuel cycle for peaceful use of nuclear energy based on the mature light water cooling technologies. The result of the study was published in January issue of "Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology" of Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) , entitled "Plutonium breeding of light water cooled fast ...
The purpose of this analysis is to examine whether there is a justification for using high-level waste (HLW) as a surrogate for plutonium disposal in can-in-canister ceramic in the total-system performance assessment (TSPA) model for the Site Recommendation (SR). In the TSPA-SR model, the immobilized plutonium waste form is not explicitly represented, but is implicitly represented as an equal number of canisters of HLW. There are about 50 metric tons of plutonium in the U. S. Department of Energy inventory of surplus fissile material that could be disposed. Approximately 17 tons of this material contain significant quantities of impurities and are considered unsuitable for mixed-oxide (MOX) reactor fuel. This material has been designated for direct disposal by immobilization in a ceramic waste form and encapsulating this waste form in high-level waste (HLW). The remaining plutonium is suitable for incorporation into MOX fuel assemblies for commercial reactors (Shaw 1999, Section 2). In this analysis,
Bush administration plans governments first production of plutonium 238 since cold war, stirring debate over risks and benefits of material so radioactive that one speck can cause cancer; Energy Dept official Timothy A Frazier says most if not all of new plutonium is intended for secret missions, but not for nuclear arms, satellites or weapons in space; program would produce total of 330 pounds over 30 years at Idaho National Laboratory outside Idaho Falls; environmentalists warn of potential threat to ecosystems of several nearby national parks; plutonium 238s steady heat can be turned into electricity; federal and private experts unconnected to project say even if no formal plans now exist to use plutonium in space for military purposes, material could be used by military to power compact spy satellites that would be hard for adversaries to track, evade or destroy; photo; map (M)
Sequential extraction has been used extensively to study the solid partitioning of radionuclides in soils and sediments. A difficulty with sequential extraction is that radionuclides released by a particular extractant can be resorbed and artificially redistributed amongst the remaining solid phases. Here, we describe experiments (on selected model phase and natural materials), which were designed to determine whether the inclusion of a chelating agent (sodium citrate) in an established sequential extraction protocol (a) inhibits post-extraction resorption of plutonium, (b) increases non-targeted dissolution of sediment phases, and (c) gives rise to unwanted ligand competition for plutonium. The results clearly demonstrate the capacity of citrate to inhibit the resorption of plutonium from the various extractants, and confirm that there is no discernible increase in non-targeted phase dissolution, but indicate significant ligand competition with the carbonate phase. The merits of using citrate ...
...CLEMSON S.C. Environmental scientists at Clemson University have rec...The research has implications for nuclear cleanup efforts and could he... Plutonium contamination in soils can be transported in groundwater aw... The way to predict how much and how fast plutonium moves through the ...,Clemson,researcher,will,study,plutonium,underground,for,Energy,Department,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Source: Washingtons Blog. MSNBC reports that plutonium has been found in soil around the Fukushima plant: The Tokyo Electric Power Co., which operates the plant, said it found three radioactive isotopes of plutonium - plutonium 238, 239 and 240 - in five locations outside the plant in soil tests on March 21-22. NHK tv notes…
C697 - 16 Standard Test Methods for Chemical, Mass Spectrometric, and Spectrochemical Analysis of Nuclear-Grade Plutonium Dioxide Powders and Pellets , impurity content, isotopic composition, plutonium content, plutonium dioxide pellets, plutonium dioxide powders,,
The main objective of this research is to evaluate health-risk distributions for plutonium (Pu) inhalation-exposure scenarios relevant to environmental management of plutonium dioxide (PuO2)-contaminated sites. These distributions incorporate variability/uncertainty.
In addition to the original plutonium production reactor at Jiuquan [Yumen], the Chinese buildt a second, similar, plutonium reactor and chemical separation plant at Guangyuan [Kuangyuan]. This facility began production in mid-1973, with approximately the same plutonium production capacity as the Yumen reactor of 300-400 Kg per annum. Guangyuan is centered on a 1,000MW light water graphite reactor [LWGR] fueled with natural Uranium. This reactor is the largest plutonium producing reactor in China, with about twice the power level of the reactor at Jiuquan, and is complemented by China s largest plutonium separation facility. In the late 1960s as part of the "third line" effort to relocate critical defense infrastructure in the relatively remote interior, China built new [allegedly underground] facilities supplement the plutonium production reactor at Jiuquan [third line plutonium production reactor at Guangyuan ], the design and fabrication facility at Haiyan [third line design and fabrication ...
