To investigate the relationship between cyclin B1 (CCNB1) gene expression and cavernous sinus invasion in pituitary adenomas. Twenty-four pituitary adenoma tissue samples were examined by RT-qPCR and Western blot to assess the mRNA expression levels and protein levels of CCNB1, E-cadherin and N-cadherin. Correlation analyses between the expression levels of E-cadherin, N-cadherin and CCNB1 were performed. After lentivirus-mediated knockdown of CCNB1 in rat pituitary adenoma cell lines (GH3 and GT1-1), cell function changes were studied. The relationship between CCNB1 and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was further verified by animal experiments. CCNB1 and N-cadherin gene expression were significantly higher in the invasive pituitary adenomas than in the non-invasive pituitary adenomas. Conversely, E-cadherin expression in the invasive pituitary adenomas was significantly lower. CCNB1 gene expression was downregulated in the GH3 and GT1-1 pituitary adenoma cell lines; N-cadherin expression was
Objectives: It is known that patients with pituitary adenomas, especially acromegaly, frequently suffer from pain syndromes such as headache and arthralgia. Whether pain exists and to what extent in Cushing s disease (CD), reflecting chronic cortisol excess, is not clear. We hypothesized that pain patterns should be also altered and investigated pain laterisation, clinical characteristics, phenotypes as well as underlying predictors.. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we assessed 50 patients with CD and compared them to 60 patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA). Specific pain patterns were measured using three standardized pain questionnaires, MIDAS (Migraine Disability Assessment), the painDETECT and the DGSS (German Society for the Study of Pain) questionnaire.. Results: According to the DGSS questionnaire, patients with CD complained significantly more often of any sort of pain (76.0 versus 51.7%; P=0.010) compared to patients with NFPA. In the MIDAS headache ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Combined simultaneous endoscopic transsphenoidal and endoscopic transventricular resection of a giant pituitary macroadenoma. AU - Greenfield, J. P.. AU - Leng, L. Z.. AU - Chaudhry, Umar. AU - Brown, S.. AU - Anand, V. K.. AU - Souweidane, M. M.. AU - Schwartz, T. H.. PY - 2008/10/1. Y1 - 2008/10/1. N2 - Intrasellar and sellar-suprasellar adenomas are generally removed through a transsphenoidal approach. Giant adenomas with significant suprasellar extension often require a craniotomy or combined "above and below" approach. The use of endoscopes has increased the visualization capacity of the transsphenoidal route and made these surgeries less invasive. In this report, we describe a novel combination of the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach with the endoscopic transventricular approach to remove a giant pituitary macroadenoma extending into the third and lateral ventricles. The tumor was initially removed via an endoscopic transnasal transsphenoidal, transtuberculum, ...
This study investigated quantitated expression of dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) and somatostatin receptors of the five types (SSTR1-SSTR5) in a large series of clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas (CNFAs). Co-expression of these receptors in individual adenomas was studied as well as correlation between receptor types. Adenoma tissue from 198 patients who underwent surgery for CNFAs was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR. D2R and SSTR1-3 mRNA was expressed in all 198 adenomas. SSTR4 and SSTR5 were detectable in 85 % and 61 % of adenomas, respectively. Expression of D2R was significantly higher than that of the somatostatin receptors. The median relative expressions were as follows from highest D2R || SSTR3 | SSTR2 | SSTR1 | SSTR5 | SSTR4. High relative expression (ratio to beta-glucuronidase mRNA | 1) of D2R was found in 60 % of tumors, high expression of SSTR1 in 7.5 %, SSTR2 in 7 %, SSTR3 in 4 % and SSTR5 in 0.5 %. The quantity of D2R correlated positively with
The pituitary gland in the brain is the master hormonal gland and is surrounded by important nerves and blood vessels. The pituitary gland can develop various types of tumors, some which do not produce any hormones and are called non-functioning pituitary adenomas. These non-functioning tumors can grow and can cause compression of these important structures. The usual treatment of large non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma is surgery. As it is surrounded by neuro-vascular bundles, this makes complete removal of the tumor sometimes impossible and even dangerous. A large number of subjects will still have some residual tumor post-surgery. The risks of residual tumor are further growth with compression and compromise of the function of surrounding vital organs especially vision.. If there is further growth of the tumor the options at present are repeat surgery or radiotherapy. Repeat surgery involves all the risks associated with brain surgery and sometimes may not be possible if very close to ...
