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It has been known for many decades that viruses need to exploit plasmodesmata as channels of cytoplasmic connectivity through plant cell walls. However, we do not yet understand the molecular mechanisms involved in moving a single infectious entity from cell to cell, although it is clear that virus-encoded movement proteins play a central role. Major progress has been made in identifying movement proteins, their associations with subcellular structures/organelles, and their biochemical properties with respect to nucleic acid-binding and physical associations with host and other viral proteins. These studies reveal a specificity in functional evolution where viruses share some similarities in their movement strategies with near and far phylogenetic groups but show few examples of processes that might apply to all or many individual viruses. Plasmodesmata also provide channels for cellular communication essential for plant growth, development and defense. As such, there is increasing attention ...
Plays a role in viral cell-to-cell propagation, by facilitating genome transport to neighboring plant cells through plasmosdesmata. May induce the formation of granular vesicles derived from the Endoplasmic reticulum, which align on actin filaments (By similarity).
Clinical Vignette Mrs. Fran Smithson is a 78-year-old woman who lives with her husband of 56 years in a two-story home. There are five steps up into the house with a railing on both sides of the steps. There are eight steps (no railing) from the main floor to the second floor, where Mr. and Mrs. Smithsons bedroom is located.. Mrs. Smithson was diagnosed with osteoarthritis 10 years ago. She has severe pain in her hands that causes problems with dressing, primarily with the fine motor dexterity needed for buttons and clasps. In addition, food preparation is difficult (e.g., cutting food and opening containers). Mrs. Smithson has identified pain in her right hip and has been having difficulty negotiating stairs. She must climb one step at a time and often has to hold onto her husband to negotiate the stairs, especially since there is no railing. Mrs. Smithson was previously a very active woman. She volunteered at the local hospital visiting with patients twice a week. However, she is now only ...
Plant positive-strand RNA viruses require association with plant cell endomembranes for viral translation and replication, as well as for intra- and intercellular movement of the viral progeny. The membrane association and RNA binding of the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) movement protein (MP) are vital for orchestrating the macromolecular network required for virus movement. A previously proposed topological model suggests that TMV MP is an integral membrane protein with two putative α-helical transmembrane (TM) segments. Here we tested this model using an experimental system that measured the efficiency with which natural polypeptide segments were inserted into the ER membrane under conditions approximating the in vivo situation, as well as in planta. Our results demonstrated that the two hydrophobic regions (HRs) of TMV MP do not span biological membranes. We further found that mutations to alter the hydrophobicity of the first HR modified membrane association and precluded virus movement. We ...
The movement protein of tobacco mosaic tobamovirus and related viruses is essential for the cell-to-cell spread of infection and, in part, determines the host range of the virus. Movement protein (MP) was fused with the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP), and a modified virus that contained this MP:GFP fusion protein retained infectivity. In protoplasts and leaf tissues, the MP:GFP fusion protein was detected as long filaments shortly after infection. Double-labeling fluorescence microscopy suggests that the MP interacts and coaligns with microtubules. The distribution of the MP is disrupted by treatments that disrupt microtubules, but not by cytochalasin B, which disrupts filamentous F-actin. Microtubules may target the MP to plasmodesmata, the intercellular channels that connect adjacent cells. ...
PAN Czytelnia Czasopism, Phylogenetic Analysis of PDV Movement Protein Compared to Bromoviridae Members as Justification of Possible Intercellular Movement - Acta Biologica Cracoviensia s. Botanica
Hello, Can anyone point me in the direction of literature on size exclusion limits for plant cell walls? Does this vary with tissue type or age or among species? Thanks, John Skillman ...
Biology Assignment Help, Plasmodesmata, PLASMODESMATA Termed by Tangl & Strasburger. Cytoplasmic / Protoplasmic bridges between 2 adjacent cells. Desmotubules connects the E.R. of 2 cells. Plasmodesmata produce a protoplasmic/ living continuum Symplast or Symplasm. N
1998 Jan 01). Intercellular and intracellular trafficking: What we can learn from geminivirus movement. In Cellular Integration of Signal Pathways in Plants. NATO Advanced Study Institute Series, Vol. H 104. (F.Lo Schiavo, R.L. Last, G.Morelli, and N.V. Raikhel ed ...
