Decreased Llgl1 expression has been previously shown to be associated with increased metastatic potential, malignant phenotype, or inferior survival in a variety of solid tumors (Ohali et al., 2004; Schimanski et al., 2005; Kuphal et al., 2006). Given that Llgl1 restrains self-renewal in HSCs and that leukemia is characterized by aberrant activation of self-renewal, we assessed for a role in human AML. First, we asked whether the gene expression signature revealed by genetic inactivation of Llgl1 (Llgl1−/− signature) in HSCs was associated with any genetic subtypes of primary AML. Indeed, clustering based on the Llgl1−/− signature (Fig. 4 B) grouped AML cases into subgroups significantly associated with cytogenetic abnormalities (Fig. 4, B and C). Especially core-binding factor leukemias (t(8;21) and inv(16)) or t(15;17) clustered into specific subgroups. Moreover, the Llgl1−/− signature was most strongly correlated with group 7 based on hierarchical clustering. This group contained ...
My main research interests are in the pathophysiology of the hypertensive diseases of pregnancy and intrauterine growth restriction. Pre-eclampsia remains a common disorder in pregnancy, affecting 3-5% of all UK pregnancies. Pre-eclampsia is a state of elevated oxidative stress; reduced placental perfusion or ischaemic reperfusion play a critical role in excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are thought to initiate a cascade of events in susceptible individuals leading to maternal oxidative stress and endothelial cell dysfunction.I am studying the potential role of the RAS in very early placentation, together with assessment of its systemic impact. The redox balance markedly influences the capacity to generate angiotensin I, and hence angiotensin II (AngII), from angiotensinogen with AngII exerting much of its vasoconstrictor effect by the generation of ROS. Placentation occurs at very low oxygen tensions, and we have increasing evidence for the potential involvement of ...
Cardiovascular and Placenta= == Introduction == This laboratory will explore the development of the embryonic cardiovascular system, which includes the placental vascular system. We will look through cross-sections of the Carnegie stage 14 embryo and follow the flow of blood through the embryonic vasculature. In this lab, we will also examine placentation. ==Objectives== # Understand development of early embryo heart and vascular system. # Understand the early placentation events and the development of placental blood vessels. == Early circulation == [[Image:Embryonic Circulations.jpg,thumb,right,Three components of early circulation]] The vascular system of the embryo is formed from blood islands that appear in the extraembryonic mesoderm of the yolk sac and the embryonic mesoderm (primarily splanchnic mesoderm). Both of these clusters fuse together and extend, forming a vast network. The early circulation has 3 components: Vitelline, Embryonic, Placental Each of these has its own system of ...
Cardiovascular and Placenta= == Introduction == This laboratory will explore the development of the embryonic cardiovascular system, which includes the placental vascular system. We will look through cross-sections of the Carnegie stage 14 embryo and follow the flow of blood through the embryonic vasculature. In this lab, we will also examine placentation. ==Objectives== # Understand development of early embryo heart and vascular system. # Understand the early placentation events and the development of placental blood vessels. == Early circulation == [[Image:Embryonic Circulations.jpg,thumb,right,Three components of early circulation]] The vascular system of the embryo is formed from blood islands that appear in the extraembryonic mesoderm of the yolk sac and the embryonic mesoderm (primarily splanchnic mesoderm). Both of these clusters fuse together and extend, forming a vast network. The early circulation has 3 components: Vitelline, Embryonic, Placental Each of these has its own system of ...
This protein phosphorylation antibody pair set comes with two antibodies, one against the LLGL1 protein, and the other against the specific S650 phosphorylated site of LLGL1 for use in in situ Proximity Ligation Assay. See Publication Reference below. (DP0124) - Products - Abnova
Pregnancy in mammals featuring hemochorial placentation introduces a major conflict with the mothers immune system, which is dedicated to repelling invaders bearing foreign DNA and RNA. Numerous and highly sophisticated ...
Junctional zone is a region representing the inner myometrium and is a very important imaging feature in pelvic MR imaging for interpretation of various pathologies. In its intact state, it is usually visualised as a low T2 signal layer beneath t...