Shinichi Ogawa and Michael Schiffer Ever since it was attacked with nuclear weapons six decades ago, Japan has been at the forefront of international nonproliferation efforts. Yet, as the world has focused recently on the dangers posed by some elements of the civilian nuclear power industry, Japan has found itself in the crosshairs of proliferation concerns.. The international community has focused particularly on Japans planned plutonium reprocessing facility in Rokkasho-mura, which is scheduled to begin operating as early as July 2006. It would be the first active, civilian reprocessing facility in a non-nuclear-weapon state. It would also be one of the first and largest of such facilities to come online since President George W. Bush and Mohamed ElBaradei, director-general of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), called for limits on the construction of new plutonium reprocessing or uranium-enrichment facilities. These facilities can be used to develop nuclear fuel for civilian ...
The first large-scale nuclear reactors were built during World War II. These reactors were designed for the production of plutonium for use in nuclear weapons. The only reprocessing required, therefore, was the extraction of the plutonium (free of fission-product contamination) from the spent natural uranium fuel. In 1943, several methods were proposed for separating the relatively small quantity of plutonium from the uranium and fission products. The first method selected, a precipitation process called the bismuth phosphate process, was developed and tested at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) between 1943 and 1945 to produce quantities of plutonium for evaluation and use in the US weapons programs. ORNL produced the first macroscopic quantities (grams) of separated plutonium with these processes. The bismuth phosphate process was first operated on a large scale at the Hanford Site, in the later part of 1944. It was successful for plutonium separation in the emergency situation existing ...
Plutonium: | | Plutonium, ||94||Pu | | | ||| | ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
The long physical and biological half-life and high relative toxicity have dictated that considerable effort be devoted to quantifying plutonium transport through the various trophic levels. Despite the fact that biological transport of plutonium has been studied for many years, quantitative values for its transfer to milk, and its subsequent uptake by suckling animals have not been established. Three lactating goats were given intravenous injections of citrate-buffered plutonium nitrate at a rate of 75 microcuries per animal per day for three consecutive days. In all three goats approximately one percent of the total plutonium dose was transferred to the milk by the fifth post-treatment day. Plutonium retained by the tissues was deposited primarily in the liver and bone. In vitro plutonium-labeled milk was also fed to groups of rats and juvenile goats. Tissue concentrations of plutonium from juvenile goats which had received either in vivo or in vitro labeled milk were somewhat variable. Due ...
The UK Governments preliminary view is that the best prospect of delivering a long-term solution for plutonium management is through a reuse as MOX (mixed oxide).. The consultation runs until May 10.. Plutonium consultation launched - Department of Energy and Climate Change press release and link to consultation paper. ...
http://dprogram.net April 22nd, 2011 Lucas Hixton Whitefield tips us off to the fact that the EPA has been detecting Plutonium and Strontium along the entire US West Coast since March 18th. Radioactive Fukushima Plutonium And Strontium Bombarding US West Coast Since March 18th Submitted by Lucas Whitefiel… on Thu, 04/21/2011 - 19:09 EPA RADnet Reports…
Plutonium-239 is an isotope of plutonium that is a radioactive, metallic element created when uranium atoms absorb neutrons. Plutonium-239 is the most common isotope used in the production of nuclear...
The Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System (ARIES) is a pit disassembly and conversion demonstration line at Los Alamos National Laboratorys plutonium facility. Pits are the core of a nuclear weapon that contain the fissile material. With the end of the cold war, the United States began a program to dispose of the fissile material contained in surplus nuclear weapons. In January of 1997, the Department of Energys Office of Fissile Material Disposition issued a Record of Decision (ROD) on the disposition of surplus plutonium. This decision contained a hybrid option for disposition of the plutonium, immobilization and mixed oxide fuel. ARIES is the cornerstone of the United States plutonium disposition program that supplies the pit demonstration plutonium feed material for either of these disposition pathways. Additionally, information from this demonstration is being used to design the United States Pit Disassembly and Conversion Facility ...
Superfast Jellyfish", Gorillaz, May 2010. Absolute Safety. When nuclear power was first being sold to the American public, enthusiasts bragged about designs that would "make safety absolute". (72) According to the World Nuclear Association, "In the 1940s some 26 workers at US nuclear weapons facilities became contaminated with plutonium. Intensive health checks of these people have revealed no serious consequence and no fatalities that could be attributed to the exposure." (73). Wikipedia makes similar claims: "…no human is known to have died because of inhaling or ingesting plutonium, and many people have measurable amounts of plutonium in their bodies." (74). These views have been disputed by activists, who point out that cancer rates are highest around plutonium processing plants. These activists claim that secrecy and disinformation have plagued the various plutonium processing plants and the contaminations that each site has experienced, and that radiation-related cancer mortality is ...