The pituitary gland in the brain is the master hormonal gland and is surrounded by important nerves and blood vessels. The pituitary gland can develop various types of tumors, some which do not produce any hormones and are called non-functioning pituitary adenomas. These non-functioning tumors can grow and can cause compression of these important structures. The usual treatment of large non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma is surgery. As it is surrounded by neuro-vascular bundles, this makes complete removal of the tumor sometimes impossible and even dangerous. A large number of subjects will still have some residual tumor post-surgery. The risks of residual tumor are further growth with compression and compromise of the function of surrounding vital organs especially vision.. If there is further growth of the tumor the options at present are repeat surgery or radiotherapy. Repeat surgery involves all the risks associated with brain surgery and sometimes may not be possible if very close to ...
Pituitary carcinomas are very rare neoplasms with a poor prognosis. We report a case of Cushings disease resulting from a pituitary carcinoma in a ZZ-yr-old female, who died of massive hepatic failure. At autopsy, there was invasion of the parasellar structures and vasculature by the tumor, which stained positively only for ACTH. There were two metastatic nodules in the liver, which also stained positively for ACTH. When compared to other cases of Cushings disease (n = 52), other pituitary adenomas (n = 292), and normal pituitary tissues (n = 21), the pituitary carcinoma was the only one with c-erbB-2 membrane staining in both the sellar-located tissue and liver metastasis. C-erbB-2 staining was present in the cytoplasm of a variable number of cells in 40% of the invasive adenomas (n = 103), while only 1.2% of the noninvasive tumors (n = 241) expressed this protein (p , 0.001). No particular immunohistological type preferentially expressed this protein. in normal pituitary tissues, 10% of the ...
The postoperative biological behavior of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) is variable. Some residual NFPAs are stable long-term, others grow, and
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ionic currents in two strains of rat anterior pituitary tumor cells. AU - Dubinsky, Janet M.. AU - Oxford, Gerry S.. PY - 1984/3/1. Y1 - 1984/3/1. N2 - The ionic conductance mechanisms underlying action potential behavior in GH3 and GH4/C1 rat pituitary tumor cell lines were identified and characterized using a patch electrode voltage-clamp technique. Voltage-dependent sodium, calcium, and potassium currents and calcium-activated potassium currents were present in the GH3 cells, GH4/C1 cells possess much less sodium current, less voltage-dependent potassium current, and comparable amounts of calcium current. Voltage-dependent inward sodium current activated and inactivated rapidly and was blocked by tetrodotoxin. A slower-activating voltage-dependent inward calcium current was blocked by cobalt, manganese, nickel, zinc, or cadium. Barium was substituted for calcium as the inward current carrier. Calcium tail currents decay with two exponential components. The rate constant for ...
OBJECTIVE: BRAF is an oncogene that is commonly mutated in both melanomas and papillary thyroid carcinomas, usually at position V600E that leads to constitutive activity in the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. We speculated that this same gene may be either mutated at this site, or overexpressed, in pituitary adenomas. DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS: We sequenced 37 pituitary adenomas for a mutation at the V600E position. In addition, we investigated B-Raf mRNA expression in normal pituitary (n = 5) and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA) (n = 6) by semiquantitative PCR, and in a further 27 pituitary adenomas of various types and 10 normal pituitaries using real-time quantitative PCR. Finally, we explored B-Raf protein expression in 10 normal pituitaries and 12 NFPAs. RESULTS: No sequence mutations for the substitution V600E were identified. B-Raf mRNA was overexpressed in pituitary adenomas compared to normal pituitary, and this was entirely due to overexpression in NFPAs. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Toxicity profiles of fractionated radiotherapy, contemporary stereotactic radiosurgery, and transsphenoidal surgery in nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenomas. AU - Chang, Chia Lun. AU - Yuan, Kevin Sheng Po. AU - Wu, Alexander T.H.. AU - Wu, Szu Yuan. PY - 2019/11. Y1 - 2019/11. N2 - Background: Here, we compared the toxicity profiles of contemporary stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), modern fractionated radiotherapy (FRT), and transsphenoidal surgery used to treat non functioning pituitary macroadenomas. Methods: We included the data of patients with non functioning pituitary macroadenomas. To compare treatment outcomes, the patients were categorized groups 1 (those receiving modern FRT), 2 (those receiving contemporary SRS), and 3 (those receiving transsphenoidal surgery). The multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed to yielded adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and their 95% CIs for local recurrence in groups 2 and 3 compared with group 1. Results: We ...