As an example, the placenta is an important site of haematopoiesis. The conventional wisdom is that there is little or no trophoblast invasion, but this is one aspect that calls for reexamination. If marmosets begin to emerge as important disease models there will be a need to look more closely at their placentation. ...
Conjoined twinning … only arises when the twinning event occurs at about the primitive streak stage of development, at about 13-14 days after fertilisation in the human, and is exclusively associated with the monoamniotic monochorionic type of placentation. It is believed that the highest incidence of conjoined twinning is encountered in the human. While monozygotic twinning may be induced experimentally following exposure to a variety of agents, the mechanism of induction of spontaneous twinning in the human remains unknown. All agents that are capable of acting as a twinning stimulus are teratogenic, and probably act by interfering with the spindle apparatus ...
I. Male and Female Reproductive Physiology A. Anatomical Structures and Primary Functions B. Sex Determination 1. As the Default 2. Phenotypic vs Genotypic Sex C. Gametogenesis 1. Oogenesis 2. Spermatogenesis D. Hormonal Regulation of Male Puberty II. The Ovarian Cycle A. Hormonal Regulation B. Menstrual Cycle C. Menopause III. Sexual Intercourse A. Hormonal Timing of Reproduction B. Male vs. Female Sex Act IV. Fertilization and Initial Fetal Development A. Physiological Events Leading to the Zygote B. Implantation C. Placentation D. Infertility V. Pregnancy and Lactation A. Response of Body to Pregnancy B. Exercise Pros and Cons C. Parturition 1. E/P ratios 2. Oxytocin 3. PG 4. ACTH D. Lactation 1. Benefits of Breast Feeding ...
Herbs, annual. Trichomes absent. Multicellular glands absent. Stems erect to ascending, simple or branched basally and/or apically. Basal leaves soon withered; cauline leaves sessile, auriculate to amplexicaul at base, dentate, repand, or rarely entire. Racemes ebracteate or bracteate throughout, corymbose, elongated in fruit; rachis straight or flexuous; fruiting pedicels slender, divaricate, straight or slightly curved, persistent. Sepals oblong, free, deciduous, erect, equal, base of inner pair not saccate. Petals white, erect at base with flaring blade, longer than sepals; blade obovate or spatulate, apex obtuse; claw shorter than sepals, glabrous or papillate, unappendaged, entire. Stamens 6, slightly exserted, erect, tetradynamous; filaments wingless, unappendaged, glabrous or papillose at base, free; anthers oblong, not apiculate at apex. Nectar glands confluent and subtending bases of all stamens; median nectaries present. Ovules 8-50 per ovary; placentation parietal. Fruit dehiscent, ...
Description: Tall shrub or tree to 8 m high; young stems pubescent with antrorse hairs. Leaves linear, 3-5 mm long, ,1 mm wide, apex acute, margins appressed-hairy, becoming glabrous; petiole c. 0.5 mm long. Flowers white, pedicels 0.5-2 mm long, not in head-like clusters, crowded on leafy side branches or in axils of upper leaves. Hypanthium glabrous. Sepals triangular, ≤ 0.5 mm long. Petals 1-1.5 mm long. Stamens 2-3.5 mm long. Ovary 3-locular, placentation axile; style 3-3.5 mm long. Fruit 2.5-3 mm long, 1.5-2 mm diam., dehiscent. ...
Looking for online definition of Endotheliochorial placentation in the Medical Dictionary? Endotheliochorial placentation explanation free. What is Endotheliochorial placentation? Meaning of Endotheliochorial placentation medical term. What does Endotheliochorial placentation mean?
Looking for online definition of axile placentation in the Medical Dictionary? axile placentation explanation free. What is axile placentation? Meaning of axile placentation medical term. What does axile placentation mean?
The major egg yolk genes, those that express vitellogenins, appear to have progressively lost their functionality during mammalian evolution, probably due to the emergence of the mammalian-specific developmental nourishment resources, lactation, and placentation.