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During field observations from 2008 to 2012 in commercial peach orchards in the Estado de Mexico, states of Morelos and Puebla, leaf damage was observed in the form of yellow mottle, chlorotic rings, linear patterns and mosaic. A virus was transmitted mechanically with affected macerated peach leaves exhibiting yellow mottle to seedlings of several species of tobacco, resulting in whitish spots. In serological diagnoses (DAS-ELISA) and dot-bot type hybridization using riboprobes marked with digoxigenin for detection of six different viruses that infect peach, only the virus Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV. Ilarvirus) was detected in the collected samples with symptoms. The electrophoretic analysis of viral ds-RNA obtained from foliage with symptoms showed three bands of 3.6, 2.5 and 1.8 Kbp, molecular weight corresponding to the PNRSV genome. In all of the localities infections by PNRSV were verified in peach plants by direct sequencing of RT-PCR final point products, using extracts of ...
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 16:188-195...M. Isogai , Y. Saitou , N. Takahashi , T. Itabashi , M. Terada , H. Satoh , and N. Yoshikawa...© 2003 The American Phytopathological Society...To understand why transgenic Nicotiana occidentalis plants expressing a functional movement protein (MP) of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) show specific resistance to Grapevine berry inner necrosis virus (GINV), the MPs of ACLSV (50KP) and GINV (39KP) were fused to green, yellow, or cyan f...
ID JN544921; SV 1; linear; genomic RNA; STD; VRL; 679 BP. XX AC JN544921; XX DT 10-JAN-2012 (Rel. 111, Created) DT 10-JAN-2012 (Rel. 111, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus isolate hz-11 coat protein gene, partial DE cds. XX KW . XX OS Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus OC Viruses; ssRNA viruses; ssRNA positive-strand viruses, no DNA stage; OC Tymovirales; Betaflexiviridae; Trivirinae; Trichovirus. XX RN [1] RP 1-679 RA Wang L., Song Y., Hong N., Wang G.; RT "Molecular variability of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) isolates RT from pear in China"; RL Unpublished. XX RN [2] RP 1-679 RA Wang L., Song Y., Hong N., Wang G.; RT ; RL Submitted (03-AUG-2011) to the INSDC. RL Huzhong Agricultural University, College of Plant Science and Technology, RL Shizishan Str. No. 1, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China XX DR MD5; 761cab46f5020172779df4c453c82687. XX FH Key Location/Qualifiers FH FT source 1..679 FT /organism="Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus" FT /host="pear" FT ...
Read "Can Salicylic Acid Affect the Intercellular Transport of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus by Changing Plasmodesmal Permeability?, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Cheraviruses have three CPs of similar sizes. In some cases, these proteins are not fully or reproducibly resolved from each other by electrophoresis. The genome of cheraviruses is bipartite and the genomic organization is similar to that of comoviruses, although RNA-2 is thought to encode a single polyprotein (Figure 3.Secoviridae). The RNA-2-encoded movement protein of apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) is 42 kDa, suggesting that translation initiation occurs at the second AUG, which is in a better context. Tubular structures containing virus-like particles are observed in infected cells and are likely involved in cell-to-cell movement of the virus. The movement protein and all three CPs are necessary for cell-to-cell movement of the virus [{Yoshikawa et al., 2006:16362640RJOHTXYoshikawa et al., 2006, A movement protein and three capsid proteins are all necessary for the cell-to-cell movement of apple latent spherical cheravirus, Arch Virol, 151, 5, 837-48}]. The MP binds to VP25, one of the ...