One crucial safety regulations that Daghlian violated was that, he was working late at night all alone by himself in the laboratory. His experiment actually involved stacking a series of tungsten carbide bricks around the plutonium core. However, he accidentally dropped the final brick into the assembly which caused a super critical reaction. The only possible way to stop the reaction was that, he partially disassembled the tungsten carbide. But due to the time that took him, he received a lethal dose of neutron radiation. He died 25 days later from the incident ...
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FRAM by ORTEC analyzes the gamma-ray spectrum taken with a germanium radiation detector, of plutonium-bearing, uranium-bearing, or mixed items and quantifies the distribution of plutonium or uranium isotopes, 241Americium, and other transuranic isotopes (including uranium in mixed uranium-plutonium oxides) that contribute measurable gamma rays to the spectrum.
The results of the research clearly show that plankton from the coast of Palomares, obtained from a depth of 50 metres, contains radioactive plutonium and americium with an activity up to five times higher than the average of the other samples studied. Thus, while average radioactivity in western Mediterranean plankton is around 452 units (millibequerels per kilogram of dried plankton), at Palomares this figure is 2,046 units. This is still within the safety margins recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency, but serves as a reminder that the area is not free of residual contamination arising from the accident that occurred on 17 January 1966, when two US planes, a B-52 bomber, loaded with 4 nuclear warheads, and a refuelling plane collided in mid-flight ...
This is completely insane. Contractors who remove black mold from homes, probably take better precautions from spreading and inhaling mold spores. Were talking about a type of radiation that is the worst kind to get inside your body. Its inevitable that this construction worker will probably develop cancer in his life. Whats even more troubling for me, is that this contractor didnt just [email protected] up one time, they screwed up again 6 months later! According to the article, they rushed the job to make deadlines and got sloppy. Remember, we are talking about dismantling a highly toxic and radioactive Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFT), which is part of the Hanford nuclear research complex, in the state of Washington. To take shortcuts on such a project is idiotic ...
Plutonium Chemistry. From: Chemistry of actinides Nuclear properties and isotope production Pu in nature Separation and Purification Atomic properties Metallic state Compounds Solution chemistry. Pu nuclear properties. Isotopes from 228≤A≤247 Important isotopes 238 Pu Slideshow 1421013 by gerd
WHILE telling the world that they have stopped producing plutonium for nuclear weapons, Britain and the US are planning to carry on making tritium for H-bombs. The US government is proposing to bring a major new tritium production plant into operation by 2010, while British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) is continuing to manufacture tritium for Trident …
Another benefit of fertile conversion is that not all of the plutonium produced in the fuel is fissioned before the fuel is discharged. The residual plutonium at discharge (typically about 1% of the heavy metal mass) can potentially be recovered in reprocessing and either recycled in a thermal reactor (as is the case today in France) or in a fast reactor. Thermal reactor plutonium recycle as Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel gives approximately a 15% increase in the energy recovered from the original uranium ore. On the other hand, plutonium recycle in a fast reactor gives the possibility of much higher energy recovery in a breeding cycle, with the possibility of a fully self-sustained fuel cycle with minimal uranium ore input required. In principle, it is possible to attain about a 50 to 100-fold improvement in the energy extracted from uranium ore. This is the justification for fast reactors, which would allow a country to be strategically independent of the uranium market. However, the practical ...
There is no information from studies in humans or animals to identify the specific levels of exposures to plutonium in air, food, or water that have resulted in harmful effects. However, it is generally assumed that any amount of absorbed radiation, no matter how small, may cause some damage. When expressed as the amount of radioactivity deposited in the body per kilogram of body weight (kg bw) as a result of breathing in plutonium, studies in dogs report that 100,000 pCi plutonium/kg bw caused serious lung damage within a few months, 1,700 pCi/kg bw caused harm to the immune system, and 1,400 pCi/kg bw caused bone cancer after 4 years. In each of these cases the dogs were exposed to the plutonium in air for one day ...
