TY - JOUR. T1 - Cooperative function of PLDδ and PLDα1 in abscisic acid-induced stomatal closure in arabidopsis. AU - Uraji, Misugi. AU - Katagiri, Takeshi. AU - Okuma, Eiji. AU - Ye, Wenxiu. AU - Hossain, Mohammad Anowar. AU - Masuda, Choji. AU - Miura, Aya. AU - Nakamura, Yoshimasa. AU - Mori, Izumi. AU - Shinozaki, Kazuo. AU - Murata, Yoshiyuki. PY - 2012/5. Y1 - 2012/5. N2 - Phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in responses to abiotic stress and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. To investigate the roles of two Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PLDs, PLDα1 and PLDδ, in ABA signaling in guard cells, we analyzed ABA responses in guard cells using Arabidopsis wild type, pldα1 and pldδ single mutants, and a pldα1 pldδ double mutant. ABA-induced stomatal closure was suppressed in the pldα1 pldδ double mutant but not in the pld single mutants. The pldα1 and pldδ mutations reduced ABAinduced phosphatidic acid production in epidermal tissues. Expression of either PLDα1 or PLDδ complemented ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Myrosinases, TGG1 and TGG2, redundantly function in ABA and MeJA signaling in arabidopsis guard cells. AU - Islam, Mohammad Mahbub. AU - Tani, Chiharu. AU - Watanabe-Sugimoto, Megumi. AU - Uraji, Misugi. AU - Jahan, Md Sarwar. AU - Masuda, Choji. AU - Nakamura, Yoshimasa. AU - Mori, Izumi C.. AU - Murata, Yoshiyuki. PY - 2009/6/1. Y1 - 2009/6/1. N2 - Thioglucoside glucohydrolase (myrosinase), TGG1, is a strikingly abundant protein in Arabidopsis guard cells. We investigated responses of tgg1-3, tgg2-1 and tgg1-3 tgg2-1 mutants to abscisic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) to clarify whether two myrosinases, TGG1 and TGG2, function during stomatal closure. ABA, MeJA and H2O2 induced stomatal closure in wild type, tgg1-3 and tgg2-1, but failed to induce stomatal closure in tgg1-3 tgg2-1. All mutants and wild type showed Ca2-induced stomatal closure and ABA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS)production. A model is discussed in which two myrosinases redundantly function ...
Plant stomata. Light micrograph of stomatal pores on the surface of a kidney bean (Phaseolus sp.) leaf. The stomata are gaps (white) within two guard cells (blue, kidney-shaped). Stomata are pores that regulate the exchange of gases and water vapour into and out of the plant. The guard cells regulate this by expanding and deflating in response to osmotic pressure. When they expand, this causes them to move apart from one another and open the pore. This image was created using an epithelial peel to chemically remove the top layer of the leaf. Magnification: x230 when printed 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image C003/5829
Chloroplasts are a key feature of most guard cells; however, the function of these organelles in stomatal responses has been a subject of debate. This review examines evidence for and against a role of guard cell chloroplasts in stimulating stomatal opening. Controversy remains over the extent to which guard cell Calvin cycle activity contributes to stomatal regulation. However, this is only one of four possible functions of guard cell chloroplasts; other roles include supply of ATP, blue-light signalling and starch storage. Evidence exists for all these mechanisms, but is highly dependent upon species and growth/measurement conditions, with inconsistencies between different laboratories reported. Significant plasticity and extreme flexibility in guard cell osmoregulatory, signalling and sensory pathways may be one explanation. The use of chlorophyll a fluorescence analysis of individual guard cells is discussed in assessing guard and mesophyll cell physiology in relation to stomatal function. ...
Calcium ions are known to play an important part in signal transduction in stomatal guard cells. In Cummelina communis L., stomatal opening in isolated epidermis is strongly inhibited if the calcium concentration in the incubation medium is 0.1 mol mol m−3 or greater, It can be assumed that in the intact leaf, the apoplastic concentration of free calcium in the vicinity of the guard cells must be kept below this level if interference with stomatal functioning is to be avoided.. When C. communis was grown with 15 mol m−3 calcium in the rhizosphere, the concentration of free calcium in the xylem sap in the shoot was found to be 3.76 mol m−3. A mechanism is clearly needed for reducing this concentration as the sap traverses the apoplast between the xylem and the stomatal guard cells. Evidence is presented here that the deposition of calcium oxalate in cells of the leaf achieves the necessary regulation. The protective role of the six specialized subsidiary cells in this species appears to be ...