Most patients with pituitary adenomas present with signs and symptoms of hormone hypersecretion (eg, hyperprolactinemia, growth hormone [GH] excess, or hypercortisolism). However, 25 to 30 percent of pituitary adenomas are clinically nonfunctioning o
The ionic conductance mechanisms underlying action potential behavior in GH3 and GH4/C1 rat pituitary tumor cell lines were identified and characterized using a patch electrode voltage-clamp technique. Voltage-dependent sodium, calcium, and potassium currents and calcium-activated potassium currents were present in the GH3 cells. GH4/C1 cells possess much less sodium current, less voltage-dependent potassium current, and comparable amounts of calcium current. Voltage-dependent inward sodium current activated and inactivated rapidly and was blocked by tetrodotoxin. A slower-activating voltage-dependent inward calcium current was blocked by cobalt, manganese, nickel, zinc, or cadmium. Barium was substituted for calcium as the inward current carrier. Calcium tail currents decay with two exponential components. The rate constant for the slower component is voltage dependent, while the faster rate constant is independent of voltage. An analysis of tail current envelopes under conditions of controlled ...
A large pituitary tumor will usually cause which of the following kinds of ... inferior quadrantanopsia Left homonymous inferior quadrantanopsia
Light bodies are large cytoplasmic granules originally described in the gonadotrophic cells of the rat pituitary gland. In order to determine whether similar bodies occur in the human anterior pituitary gland, 89 pituitary adenomas and periadenomatous tissue from 20 cases were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Double membrane bound bodies with filamentous internal structure identical to rodent light bodies were identified in 10 hormone-producing adenomas: 5 PRL, 1 PRL-GH, 2 GH, and 2 ACTH-producing tumours. No light bodies were found in the remaining 79 tumours nor in the pituitary cells in periadenomatous tissue from 20 cases. These results show that some human pituitary adenomas may contain light bodies identical to those seen in gonadotrophs of rat pituitary ...
Background: To compare the effects of contemporary stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), modern fractionated radiotherapy (FRT), and transsphenoidal surgery on nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma. Methods: We enrolled patients with nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma. To compare treatment outcomes, the patients were categorized into three groups according to the treatment modality: group 1, patients receiving modern FRT; group 2, patients receiving contemporary SRS; and group 3, patients receiving transsphenoidal surgery. Results: In total, 548 patients with nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma were selected for our study. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis results indicated that the treatment modalities were significant independent prognostic factors. In multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, the adjusted hazard ratios (aHR; 95% confidence interval (CI)) of local recurrence were 0.27 (0.10–0.91) and 1.95 (1.25–2.37) for the SRS and transsphenoidal
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Pituitary metastases are rare, and unless a systemic metastatic disease is already apparent, are often preoperatively misdiagnosed as pituitary adenomas. This article will discuss metastatic lesions affecting only the pituitary gland. For other...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Predictive role of dynamic contrast enhanced T1-weighted MR sequences in pre-surgical evaluation of macroadenomas consistency. AU - Romano, Andrea. AU - Coppola, Valeria. AU - Lombardi, Mariangela. AU - Lavorato, Luigi. AU - Di Stefano, D.. AU - Caroli, Emanuela. AU - Rossi Espagnet, Maria Camilla. AU - Tavanti, F.. AU - Minniti, Giuseppe. AU - Trillò, Giuseppe. AU - Bozzao, Alessandro. PY - 2016/10/11. Y1 - 2016/10/11. N2 - Purpose: Our hypothesis was that pituitary macroadenomas show different areas of consistency detectable by enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with Dynamic study during gadolinium administration. Materials and methods: We analysed 21 patients with pituitary macroadenomas between June 2013 and June 2015. All patients underwent trans-sphenoidal surgery and neurosurgeon described macroadenomas consistency. Similarly, two neuroradiologists manually drew regions of interest (ROIs) inside the solid-appearing portions of macroadenoma and in the normal white ...