The major egg yolk genes, those that express vitellogenins, appear to have progressively lost their functionality during mammalian evolution, probably due to the emergence of the mammalian-specific developmental nourishment resources, lactation and placentation.
BACKGROUND:Correct development of the placenta is critical to establishing pregnancy and inadequate placentation leads to implantation failure and miscarriage, as well as later gestation pregnancy disorders. Much attention has been focused on the placental trophoblasts and it is clear that the trophoblast lineages arise from the trophectoderm of the blastocyst. In contrast, the cells of the placental mesenchyme are thought to arise from the inner cell mass, but the details of this process are limited. Due to ethical constraints and the inaccessibility of very early implantation tissues, our knowledge of early placentation has been largely based on historical histological sections. More recently, stem cell technologies have begun to shed important new light on the origins of the placental mesenchymal lineages. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE:This review aims to amalgamate the older and more modern literature regarding the origins of the non-trophoblast lineages of the human placenta. We highlight ways in ...
Like other carnivores, the ferret has a prominent hemophagous region (shown in the top figure). Here trophoblast takes up maternal red blood cells by phagocytosis and processes the contained hemoglobin to extract the iron. The hemoglobin breakdown product is hematoidin, which crystallizes out. We have described the same thing in tenrec placenta (here). ...
Antibody information for antibodies HPA022924 and HPA023569 used in analysis of ENSG00000131899 / LLGL1 (DLG4, HUGL, HUGL-1, Lgl1, LLGL, Mgl1)
Pregnancy is a metabolic and vascular stress test for women and those who fail are at increased risk of long-term cardiovascular complications. Specifically, women who develop preeclampsia (and/or other manifestations of placental dysfunction) are at increased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke and cardiovascular disease in general. The risk is highest among women who develop both maternal (e.g., hypertension and proteinuria) and fetal (e.g., intrauterine growth restriction) manifestations of abnormal placentation, especially with preterm delivery. Most women who develop a maternal placental syndrome return to a normal clinical state in the weeks following pregnancy and their absolute risk of cardiovascular disease in the short term is very low. However, perhaps having a placentally complicated pregnancy affords women the opportunity to personalize risk and take action. Action is needed. The fact that we, as a population, are getting heavier and more sedentary is an urgent public health ...
1. Askie, LM., Duley, L., Henderson-Smart, DJ., Stewart, LA. Antiplatelet agents for prevention of pre-eclampsia: a meta-analysis of individual patient data. Lancet, 2007, 369, p. 1791-1798. 2. Associazione Italiana Preeclampsi (AIPE), Italian branch of ISSHP. Linee guida per il managent preclampsi dell´ipertensione in gravidanza, 2007. 3. Atallah, A., Hofmeyr, G., Duley L. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders and related problems. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2006, 1, CD001059. 4. Belizan, JM., Villar, J., Repke, J. The relationship between calcium intake and pregnancy-induced hypertension: up-todate evidence. Am J Obstet Gynecol, 1988, 158, 4, p. 898-902. 5. Bujold, E., Roberge, S., Nicolaides, KH. Lowe-dose aspirin for prevention of averse outcomes related to abnormal placentation. Prenat Diagn, 2014, 34, p. 642-648. 6. Bujold, E., Tapp, S., Audibert, F., et al. Prevention of adverse pregnancy outcomes with low-dose ASA in early pregnancy: new ...
So what does this tell us? The risk that increases with subsequent cesareans is the risk of hysterectomy and associated complications, reaching 3.5% with the fifth cesarean due to abnormal placentation. But despite this, the risk of maternal death and other dreaded complications, like pulmonary embolism, does not appreciably change. In fact, the mother is much more likely to die with the first cesarean that the fourth or fifth. So why would we deny a woman the right to expand her family if she desires? We should not. This is just an example of risk distortion.. The same physician who might deny a woman a fifth or sixth baby would likely offer the same woman a laparoscopic hysterectomy later for prolapse and/or pain with scar tissue, etc. Interestingly, a TLH carries a comparable risk of death (0.04%), a higher risk of ureteral injury (1.1%), a comparable risk of bladder injury (1.3%), a higher risk of bowel injury (0.4%), and a comparable risk of thromboembolism (0.3%) (Source). Yet the ...