Jodo, S., 1973: Stomatal movement and water relations in crops. 2. Stomatal behaviour of tobacco leaves of different ages and the influence of soil water shortage
Maximum and minimum stomatal conductance, as well as stomatal size and rate of response, are known to vary widely across plant species, but the functional relationship between these static and dynamic stomatal properties is unknown. The objective of
The plant SLAC1 anion channel controls turgor pressure in the aperture-defining guard cells of plant stomata, thereby regulating the exchange of water vapour and photosynthetic gases in response to environmental signals such as drought or high levels of carbon dioxide. Here we determine the crystal structure of a bacterial homologue (Haemophilus influenzae) of SLAC1 at 1.20 Å resolution, and use structure-inspired mutagenesis to analyse the conductance properties of SLAC1 channels. SLAC1 is a symmetrical trimer composed from quasi-symmetrical subunits, each having ten transmembrane helices arranged from helical hairpin pairs to form a central five-helix transmembrane pore that is gated by an extremely conserved phenylalanine residue. Conformational features indicate a mechanism for control of gating by kinase activation, and electrostatic features of the pore coupled with electrophysiological characteristics indicate that selectivity among different anions is largely a function of the energetic ...
False colour scanning electron micrograph of open stomata on the surface of a tobacco leaf Nicotiana tabacum. Stomata are breathing pores scattered over the leaf surface, and sometimes stem, that regulate the exchange of gases between the leafs interior and the atmosphere. Stomatal closure is a natural response to darkness or drought as a means of conserving water. Each pore is controlled by the turgor of two guard cells on either side; when the guard cells are full of water the pore is open; when they lose turgor, the pore closes. Some of the pores here are still growing & are small. Magnification: X 214 at 35mm size. Original is BW print b745/169. - Stock Image B745/0189
Stomata have a key role in the regulation of gas exchange and intercellular CO2 concentrations of leaves. Guard cells sense internal and external signals in the leaf environment and transduce these signals into osmoregulatory processes that control stomatal apertures. This research proposal addresses the characterization of the sensory transduction of the CO2 signal in guard cells. Recent studies have shown that in Vicia leaves kept at constant light and temperature in a growth chamber, changes in ambient CO2 concentrations cause large changes in guard cell zeaxanthin that are linear with CO2-dependent changes in stomatal apertures. Research proposed here will test the hypothesis that zeaxanthin function as a transducer of CO2 signals in guard cells. Three central aspects of this hypothesis will be investigated: CO2 sensing by the carboxylation reaction of Rubisco in the guard cell chloroplast, which would modulate zeaxanthin concentrations via changes in lumen pH; transduction of the CO2 signal by
Both OsMUTE and ZmMUTE are expressed during stages in which the stomatal cell files are forming, suggesting that MUTE acts at an earlier stage of stomatal development in grasses than in Arabidopsis. Consistent with these findings, a GUS reporter driven by OsMUTE 5′ regulatory regions in Arabidopsis exhibited an SPCH-like expression pattern in young leaves. Although both ZmMUTE and OsMUTE can partially complement mute, their overexpression phenotypes are substantially different than that of MUTE. Expression of 35S::OsMUTE in an spch background allowed us to uncouple cell division from cell fate promotion. In plants with no stomatal lineage, MUTE can drive cells to a GMC (and later stomatal) fate; however, OsMUTE produces primarily cell divisions, a phenotype that is not only different from that of MUTE, but which in fact resembles the phenotypes produced by MPKTD-altered variants of SPCH (Lampard et al., 2008).. Divergent behavior of MUTE homologs might be expected if we consider the ...
Photosynthetic carbon fixation by plant leaves uses atmospheric CO2 as a substrate. In terrestrial plants, the carbon dioxide entering the leaf shares its diffusion pathway with the water lost by evaporation at the leaf surfaces. To avoid desiccation, plants regulate their gas exchange, minimizing water loss with minimal curtailment of CO2 uptake. Gas exchange in leaves is controlled by a pair of guard cells surrounding the stomatal pores in the leaf epidermis. Guard cells function as turgor valves: when the plant has an abundant water supply and the environmental conditions favor high photosynthetic rates, guard cells are turgid and the stomatal pores are wide open. At night, or under stress, stomata close and water evaporation is reduced. Guard cells are continuously sensing the leaf environment and the perceived environmental signals are transduced into appropriate turgor levels. We study sensory transduction in guard cells at different levels of organization. Stomatal responses in the whole ...