in Endocrine-Related Cancer (2011). Mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene are associated with pituitary adenomas that usually occur as familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA). Detailed pathological ... [more ▼]. Mutations of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene are associated with pituitary adenomas that usually occur as familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA). Detailed pathological and tumor genetic data on AIP mutation-related pituitary adenomas are scarce. Non-identical twin females presented as adolescents to the emergency department with severe progressive headaches caused by large pituitary macroadenomas requiring emergency neurosurgery; one patient had incipient pituitary apoplexy. Post-surgically the patients were found to have silent somatotrope adenomas on pathological examination. Furthermore, the light microscopic, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic studies demonstrated tumors of virtually identical ...
A form of pituitary adenoma, a neoplasm of the pituitary gland and one of the most common neuroendocrine tumors. Pituitary adenomas are clinically classified as functional and non-functional tumors, and manifest with a variety of features, including local invasion of surrounding structures and excessive hormone secretion. Functional pituitary adenomas are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete: growth hormone (GH)-secreting, prolactin (PRL)-secreting, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-secreting, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-secreting, and plurihormonal (GH and TSH) tumors. Familial and sporadic forms have been reported. The transmission pattern of familial PITA5 is consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance with reduced penetrance ...
A form of pituitary adenoma, a neoplasm of the pituitary gland and one of the most common neuroendocrine tumors. Pituitary adenomas are clinically classified as functional and non-functional tumors, and manifest with a variety of features, including local invasion of surrounding structures and excessive hormone secretion. Functional pituitary adenomas are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete: growth hormone (GH)-secreting, prolactin (PRL)-secreting, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-secreting, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-secreting, and plurihormonal (GH and TSH) tumors. Familial and sporadic forms have been reported ...
A pituitary macroadenoma is a tumor of the pituitary gland that is more than 10 mm in size. This eMedTV article offers an overview of such tumors, including information about symptoms of pituitary macroadenomas and treatment options for them.
Small, non-functional pituitary adenomas or tumors (2-3 mm in size) occur in about 10 percent of the population and are usually detected during brain imaging conducted for a different reason (pituitary incidentalomas). These small pituitary tumors usually do not cause any problems; however, if small pituitary tumors grow, problems may arise so clinical supervision is necessary upon discovery of these tumors.. With larger non-functional pituitary tumors, patients often experience headaches, vision problems, and symptoms of pituitary insufficiency. Vision problems are a serious complication of pituitary tumors and usually begin with loss of peripheral vision. If untreated, vision problems typically progress to blindness. However, if pituitary tumors are caught early enough and treated surgically, vision usually improves.. ...
A pituitary tumor is an abnormal growth on the pituitary gland, a small pea-sized organ located at the base of the brain behind the bridge of the nose. The pituitary gland produces nine hormones critical to normal body function. While technically not part of the brain, the pituitary glands location and the nature of tumors on the gland present many of the same challenges, risks, and dangers of other primary brain tumors.. Pituitary tumors are the third most common type of primary brain tumor, accounting for 9-12% of all such cases. Tumors arising from the pituitary gland itself are called adenomas or carcinomas. Pituitary adenomas are benign, slow-growing tumors. Carcinomas are a rare malignant form of pituitary adenoma.. ...
The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of incidental pituitary uptake on whole-body F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and to investigate its clinical significance. The files of 40,967 patients who underwent whole-body FDG PET/CT were retrospectively reviewed. Quantification of pituitary metabolic activity was obtained by using the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). Hormone assays and pituitary MRIs were performed to assess pituitary lesions. Focally increased pituitary FDG uptake on PET/CT was found in 30 of 40,967 patients, accounting for an incidence of 0.073%. The mean SUVmax of 30 patients was 8.9 +/- 6.6 (range: 3.2-32.6). Histological diagnosis was obtained in three patients and included two growth hormone-secreting adenomas and one non-functioning adenoma. Hormone assays were performed on serum samples from 11 patients, 2 of whom were shown to have hypersecretion of pituitary hormone. MRI was performed on 19 ...