and has a single-stranded positive sense RNA genome of 7,474-7,561 nucleotides excluding the poly(A) tail (German et al., 1990; Guo et al., 2016; Sato et al., 1993). The genomic RNA consists of 3 open reading frames (ORFs); ORF1 encodes the replication-associated protein, ORF2 the 50 kDa movement protein, and ORF3 the coat protein. ACLSV has been detected in Chungcheong and Gyeongsang Provinces (Han et al., 2015) by RT-PCR using primers ACLSV_F and ACLSV_R (Menzel et al., 2002), but there is still little information about this emerging virus in Korea. We therefore constructed an infectious clone of ACLSV-GW, originating from Gunwi, Gyeongsangbuk-do.. We first designed RACE primers to sequence the 5′ non-coding region (NCR) of ACLSV-GW. Total RNA was extracted from ACLSV PCR-positive tissue using the RNeasy Mini kit (Qiagen Inc., Hilden, Germany) and amplification performed with 5′ RACE system for Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends, v. 2.0 (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Waltham, MA, USA) by ...
ID JQ809577; SV 1; linear; genomic RNA; STD; VRL; 335 BP. XX AC JQ809577; XX DT 18-JUN-2012 (Rel. 113, Created) DT 18-JUN-2012 (Rel. 113, Last updated, Version 1) XX DE Apple stem grooving virus isolate BJ-ml movement protein gene, partial cds. XX KW . XX OS Apple stem grooving virus OC Viruses; ssRNA viruses; ssRNA positive-strand viruses, no DNA stage; OC Tymovirales; Betaflexiviridae; Trivirinae; Capillovirus. XX RN [1] RP 1-335 RA Hu G.J., Hong N., Wang G.P.; RT "Apple stem grooving virus isolates from Chinese pears"; RL Unpublished. XX RN [2] RP 1-335 RA Hu G.J., Hong N., Wang G.P.; RT ; RL Submitted (21-MAR-2012) to the INSDC. RL College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, RL Shizishan No. 1, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China XX DR MD5; cec29cc7e6c2cbde6eb9d8f732fc9c7b. XX FH Key Location/Qualifiers FH FT source 1..335 FT /organism="Apple stem grooving virus" FT /host="pear" FT /isolate="BJ-ml" FT /mol_type="genomic RNA" FT /country="China" FT ...
Transports viral genome to neighboring plant cells directly through plasmosdesmata, without any budding. The movement protein allows efficient cell to cell propagation, by bypassing the host cell wall barrier. Increases plasmodesma size exclusion limit. Acts as a suppressor of RNA-mediated gene silencing, also known as post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), a mechanism of plant viral defense that limits the accumulation of viral RNAs.
Both Pits and Plasmodesmata are involved in cell-to-cell transport but the difference is that in plasmodesmata both cell walls are absent (Primary and secondary cell wall) but the pit only has a secondary cell wall absent ( but primary cell wall is still present) Hope this helps ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Removal of divalent cations induces structural transitions in Red clover necrotic mosaic virus, revealing a potential mechanism for RNA release. AU - Sherman, Michael B.. AU - Guenther, Richard H.. AU - Tama, Florence. AU - Sit, Tim L.. AU - Brooks, Charles L.. AU - Mikhailov, Albert M.. AU - Orlova, Elena V.. AU - Baker, Timothy S.. AU - Lommel, Steven A.. PY - 2006/11/1. Y1 - 2006/11/1. N2 - The structure of Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV), an icosahedral plant virus, was resolved to 8.5 Å by cryoelectron microscopy. The virion capsid has prominent surface protrusions and subunits with a clearly defined shell and protruding domains. The structures of both the individual capsid protein (CP) subunits and the entire virion capsid are consistent with other species in the Tombusviridae family. Within the RCNMV capsid, there is a clearly defined inner cage formed by complexes of genomic RNA and the amino termini of CP subunits. An RCNMV virion has approximately 390 ± 30 ...