Development of placental folds is a critical event affecting placental function in pigs because it can increase surface area for improvement in capillary density as gestation advances. However, the molecular mechanisms of the event are not well defined. Histone modifications have important roles in gene regulation. To investigate their effects on regulation of genes controlling porcine placental development, RNA-seq and ChIP-seq of porcine placental tissues from gestational days 50 (establishment stage of placental folds) and 95 (expanding stage of placental folds) were carried out in this study. The differentially expressed genes were identified and of which the down- and up-regulated genes are related to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and angiogenesis, respectively. In addition, we mapped the genome-wide profiles of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27ac), which are associated with transcriptional activation. A number of differential modification
The retroviral envelope-derived proteins syncytin-1 and syncytin-2 (syn1 and syn2) drive placentation in humans by forming a syncytiotophoblast, a structure
10. Leontice Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 312. 1753. 囊果草属 nang guo cao shu Authors: Junsheng Ying, David E. Boufford & Anthony R. Brach Leontopetalon Miller.. Herbs, perennial, with tubers, glabrous. Stem erect, herbaceous, unbranched. Cauline leaves usually 2(-5), alternate, 2-3 × pinnately compound, stipulate. Raceme simple, terminal, bracteate. Flowers yellow. Sepals 6, petaloid. Petals 6, yellow, nectary-like, much shorter than sepals. Stamens distinct. Pistil simple; carpels 1; ovary inflated, not stipitate or shortly so; ovules 2-4; placentation basal. Achene globose, utricle-like, indehiscent or irregularly lacerate on top of fruit. Seeds in fruit, usually 2; aril absent.. About three or four species: north temperate zone; one species in China.. ...
Trees, shrubs, undershrubs or perennial herbs. Leaves exstipulate, simple, alternate, opposite, or whorled, sometimes imbricate and appressed to the stem. Flowers axillary solitary or in terminal or axillary clusters, racemes or panicles, bisexual, actinomorphic or slightly zygomorphic, floral parts situated on or below a fleshy disc. Calyx 4-7-lobed, persistent. Corolla 4-7-lobed, usually gamopetalous, campanulate, saucer--shaped or urceolate, sometimes sepals and petals not distinguishable. Stamens often as many or twice as many as petals; free or adherent at base of corolla,, anthers sometimes spurred; dehiscing by apical pores or slits. Ovary inferior or superior, typically 5, sometimes 4-10-locular; placentation axile; ovules numerous; style often simple; stigma capitate. Fruit capsular; dehiscence loculicidal or septicidal. Seeds minute, numerous, endospermic. A family of about 50 genera and 1350 species, mostly inhabiting the temperate regions of the northern and southern hemispheres, ...
For successful establishment of the placenta, fetal trophoblast cells need to infiltrate the decidua and transform spiral arteries in the first few weeks of pregnancy. As a result, the fetus receives sufficient oxygen and nutrients for normal growth and development. This invasion must be balanced, so that excessive trophoblast penetration of the uterus does not occur (which would endanger the mother), or so that arterial transformation is not defective (which would starve the feto-placental unit). Our findings suggest that the immune system plays a part in defining this maternal-fetal boundary. The different experimental approaches we used all indicate that interactions of maternal KIRs with trophoblast HLA-C molecules influence placentation. Using the mAb WK4C11, we show that trophoblast cells strongly express both parental HLA-C allotypes. At the site of placentation, these fetal cells mingle with maternal NK cells expressing activating (2DS1) and inhibitory (2DL1) KIRs. Fresh uNK cells do not ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of nutrient intake during pregnancy on fetal and placental growth and vascular development. AU - Redmer, D A AU - Wallace, Jacqueline. AU - Reynolds, L P PY - 2004/10. Y1 - 2004/10. N2 - Remarkable diversity of size and health of offspring exists after normal pregnancies. When pregnancies are complicated by an extrinsic variable such as inappropriate maternal nutrition, birth weight and health of the neonate are substantially affected. The placenta is the organ through which respiratory gases, nutrients, and wastes are exchanged between the maternal and fetal systems. Thus, transplacental exchange provides for all the metabolic demands of fetal growth. Transplacental exchange is dependent upon uterine and umbilical blood flow, and blood flow rates are in turn dependent in large part upon vascularization of the placenta. Therefore, factors that influence placental vascular development will have a dramatic impact on fetal growth and development, and thereby on neonatal ...