All spent fuel contains 1% plutonium because that is how much is created (man-made) when uranium undergoes fission besides all the other deadly byproducts created (sometimes called (synthetic isotopes).. …In practical terms, there are two different kinds of plutonium to be considered: reactor-grade and weapons-grade. The first is recovered as a by-product of typical used fuel from a nuclear reactor, after the fuel has been irradiated (burned) for about three years. The second is made specially for the military purpose, and is recovered from uranium fuel that has been irradiated for only 2-3 months in a plutonium production reactor. The two kinds differ in their isotopic composition but must both be regarded as a potential proliferation risk, and managed accordingly… http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Nuclear-Fuel-Cycle/Fuel-Recycling/Plutonium/. PattieB is never really clear on anything she states so it always makes her half right. Must be to busy to explain herself.. The fuel rods are ...
A flow injection-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometric (FI-ICP-MS) procedure, utilising ultrasonic nebulisation with membrane desolvation (USN/MD), has been developed for the determination of plutonium (Pu) in seawater at fg l−1 concentration levels. Seawater samples (1 l), after filtration, were subjected to co-precipitation with NdF3, followed by ion exchange to enrich Pu and to reject seawater matrix ions and co-existing uranium. The seawater concentrate (1.0 ml) was then analysed by FI-ICP-MS. The limit of detection for in seawater based on an enrichment factor of 1000 was 5 fg l−1, and precision at the 0.80 pg l−1 level was 12% RSD. Accuracy was verified via recovery experiments, and by comparing survey data for the Irish Sea with that derived by standard methodology based on co-precipitation and α-spectrometry. Concentrations for dissolved in the Irish Sea were in the range of 0.267-0.941 pg l−1 (0.614-2.164 mBq l−1) and 0.051-0.196 pg l−1 (0.428-1.646 mBq l−1), ...
Plutonium was named after the planet Pluto as in conformity with other planet names. Pluto planet is the second most massive known dwarf planet in the Solar System. Its name was given by Venetia Burney (1918-2009) an eleven-year-old girl in England thinking that the name for the god of underworld is appropriate for a the presumably dark and cold world of the planet. The planet was discovered by C.W Tombaugh in 1930 ...
It is claimed by proponents that fast reactors will be safe, economically competitive, proliferation-resistant and sustainable.. They are fueled by plutonium or highly enriched uranium and cooled by either liquid sodium or a lead-bismuth molten coolant. Liquid sodium burns or explodes when exposed to air or water, and lead-bismuth is extremely corrosive, producing very volatile radioactive elements when irradiated.. Should a crack occur in the reactor complex, liquid sodium would escape, burning or exploding. Without coolant, the plutonium fuel could reach critical mass, triggering a massive nuclear explosion, scattering plutonium to the four winds. One-millionth of a gram of plutonium induces cancer - and it lasts for 500,000 years. Extraordinarily, they claim that fast reactors will be so safe that they will require no emergency sirens and that emergency planning zones can be decreased.. There are two types of fast reactors: a simple, plutonium-fueled reactor and a "breeder," in which the ...
Washington, April 19 (ANI): Scientists have used high-energy X-rays to discover and study the structure of plutonium nanoclusters, which contaminate groundwater, thus increasing the risk of sickness in humans and animals. The finding was
When NASA's next Mars rover blasts off later this month, the car-sized robot will carry with it nearly eight pounds of a special kind of plutonium
The discovery of Manhattan Project-era plutonium at a nuclear waste site is a surprising piece of history, but a study published this month raises another question: Should we be worried about the s...
This is the accessible text file for GAO report number GAO-06-164T entitled Securing U.S. Nuclear Materials: Poor Planning Has Complicated DOEs Plutonium Consolidation Efforts which was released on October 7, 2005. This text file was formatted by the U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) to be accessible to users with visual impairments, as part of a longer term project to improve GAO products accessibility. Every attempt has been made to maintain the structural and data integrity of the original printed product. Accessibility features, such as text descriptions of tables, consecutively numbered footnotes placed at the end of the file, and the text of agency comment letters, are provided but may not exactly duplicate the presentation or format of the printed version. The portable document format (PDF) file is an exact electronic replica of the printed version. We welcome your feedback. Please E-mail your comments regarding the contents or accessibility features of this document to ...
THE future of NASA may be in doubt after a shortage of plutonium, which is needed for deep space missions, was uncovered by US officials.
First time accepted submitter ambermichelle writes GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy has proposed to the U.K. government to build an advanced nuclear reactor that would consume the countrys stockpile of radioactive plutonium. The technology called PRISM, or Power Reactor Innovative Small Module, would use...
Plutonium - The awesome element by katerina mat | This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for creating beautiful newsletters for for educators, nonprofits, businesses and more
Government nuclear experts worried by the destruction of Challenger are reviewing the design of two future shuttle payloads that will carry 48 pounds each of deadly plutonium.The experts at the