The actin cytoskeleton has been implicated in the intra- and intercellular movement of a growing number of plant and animal viruses. However, the range of viruses influenced by actin for movement and the mechanism of this transport are poorly understood. Here we determine the importance of microfilaments and myosins for the sustained intercellular movement of a group of RNA-based plant viruses. We demonstrate that the intercellular movement of viruses from different genera [tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), potato virus X (PVX), tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV)], is inhibited by disruption of microfilaments. Surprisingly, turnip vein-clearing virus (TVCV), a virus from the same genus as TMV, did not require intact microfilaments for normal spread. To investigate the molecular basis for this difference we compared the subcellular location of GFP fusions to the 126-kDa protein and the homologous 125-kDa protein from TMV and TVCV, respectively. The 126-kDa protein formed numerous large cytoplasmic inclusions
Geminiviruses are serious plant pathogens infecting dicotyledonous plants, among them important crop plants. They are characterized by small geminate particles containing single-stranded circular DNA molecules. Because geminiviruses replicate in the nucleus, viral DNA has to cross the nuclear envelope and the plasmodesmata for systemic spread. Two genes are required for inter- and intracellular transport of bipartite begomoviruses: ORF BV1 (syn. BR1) encodes a nuclear shuttle protein (NSP), and ORF BC1 (syn. BL1) the movement protein (MP). The mechanism of geminiviral intra- and intercellular transport is still a matter of debate and the transport complex is unknown. We want to identify host factors involved in viral intra- and intercellular transport by a proteomic approach to gain further insight in the underlying mechanism of virus movement. ...
We show that the ISE1 gene encodes a mitochondria-localized DEAD-box RNA helicase. Absence of functional ISE1 leads to increased intercellular transport of large dextrans during Arabidopsis embryogenesis. In support of the role of ISE1 in PD-mediated intercellular transport, PD are altered in ise1 mutant embryos; specifically, ise1 mutants have more branched and twinned PD than wild-type embryos, suggesting that PD biogenesis may be up-regulated in ise1-1 mutants. Further, the ise1 phenotype can be recapitulated in mature leaf tissues by silencing the ISE1 gene; ISE1-silenced tissues exhibit increased intercellular movement of TMV P30-2XGFP. Thus, the pathway or process disrupted by the loss of ISE1 function affects transport via PD in mature and embryonic tissues. We show that ISE1 is localized to mitochondria and that the N terminus of ISE1 contains a mitochondria-targeting sequence. The disruption of mitochondrial function in ise1 mutants is supported by the failure of their mitochondria to ...
O receptor LRR-RLK (Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase), designado NIK1 (NSP-interacting kinases), está envolvido na resposta imunológica em plantas contra Germinivirus. NIK1 foi inicialmente descrito por interagir com a proteína viral NSP (nuclear shuttle protein), proteína que participa do transporte de DNA viral do núcleo para o citoplasma de células infectadas. Com alta similaridade estrutural a NIK1, BAK1 (Brassinosteroid Insensitive Associated Kinase1), também conhecida como SERK3 (Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase3), é um receptor LRR-RLK de membrana que desempenha um duplo papel em vias de sinalização, podendo atuar como um coreceptor de BRI1 na presença de BR ou mediar respostas de defesa contra patógenos. Na via de crescimento desencadeada por brassinosteróides (BRs), BAK1 interage com BRI1 (Brassinosteroid-insensitive1) na membrana plasmática e ativa a função de cinase desta proteína. Recentemente, através de dados de RNA-seq, foi demonstrado que ...
Ratings of oak populations revealed that around 90 % of all oak trees affected by viruslike symptoms showed chlorotic ringspots and that these symptoms are widely spread in oaks in north and central Germany. In this study the putative agent of these symptoms should be isolated and specified. Rod-shaped particles with a length of 450 nm were recovered from two different samples of leaves displaying chlorotic ringspots by mechanical inoculation of herbaceous indicator plants. These particles were identified to be Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)- and Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV)- isolates by RT-PCR analyses of the coat- and movement protein genes. Infections with other well known viruses of forest trees, like Cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV) and the agent causing ringspots in European mountain ash, were excluded by ELISA and RT-PCR. DsRNA fragments of 1.5 and 1.6 kb as well as 1.8 and 2.0 kb were extracted from leaves, inner bark and bulbs of all symptomatic and asymptomatic samples of common oak. The ...