There is a considerable amount of evidence from humans and other animals, including the results of embryo transfer studies, that size at birth is primarily determined by the mother, whose influence acts more through the intrauterine environment than through the genes transmitted to her baby [10,11].. Transplacental exchange provides all the metabolic demands of fetal growth and uterine and umbilical blood flow rates are in turn dependent to a large degree on the vascularization of the placenta. Therefore, factors that influence placental vascular development are likely to impact on fetal growth and development, and thus on neonatal morbidity and mortality [12]. In a study on nutrient intake in rats during pregnancy on placental growth and vascular development, both nutrient restrictions and over-nourishment during pregnancy suppressed placental cell proliferation and vascularity [12]. Further studies in this area will lead to improved methods of managing nutritionally-compromised ...
The placental epigenome regulates processes that affect placental and fetal development, and could be mediating some of the reported effects of maternal choline supplementation (MCS) on placental vascular development and nutrient delivery. As an extension of work previously conducted in pregnant mice, the current study sought to explore the effects of MCS on various epigenetic markers in the placenta. RNA and DNA were extracted from placentas collected on embryonic day 15.5 from pregnant mice fed a 1X or 4X choline diet, and were subjected to genome-wide sequencing procedures or mass-spectrometry-based assays to examine placental imprinted gene expression, DNA methylation patterns, and microRNA (miRNA) abundance. MCS yielded a higher (fold change = 1.63-2.25) expression of four imprinted genes (Ampd3, Tfpi2, Gatm and Aqp1) in the female placentas and a lower (fold change = 0.46-0.62) expression of three imprinted genes (Dcn, Qpct and Tnfrsf23) in the male placentas (false discovery rate (FDR) ≤ 0.05
Exposure of the fetus to a sub-optimal in utero environment such as poor maternal nutrition, stress or hypoxia can alter its development, potentially in a sexually dimorphic manner [1]. Male fetuses are often reported to be at greater risk of preterm birth, neonatal complications and prenatal mortality [2, 3]. For this reason, it is commonly viewed that males are more susceptible to developmental perturbations than females [4]. Critical to normal growth and viability of the fetus is adequate development of the mature chorioallantoic placenta. Males often exhibit larger placental growth (weight) than females in uncomplicated human pregnancies at term [5]. This is thought to help facilitate the greater growth trajectory of the male fetus. Sexual dimorphism in placental development is most often examined following prenatal stressors [6, 7], but inherent differences have rarely been investigated. Study of the placenta is normally restricted to analysis at late gestation or term. Interestingly, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Placental Evaluation with Magnetic Resonance. AU - Allen, Brian C.. AU - Leyendecker, John R.. PY - 2013/11. Y1 - 2013/11. N2 - Because of the high maternal morbidity and mortality of undiagnosed placental abnormalities, there is a need for accurate antenatal diagnosis. Important placental features amenable to investigation with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging include variant placental location and morphology, and abnormal implantation or invasion of placenta into the myometrium. MR imaging features permit the diagnosis of abnormal placentation include placental lobulation with uterine contour deformity, interruption of the inner low signal-intensity myometrial layer, and placental heterogeneity resulting from dark intraplacental bands and abnormal vascularity.. AB - Because of the high maternal morbidity and mortality of undiagnosed placental abnormalities, there is a need for accurate antenatal diagnosis. Important placental features amenable to investigation with magnetic ...