Stomatal guard cells play a key role in gas exchange for photosynthesis and in minimizing transpirational water loss from plants by opening and closing the stomatal pore. The bulk of the osmotic content driving stomatal movements depends on ionic flu
The thrust of Professor Raghavendras research has been on photosynthetic carbon metabolism and its interactions with mitochondrial respiration and nitrogen metabolism. His group has also contributed significantly to the topic of bioenergetics and signaling components of guard cells in relation to stomatal function. Many of the papers from the group on the topic of photosynthetic carbon metabolism and signal transduction in stomatal guard cells are all highly cited.. ...
Guard cells, which form stomatal pores in the leaf epidermis of higher plants, can respond to various environmental stimuli, including light, drought, and pathogen infection (Israelsson et al., 2006; Melotto et al., 2006; Shimazaki et al., 2007). To regulate carbon dioxide uptake for photosynthesis, transpirational water loss, and innate immunity adequately, plants have developed a fine-tuned signal transduction system in guard cells.. The volatile phytohormone methyl jasmonate (MeJA) regulates various physiological processes, including pollen maturation, tendril coiling, and responses to wounding and pathogen attack (Liechti and Farmer, 2002; Turner et al., 2002). Similar to abscisic acid (ABA), MeJA plays a role in the induction of stomatal closure (Gehring et al., 1997; Suhita et al., 2003, 2004). Jasmonate-induced stomatal closure has been observed in various plant species, including Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana; Suhita et al., 2004; Munemasa et al., 2007; Saito et al., 2008), Hordeum ...
Blue light is of course a main contributor to photosynthesis via chlorophyll, but it also influences a plant in other ways. Blue light is typically encountered in nature at midday, when the angle of the sun is directly vertical or close to it. This would usually be a time of peak intensity and heat, therefore in many plants high intensities of blue light cause the chlorophylls to migrate to the bottom of the cell for shielding. Moreover, cryptochrome is a phytochemical that absorbs the blue spectrum and initiates phototropism (growing towards light), plus sets a plants circadian rhythm (in combination with phytochrome and the photoperiod). Interestingly, strong blue light reduces leaf intermodal length in a plant and causes it to grow compact and bushy, not wasting energy on stem length, which would be unnecessary in blue dominant full sun conditions. Many growers use blue light to keep plants compact and under control. In addition plant stomata number increases with the intensity of the blue ...
FAMA encodes a bHLH-domain protein that resides in the nucleus and has transcriptional activation activity in a heterologous system. More than 160 different bHLH-containing proteins are predicted in the Arabidopsis genome, but only a small minority of Arabidopsis bHLH proteins have been characterized in terms of DNA binding, protein complex formation, or biological function (Heim et al., 2003; Toledo-Ortiz et al., 2003). No functional characterization has been reported for any other member of FAMAs subclass. The FAMA clade proteins do not contain the canonical R2R3-MYB interacting domains. We found that FAMA is capable of binding related bHLH proteins but not an R2R3-type MYB (Figures 4H and 4I). The DNA binding capabilities of plant bHLHs vary. Some bHLHs appear to require interaction with other proteins for interaction with DNA (Zimmermann et al., 2004), whereas others, notably the phytochrome interacting factor proteins involved in phytochrome-mediated light responses, have been shown to ...