Ratings of oak populations revealed that around 90 % of all oak trees affected by viruslike symptoms showed chlorotic ringspots and that these symptoms are widely spread in oaks in north and central Germany. In this study the putative agent of these symptoms should be isolated and specified. Rod-shaped particles with a length of 450 nm were recovered from two different samples of leaves displaying chlorotic ringspots by mechanical inoculation of herbaceous indicator plants. These particles were identified to be Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)- and Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV)- isolates by RT-PCR analyses of the coat- and movement protein genes. Infections with other well known viruses of forest trees, like Cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV) and the agent causing ringspots in European mountain ash, were excluded by ELISA and RT-PCR. DsRNA fragments of 1.5 and 1.6 kb as well as 1.8 and 2.0 kb were extracted from leaves, inner bark and bulbs of all symptomatic and asymptomatic samples of common oak. The ...
Contributors. Preface.. 1. Plasmodesmal structure and development.. Alison G. Roberts, Scottish Crop Research Institute, Dundee, UK.. 2. Evolution of plasmodesmata.. John A. Raven, Division of Environmental and Applied Biology, University of Dundee, UK.. 3. Plasmodesmata: protein transport signals and receptors.. Friedrich Kragler, Vienna Biocenter, Austria.. 4. Comparative structures of specialised monocotyledonous leaf blade plasmodesmata.. C. E. J. Botha, Botany Department, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa, R. H. M. Cross, Electron Microscopy Unit, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa and L. Liu, Linyi University, Linyi, China.. 5. Plasmodesmata and plant morphogenesis.. Ken Kobayashi, Insoon Kim, Euna Cho and Patricia Zambryski, Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, USA.. 6. Transcription factor movement through plasmodesmata.. David Jackson, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, USA.. 7. Role of plasmodesmata in solute loading ...
Assimilates produced during photosynthesis in mature leaves are distributed by the phloem system to support the growth of heterotrophic organs. The flow of assimilates such as Suc starts with symplastic cell-to-cell transport through mesophyll cells and bundle sheath cells, after which they are loaded into the sieve element (SE)-companion cell (CC) complex.. Plasmodesmal frequencies between the SE-CC complex and the adjacent cells in minor veins have been studied in many plant species. Gamalei (1989) defined two types of minor veins, an open type 1 with numerous plasmodesmal connections between the SE-CC complex and the adjacent cells and a closed type 2 with a reduced number of plasmodesmal connections. The minor vein phloem of angiosperms is composed of phloem parenchyma cells, SEs, and CCs. In type 2 species, the CCs are often specialized as transfer cells. These are defined as cells with cell wall ingrowths and an enlarged plasma membrane surface area (Gunning and Pate, 1969) increasing the ...
Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is a non-enveloped plant virus of the comovirus group. Infection of a susceptible cowpea leaf causes a "mosaic" pattern in the leaf, and results in high virus yields (1-2 g/kg). Its genome consists of 2 molecules of positive-sense RNA (RNA-1 and RNA-2) which are separately encapsidated. Both RNA1 and RNA2 have a VPg (virus genome-linked protein) at the 5end, and polyadenylation at the 3 end. Genomic RNA1 and RNA2 are expressed by a polyprotein processing strategy. RNA1 encodes helicase, VPg, protease and RdRp. RNA2 encodes movement protein and coat protein. The virus particles are 28 nm in diameter and contain 60 copies each of a Large (L) and Small (S) coat protein. The structure is well characterised to atomic resolution, and the viral particles are thermostable. CPMV displays a number of features that can be exploited for nanoscale biomaterial fabrication. Its genetic, biological and physical properties are well characterised, and it can be isolated readily from ...