Placental mammals (Placentalia) are a very successful group that, today, comprise 94% of all mammalian species. Recent phylogenetic analyses, coupled with new, quite complete fossils, suggest that the crown orders were all established rapidly from a common ancestor just after the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary 65 million years ago. Extensive molecular and morphologic evidence has led to a description of the common ancestor of all Placentalia in which a two-horned uterus and a hemochorial placenta are present. Thus, the process of placentation in which the placenta invades and anchors to the uterine epithelium was already established. One factor that has been suggested as a crucial component of this process is placenta-specific protein 1 (PLAC1). A phylogenetic analysis of the PLAC1 protein in 25 placental mammal species, representing nine of the sixteen crown orders of the Placentalia, suggests that this protein was present in the placental common ancestor in the form we see it today, that it
Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) is a significant problem in maternal medicine. According to recent publications, insufficient invasion of extravillous trophoblasts into the myometrial parts of the spiral arteries may be responsible for this. The vessel inadequately adapts to the increased perfusion uterus need during pregnancy and consequently, multiple vasodilatory mediators are released. This results in the clinical picture of endothelial dysfunction with hypertension, proteinuria and oedema. The reason of this inadequate invasion of trophoblasts is unknown. In order to identify the causative factors, we hypothesise that the trophoblasts invasion at the beginning of pregnancy is comparable with the growth of malignant tumours.The invasion of extravillous trophoblasts shows a breach of basal membranes and invasive growth. Therefore, growth factors and their receptors, in particular those of the EGF family could play a central role. They have already been researched extensively in relation ...
The placenta is a temporal, dynamic and diverse organ with important immunological features that facilitate embryonic and fetal development and survival, notwithstanding the fact that several aspects of its formation and function closely resemble tumor progression. Placentation in mammals is commonly used to characterize the evolution of species, including insights into human evolution. Although most placentas are discarded after birth, they are a high-yield source for the isolation of stem/progenitor cells and are rich in extracellular matrix (ECM), representing an important resource for regenerative medicine purposes. Interactions among cells, ECM and bioactive molecules regulate tissue and organ generation and comprise the foundation of tissue engineering. In the present article, differences among several mammalian species regarding the placental types and classifications, phenotypes and potency of placenta-derived stem/progenitor cells, placental ECM components and ...
Need an overview of the following topics: - Extraembryonic membranes and placentation - Digestive system - Development of nervous.
The endocarp, mesocarp, and exocarp collectively make up the pericarp. The mesocarp is made up largely of parenchyma cells. The exocarp forms the epidermis of the berry. The embryos exhibit axile placentation (Rost, et. al. 200). When fully developed, the embryos will be surrounded by a tough seed coat that has developed from the inner and outer integuments of the ovule. ...
6. Monotropa Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 387. 1753. 水晶兰属 shui jing lan shu Qin Haining (覃海宁); Gary D. Wallace Hypopithis Rafinesque (1808); Hypopitys Hill (1756); Monotropion Saint-Lager.. Herbs perennial, mycoparasitic, lacking chlorophyll. Axis nodding, white to reddish. Leaves absent or reduced to laminar structures. Inflorescence scapose or racemose arising from persistent root system. Flowers solitary or in several-flowered racemes, often nodding at anthesis, usually erect in fruit, bracteate. Sepals 4 or 5, usually appressed to petals. Petals 3-6, oblong, often saccate at base, apex dilated. Stamens 8-12 in two series of alternating unequal lengths; anthers horizontally reniform, with terminal slit. Disk of 8-10 distended paired lobes adnate to base of ovary. Ovary (3-)5(or 6)-loculed, with axile placentation; style base sharply differentiated from ovary. Capsules globose to narrowly ovoid, loculicidally dehiscent, valves with marginal fibers; perianth segments early deciduous at ...