Future projections of east Amazonian precipitation indicate drying, but they are uncertain and poorly understood. In this study we analyze the Amazonian precipitation response to individual atmospheric forcings using a number of global climate models. Black carbon is found to drive reduced precipitation over the Amazon due to temperature-driven circulation changes, but the magnitude is uncertain. CO|SUB|2|/SUB| drives reductions in precipitation concentrated in the east, mainly due to a robustly negative, but highly variable in magnitude, fast response. We find that the physiological effect of CO|SUB|2|/SUB| on plant stomata is the dominant driver of the fast response due to reduced latent heating and also contributes to the large model spread. Using a simple model, we show that CO|SUB|2|/SUB| physiological effects dominate future multimodel mean precipitation projections over the Amazon. However, in individual models temperature-driven changes can be large, but due to little agreement, they largely
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Looking for guard cell? Find out information about guard cell. Either of two specialized cells surrounding each stoma in the epidermis of plants; functions in regulating stoma size Explanation of guard cell
View Notes - Chapter 7.2 from BIO 110 at Harper. oxygen exit through leafs stomata 1. stomata 2. photorespirations happens when : stomata closed (co2 cannot diffuse in, o2 cannot diffuse out) o2
Organic acids play an integral role in plant primary metabolism, where they are involved in fundamental pathways such as, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, C3-, C4- and CAM-photosynthesis and the glyoxylate cycle. They also arise as products of the degradation of more reduced compounds and are interconverted in many plant tissues. Organic acids, such as malate, fumarate, lactate, and citrate, have essential functions in many cellular processes such as stomatal function, phosphorous acquisition, aluminium tolerance, communication with microorganisms, CO2 concentrating metabolism, temporary carbon storage, interchange of reductive power among subcellular compartments, and pH regulation. They also play a critical role in the regulation of plant development and growth, as well as in regulation of both primary and specialized metabolic pathways, some of which are involved in the response to both abiotic and biotic stress. Moreover, they play roles as signalling molecules, not only as allosteric regulators of
My laboratory is interested in understanding the mechanisms that regulate plant development and in particular, how environmental signals regulate core developmental pathways. For this purpose I am using stomatal development as a model. Stomata are microscopic pores on the surface of leaves that regulate gas exchange between the plants and their environment, allowing the uptake of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis whilst restricting water loss. This ability to control their gas exchange has allowed plants to colonise a number of environments and was arguably a crucial evolutionary step in the colonization of the land by higher plants.. I welcome applications from prospective home / EU / overseas PhD students and post-doctoral fellows ...
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There are guard cells surrounding each stoma that cause them to open or close throughout the life cycle of the plant. This occurs in response to water and ion concentration in the plant cell,...
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A stoma is an opening to the outside of the body, whether natural or created. Stromata pose certain risks for the body because...
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A stoma is a portion of your large or small intestine or urinary tract that has been brought through the surface of your abdomen (belly) and then folded back.
Special kidney shape which opens/closes the stomata - Plant has lots of water the guard cells fill with it and go plump and turgid (open) - When plant is short of water the guard cells lose water and become more flaccid (close) - sensitive to light ...
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A guard circuit is designed to be inserted in a two wire trunk between a central office and customer terminal equipment for the purpose of reducing the time period that the customer terminal equipment, for example, a private automatic branch exchange (PABX), is subject to glare. Essentially, the guard circuit monitors the various potentials of the two wire trunk from the central office. Upon release of an established connection from the central office, ground is removed from the positive line and negative potential is applied to the negative line. The guard circuit recognizes this change in potential and separates the customer terminal equipment from the central office until the customer terminal equipment is released and reconditioned. Glare cannot occur during the separation interval and thus the time period during which glare could occur is substantially reduced.
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When it comes to traveling in a car with your dog, safety should be paramount for you both. However, a recent study from Volvo Car USA found some surprising statistics. ...
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Environmental Signaling. Yang, Yingzhen [1], Costa, Alex [2], Schroeder, Julian [2]. A strong Arabidopsis guard cell promoter.. One common problem in guard cell signaling research is that it is difficult to obtain consistent high expression of transgenes of interest in Arabidopsis guard cells using known guard cell promoters or the constitutive 35S cauliflower mosaic virus promoter. An additional drawback of the 35S promoter is that constitutively expressing a gene could cause pleiotropic effects. To improve the targeted expression of genes in guard cells, we isolated strong guard cell promoter candidates. Among the promoters we analyzed, one promoter drives very strong guard cell reporter gene expression including GUS (beta-glucuronidase) and yellow cameleon (GFP-based calcium FRET reporter). The expression of yellow cameleon was sufficiently strong to resolve repetitive calcium transients in guard cells of intact plants. Besides guard cells in leaves, the reporter gene is also expressed in ...