EN] Two small viral proteins (DGBp1 and DGBp2) have been proposed to act in a concerted manner to aid intra- and intercellular trafficking of carmoviruses though the distribution of functions and mode of action of each protein partner are not yet clear. Here we have confirmed the requirement of the DGBps of Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV), p7 and p12, for pathogen movement Studies focused on p12 have shown that it associates to cellular membranes, which is in accordance to its hydrophobic profile and to that reported for several homologs. However, peculiarities that distinguish p12 from other DGBp52 have been found. Firstly, it contains a leucine zipper-like motif which is essential for virus infectivity in plants. Secondly, it has an unusually long and basic N-terminal region that confers RNA binding activity. The results suggest that PFBV p12 may differ mechanistically from related proteins and possible roles of PFBV DGBps are discussed. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved ...
TMV or Tobacco Mosaic Virus is a rod shape virus. It is an elongated virus with a helical symmetry. It causes tobacco mosaic disease. ...
Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) has been at the center of virus research since its discovery over a hundred years ago. TMV was the first virus to be discovered. Late in the 19th century, researchers found that a tiny infectious agent, too small to be a bacterium, was the cause of a disease of tobacco plants. It then took 30 years of work before the nature of this mysterious agent became apparent. In a Nobel-prize-winning study, Wendell Stanley coaxed the virus to form crystals, and discovered that it was composed primarily of protein. Others quickly discovered that there was also RNA in the virus. Then, many prominent structural researchers (including J. D. Bernal, Rosalind Franklin, Ken Holmes, Aaron Klug, Don Caspar, and Gerald Stubbs) used X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy to probe the structure of the virus ...
See on Scoop.it - Virology News Plant viruses are generally considered incapable of infecting vertebrates. Accordingly, they are not considered harmful for humans. However, a few studies questioned the certainty of this paradigm. Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) RNA has been detected in human samples and TMV RNA translation has been described in animal cells. We sought to…
Ahhh, that DD. Well the theory is the same as for the human DD. However, as my business partner used to remind me, In theory, theory and practice are the same thing. in practice theyre not. And thats relevant here because were a couple of hundred years behind the human materia medica so we have the merest outline and a bit of gentle shading, and we dont even know how reliable that is! That being said it is what we have got and sometimes it even does the job ...
Systemic movement of plant viruses through the host vasculature, one of the central events of the infection process, is essential for maximal viral accumulation and development of disease symptoms. The host plant proteins involved in this transport, however, remain unknown. Here, we examined whether …
I am interested in the structure and function of plasmodesmata, the channels responsible for intercellular transport of ions, metabolites, signals and viruses in plants. Despite their fundamental importance in plant development physiology and health, little is known of the details of the mode of transport through these channels and the mechanisms used to regulate their permeablity. In order to identify the macromolecular architecture of plasmodesmata we are using both direct isolation of plasmodesmatal proteins and immuno-gold cytochemistry with antibodies to known proteins. The details of their structure are being probed using high resolution scanning electron microscopy and freeze-substitution. The function of plasmodesmata is monitored using either electrophysiological techniques or microinjection of fluorescently labelled dyes.. The shape of plant cells and tissues is orchestrated by the precise alignment of inelastic cellulose microfibrils in the cell wall, which is in turn oriented by the ...
I would like to know about reports on monoclonal antibodies to plant viruses. I work with ToMV ( tomato mosaic virus) and i wish to know more about it ...
By Stephanie PappasLiveScience A real-time look at plant sex in an environment simulating microgravity reveals that agriculture in space might face challenges. The study also illuminates how gravity works on intercellular transport, a crucial process fo
原生質絲(英語:Plasmodesmata)為植物細胞和部分藻類細胞壁間貫穿細胞壁的特有孔道,可以讓相鄰細胞的細胞質相互流通。[2][3][4]有微小孔道,為細胞間物質運輸與信息傳遞的重要通道,通道中有一連接兩細胞內質網的連絲微管,細胞質可經由原生質絲交流及運輸,此過程稱為共質體運輸。 目前已知擁有原生質絲的包含植物界的所有物種,以及藻類中輪藻綱、輪藻目(英语:Charales)、褐藻綱和鞘毛藻目(英语:Coleochaetales)。[5]. 植物細胞擁有動物細胞所沒有的細胞壁,鄰近的細胞藉由薄板相互分隔。雖然細胞壁對於部分蛋白質及溶質具有穿透性,但原生質絲對於共質體內的胞內運輸更可以控制原生質流的流向以及穿透的物質。 原生質絲有分兩種:初生原生質絲(primary plasmodesmata)及次生原生質絲(secondary ...