Annual, biennial or perennial herbs, less frequently small shrubs, indumentum of unicellular hairs often present. Leaves spirally arranged, simple, usually lobed or pinnatifid, with minute stipules. Inflorescences terminal, racemes or spikes, simple or compound. Flowers zygomorphic or almost actinomorphic, usually bisexual, rarely unisexual, hypogynous or rarely perigynous; sepals 4-6(-8), valvate or almost imbricate, petals (1-)2-6(-8) or absent, valvate, white or yellow, appendaged or not (Oligomeris Cambess.), connate or more frequently free and clawed, usually fringed; stamens (3-)16-22, rarely, more base of filaments surrounded by disc (except Oligomeris) and fused with them, anthers bithecate, introrse, opening by longitudinal slits; oary syncarpous or rarely apocarpous, with (2-)3-4(-7) carpels, superior, unilocular, with parietal placentation, ovules many by carpel, rarely only one. Fruits usually capsules, less frequently berry like or split into carpidia.. ...
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, which function as critical posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression by promoting mRNA degradation and translational inhibition. Placenta expresses many ubiquitous as well as specific miRNAs. These miRNAs regulate trophoblast cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, invasion/migration, and angiogenesis, suggesting that miRNAs play important roles during placental development. Aberrant miRNAs expression has been linked to pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia. Recent research of placental miRNAs focuses on identifying placental miRNA species, examining differential expression of miRNAs between placentas from normal and compromised pregnancies, and uncovering the function of miRNAs in the placenta. More studies are required to further understand the functional significance of miRNAs in placental development and to explore the possibility of using miRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for pregnancy-related disorders. In this paper,
Decidualization is a process that results in significant changes to cells of the endometrium in preparation for, and during, pregnancy. This includes morphological and functional changes to endometrial stromal cells (ESCs), the presence of decidual white blood cells (leukocytes), and vascular changes to maternal arteries. The sum of these changes results in the endometrium changing into a structure called the decidua. In humans, the decidua is shed during the third phase of birth. Decidualization plays an important role in promoting placenta formation between a mother and her fetus by mediating the invasiveness of trophoblast cells. It also triggers the production of cellular and molecular factors that result in structural changes, or remodeling, of maternal spiral arteries. Decidualization is required in some mammalian species where embryo implantation and trophoblast cell invasion of the endometrium occurs, also known as hemochorial placentation. This allows maternal blood to come into direct ...
Hemochorial placentation, with placental villi bathing in maternal blood, entails direct contact of circulating maternal leukocytes with the fetal trophoblast, ,nobr,i. e.,/nobr, the syncytiotrophoblast, which covers all placental villous trees as well as parts of the inner surfaces of chorionic and basal plates (1). This way, placenta-derived factors, such as hormones and cytokines predominantly released by the syncytio-trophoblast, may influence circulating maternal blood cells and vice versa factors from maternal leukocytes may regulate villous trophoblast functions. Thus, a combination of modulating signals and responses between maternal circulating blood cells and the placental trophoblast may dynamically be adjusted over gestation for an overall cooperative microenvironment in the intervillous space. Alterations in this cooperative microenvironment may occur very early in pregnancy and is suggested to program early placenta functions and growth long before any phenotypic changes become ...
Our aim is to understand how the complex system of interacting maternal KIR receptors and fetal HLA-C ligands affect trophoblast behaviour during placentation. Both KIR and HLA-C are polymorphic and genetic studies show that NK cells respond inadequately in certain maternal KIR/HLA-C combinations. KIR/HLA-C interactions are predicted to have particular biological importance during placentation because of high expression levels of KIR on uNK cells and HLA-C on trophoblast. We will study functional responses of primary uterine NK cells in women with known KIR genotypes using in vitro assays that mimic different maternal KIR/fetal HLA-C combinations. A particular focus will be on KIR2DS1, the activating KIR for HLA-C2 group alleles, because women with a C2+ fetus are at particular risk of pre-eclampsia if they lack the KIR2DS1 gene. Using functional read-outs - including CD107 assays, cytokine production and microarrays, we will determine the uterus NK repertoire, expression and functional ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Decidual endothelial cells express surface-bound C1q as a molecular bridge between endovascular trophoblast and decidual endothelium. AU - Tripodo, Claudio. AU - Agostinis, Chiara. AU - Rizzi, Lucia. AU - Tedesco, Francesco. AU - Radillo, Oriano. AU - De Seta, Francesco. AU - Ghebrehiwet, Berhane. AU - Bossi, Fleur. AU - Bulla, Roberta. AU - Debeus, Alessandra. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - This study was prompted by the observation that decidual endothelial cells (DECs), unlike endothelial cells (ECs) of blood vessels in normal skin, kidney glomeruli and brain, express surface-bound C1q in physiologic pregnancy. This finding was unexpected, because deposits of C1q are usually observed in pathologic conditions and are associated with complement activation. In the case of DECs, we failed to detect immunoglobulins and C4 co-localized with C1q on the cell surface. Surprisingly, DECs expressed mRNA for the three chains of C1q and secreted detectable level of this component in serum-free ...