Salicylic acid (SA), the known mediator of systemic acquired resistance, induced stomatal closure of Vicia faba L. Application of SA to the epidermal peels evoked an elevation of chemiluminescence of Cripridina lucigenin-derived chemiluminescent reagent (CLA) which is sensitive to superoxide anion (O2·-). The SA-induced generation of chemiluminescence was suppressed by O2·--specific scavengers superoxide dismutase (SOD) and 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzenedisulfonic acid (Tiron). These results suggest that O2·- was generated in epidermal peels by SA-treatment. A peroxidase inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) inhibited guaiacol peroxidase activity and suppressed the SA-induced CLA chemiluminescence in the epidermal peels, suggesting that O2·- generation occurred by the peroxidase-catalyzed reaction as proposed for SA-treated tobacco cell suspension culture [Kawano et al. (1998) Plant Cell Physiol. 39: 721]. SOD, Tiron or SHAM suppressed the SA-induced stomatal closure. Moreover, application of ...
In this paper, we provide evidence for a physiological role of PI-PLC and oscillations in [Ca2+]cyt in the ABA signal transduction pathway in guard cells. ABA stimulated oscillations in [Ca2+]cyt in guard cells of C. communis perfused with 5 mM [K+]ext (Fig. 1). Under these conditions, ABA induced a concentration-dependent reduction in stomatal aperture (Fig. 1A Inset). Previously, the effects of ABA on [Ca2+]cyt have been studied in guard cells perfused with 50 mM [K+]ext; these effects vary from no detectable change to transient and sustained increases ranging from 100 to 1,000 nM above resting levels (3-8). Recent studies suggest that the apoplastic K+ concentration in plants is between 5 and 10 mM (40). A reduction in the concentration of [K+]ext from 50 to 5 mM has been shown to cause hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane in Arabidopsis guard cells (39). Hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane has been reported to facilitate ABA-induced increases in guard-cell [Ca2+]cyt (4, 15) through ...
We investigated whether the reductive pentose phosphate path in guard cells of Pisum sativum had the capacity to contribute significantly to the production of osmotica during stomatal opening in the light. Amounts of ribulose 1,5-bisphophate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) were determined by the [14C]carboxyarabinitol bisphosphate assay. A guard cell contained about 1.2 and a mesophyll cell about 324 picograms of the enzyme; the ratio was 1:270. The specific activities of Rubisco in guard cells and in mesophyll cells were equal; there was no indication of a specific inhibitor of Rubisco in guard cells. Rubisco activity was 115 femtomol per guard-cell protoplast and hour. This value was different from zero with a probability of 0.99. After exposure of guard-cell protoplasts to 14CO2 for 2 seconds in the light, about one-half of the radioactivity was in phosphorylated compounds and ,10% in malate. Guard cells in epidermal strips produced a different labelling pattern; in the light, ,10% of the ...
In leaf, after forty minutes of dehydration, approximately two hundred genes showed at least 8-fold induction in mRNA levels (Additional file 5: Table S4). This number increased to over eight hundred after four hours. The up-regulated genes at the early time points included a large percentage of signalling molecules such as transcription factors, protein kinases, F Box proteins, and phosphatases (Additional file 5: Table S4). Over the time course of drought stress, the most strongly up-regulated gene in tobacco leaves also encodes a signalling molecule, a U-Box E3 ubiquitin ligase that we have called Ubiquitin Protein Ligase Like 1 (NtUPLL1) (Additional file 5: Table S4). The level of NtUPLL1 mRNA increases 52-fold after 40 minutes and over 290-fold by the four hour time point. NtUPLL1 and the closely related NtUPLL2 are similar to the Arabidopsis U-Box E3 ubiquitin ligases AtPUB18 and AtPUB19 that regulate ABA-mediated stomatal closure and drought stress responses [58].. At the later time ...
Our analyses establish a role for HSI2 in response to water stress during the vegetative stage of the Arabidopsis life cycle. Specifically, loss of HSI2 function results in plants better able to maintain physiological water potential under limiting water conditions, as indicated by reduced wilting and higher leaf RWC (Figure 2), while overexpression of HSI2 yields a complementary phenotype. These results are consistent with HSI2 acting as a negative regulator. The ability of the hsi2 mutant to avoid low water potential is likely attributed, at least in part, to lower stomatal conductance (Figure 4), effectively reducing transpirational water loss. Consistent with this phenotype, the mutant constitutively expresses higher levels of genes implicated in reducing water loss or improving water use. These include ERECTA, a positive regulator of water use efficiency through control of stomatal density and conductance [31] and PHOSPHOLIPASE Dα1, a positive regulator of ABA-induced stomatal movement and ...