hey barbz and kenbarbz my gurl misssdridri has came up with a GREAT idea it call the BIONIC movement which means: Believe It Or Not I Care! If you wanna be apart ot the BIONIC movement comment at the bottom and make a post and copy and paste this to it with a title that says BIONIC MOVEMENT then you are officaly in the BIONIC group! Lets get this movement going!. ...
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In this article, the second and final part of Dave C. Pottingers coordinated unit movement series, Dave takes a look at how to use the systems that w
Djedptahiufankh mummy. Mummified remains of the Egyptian prince Djedptahiufankh in a climate-controlled display case. Djedptahiufankh was known as the Fourth Prophet of Amun, during the reign of Shoshenq I (943-922 BC), founder of the 22nd Dynasty. He was the son of a priest and one of the most important state officials at Thebes at that time. Photographed in the Royal Mummy Hall of the Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, Cairo, Egypt. - Stock Image C010/3039
The data provide two examples of cross talk between plastids and mitochondria. First, silencing mitochondrial ISE1 reduces the redox state of plastids. Second, paraquat induces an oxidative shift in both chloroplasts and mitochondria, which negatively regulates intercellular transport via PD. Because salicylhydroxamic acid induces oxidative shifts in mitochondria, leading to increased PD transport, the paraquat-induced oxidative shift in chloroplasts must override mitochondrial oxidative shifts. These data are supported by independent microarray studies of ise1 and ise2 mutants, demonstrating that loss of either ISE1 or ISE2 function has numerous common effects in plastid-targeted gene expression (including down-regulation of ISE2 transcription) but little common impact on mitochondria-targeted gene expression (Burch-Smith et al., 2011a). Note further that plastid and mitochondrial retrograde signaling to the nucleus can both be initiated by changes in the redox state of these organelles ...
Tomato mosaic tobamovirus (ToMV) differs from the type strain of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in producing local lesions instead of systemic infection on Nicotiana sylvestris. An isolate collected from Kolar district of Karnataka which produced this differential host reaction was propagated in the greenhouse on N. tabacum cp. Samsun and purified. The virus is a rigid rod shaped particle with a coat protein of molecular weight 18 kDa and genomic RNA of size 6.3 kb. A cDNA library was constructed using a specific primer designed based on the conserved nucleotide sequence at the 3 non coding region of tobamoviruses. The cDNA library was screened for recombinant Clones and, the recombinant clone 82 with an insert of size 1.04 kb was sequenced in both directions. This sequence was compared with the genomic sequence of TMV and ToMV which showed 93.1 and 73.7 per cent identity, respectively. The sequence encompassed the 3 non coding region, the complete coat protein ORF and 467 nucleotides of the, ...
Protein of the Year: Tobacco Mosaic Virus, Welcome to viralinfections.info, we recommend viral infections related blog articles and classify them by tag.
Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins are plant proteins induced in response to infection by pathogens. In this study, an antibody raised against the maize PRms protein was used to localize the protein in fungal-infected maize radicles. The PRms protein was found to be localized at the contact areas between parenchyma cells of the differentiating protoxylem elements. By using immunoelectron microscopy, we found that these immunoreactive regions correspond to plasmodesmal regions. This was also true for the parenchyma cells filling the central pith of the vascular cylinder, although PRms mRNA accumulation was not detected in these cells. These findings suggest that for one cell type, the parenchyma cells of the central pith, the protein is imported rather than synthesized. The localization of the PRms protein indicates the possible existence of mechanisms for sorting of plant proteins to plasmodesmata and suggests that this protein may have a specialized function in the plant defense response. These ...