Placenta previa is an obstetric complication that classically presents as painless vaginal bleeding in the third trimester secondary to an abnormal placentation near or covering the internal cervical os. However, with the technologic advances in ultrasonography, the diagnosis of placenta previa is commonly made earlier in pregnancy.
Sami, Im so sorry about the loss of your son Ethan! I know that is the most devastating loss. I was 38 too when my first/only was born and died due to preeclampsia. Even though I have not been able to get pregnant since there are several "older" ladies here who have. Unfortunately, Preeclampsia can hit young and old, fit and not-fit. Anecdotally I have heard about a connection between placental abruption and preeclampsia (both probably related to inadequate placentation) but I dont know what the medical science says. You mentioned a "consultant." What kind of consultant is that? After my experience I found it helpful to see a high risk doctor- a maternal fetal medicine specialist or perinatalogist- to talk about what had happened to me, the chances of something happening in a future pregnancy, and how I would be monitored/treated in a future pregnancy. Good luck to you ...
Since preeclampsia was first described by Hippocrates in 400 BC, the theory of its causation has shifted from toxins to a current theory that incorporates both vascular and immunological causation. Poor placentation whether it is genetically predisposed or due to low expression of defective HLA-G on fetal trophoblasts is believed to be the initial insult. Oxidative stress from placental ischemia/hypoxia leads to an overload of trophoblast debris by stimulating apoptosis or necrosis. Partial failure of the maternal immune system to tolerate the paternal alloantigens activates maternal immune cells to secrete cytokines whose pleiotropic functions lead to dysfunction of the maternal vascular and placental endothelium, blood coagulation, and fibrinolytic system ...
UMMC serves a mainly urban population and is also a transport hospital for the rest of the State; eighty percent are maternal and/or fetal high-risk pregnancies,, including pregnancies complicated by: super-morbid obesity; coexisting cardiac, neurosurgical, spine and respiratory disease; extreme prematurity; severe preeclampsia; diabetes; fetal disease requiring surgery; and, morbidly adherent placentation. Compared to many academic medical centers, this high proportion of high-risk maternal cases makes University of Maryland Medical Center unique in its ability to provide critical care management during pregnancy. Our obstetric anesthesiologists have gained substantial expertise over the years in the management of these various co-morbidities in pregnancy. As well, the University of Maryland Medical Center includes the nations most prominent center for the care and study of patients suffering both Shock and Trauma. The obstetric anesthesiologists and maternal-fetal medicine specialists work ...
The research will focus on reproductive conditions having relatively low heritability, and especially syndromes associated with placentation and pregnancy.. Addressing these questions requires a collaborative effort between researchers who understand the biological basis of reproduction from clinical, genomic, and epigenomic perspectives, computational scientists who can analyze high dimensional data, and theoretical and systems oriented scientists who can develop new models grounded in the interactions between people and their environments. The theme brings together individuals with expertise in computational medicine, reproductive biology in humans and other metazoan and microbial species, statistical genomics, epigenomics, social science, and engineering and systems approaches to human health.. Theme researchers will work closely with the CompGen initiative to develop tools that combine precision medicine data with behavioral and evolutionary information as well as novel methods and ...