in Endocrine Reviews (2013). Pituitary adenomas are one of the most frequent intracranial tumors and occur with a prevalence of approximately 1:1000 in the developed world. Pituitary adenomas have a serious disease burden, and their ... [more ▼]. Pituitary adenomas are one of the most frequent intracranial tumors and occur with a prevalence of approximately 1:1000 in the developed world. Pituitary adenomas have a serious disease burden, and their management involves neurosurgery, biological therapies, and radiotherapy. Early diagnosis of pituitary tumors while they are smaller may help increase cure rates. Few genetic predictors of pituitary adenoma development exist. Recent years have seen two separate, complimentary advances in inherited pituitary tumor research. The clinical condition of familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA) has been described, which encompasses the familial occurrence of isolated pituitary adenomas outside of the setting of syndromic conditions like multiple ...
We studied the effects of thyroid hormone (T3) on nuclear protein-DNA interactions by using dimethyl sulfate (DMS) and DNase I ligation-mediated PCR footprinting. We examined an endogenous gene the growth hormone (GH) gene, and a stably transfected plasmid containing the chicken lysozyme silencer (F2) T3 response element (TRE) gene, F2-TRE-TK-CAT, both in pituitary tumor (GC) cells. The 235-1 cell line, which expresses prolactin (PRL) and Pit-1, but not the T3 receptor (TR) or GH, was used as a control. DMS and DNase I footprinting identified protected G residues in the Pit-1, Sp1, and Zn-15 binding sites of the GH gene in GC, but not in 235-1, cells. There was no specific protection of the tripartite GH TRE at -180 bp against either DMS or DNase I in the absence or presence of T3 in either cell line. However, T3 increased protection of the Pit-1 and Sp1 binding sites against DMS in GC cells. In GC cells stably transfected with a plasmid containing F2-TRE-TK-CAT or TRalpha, chloramphenicol ...
Pituitary adenoma (PA) is usually a common benign neuroendocrine tumor; however, the incidence and proportion of hormone-producing PAs in Korean patients remain unknown. slightly more prevalent in women (M: F = 1:1.17) with a mean age of 48.8 yr (9-80 yr). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that prolactin-producing PAs (16.6%) and growth hormone-producing adenomas (9.2%) were the most common functional PAs. Plurihormonal PAs and nonfunctioning (null cell) adenomas were found in 14.9% and 42.4% of patients with PAs, respectively. The recurrence rate of PAs was 11.1%, but nearly 0% for the remaining benign lesions such as RCCs. 25.4% of patients with PAs were treated by gamma-knife after surgery due to residual tumors or regrowth of residual tumor. In conclusion, the pituitary lesions and the proportions of hormone-producing PAs in Korean patients are similar to those of previous reports except nonfunctioning Etizolam (null cell) PAs, which are unusually frequent. Graphical Abstract Keywords: ...
Pituitary tumours occur with increased frequency among patients with CNC.8PRKAR1A, the gene mutated in almost half of the patients with CNC,1,2 codes for the most abundant regulatory subunit of cAMP dependent PKA, a cellular system highly involved in pituitary cell growth and function.13,15,16 In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that LOH or alterations of PRKAR1As sequence are involved in sporadic pituitary tumours, as well as inherited, non-CNC related pituitary tumours. The results of the experiments described here suggested that the RI-α subunit of PKA is not a significant contributor to tumorigenesis in pituitary cells, as shown by infrequent LOH of the PRKAR1A 17q22-24 locus and lack of PRKAR1A mutations in a large international series of pituitary tumours. Although the number of families that was investigated was small, we may also conclude from this study that PRKAR1A mutations are not responsible for a significant number of non-CNC related inherited pituitary lesions. ...
Growth hormone-producing adenoma definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ex Vivo 1 H NMR study of pituitary adenomas to differentiate various immunohistochemical subtypes. AU - Ijare, Omkar B.. AU - Baskin, David S.. AU - Pichumani, Kumar. PY - 2019/2/28. Y1 - 2019/2/28. N2 - Pituitary adenomas (PAs) are benign growths arising from epithelial cells in the adenohypophysis of the pituitary gland. To date, there has been no detailed metabolic characterization of PAs of various subtypes. In this study, we report nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomic analysis of surgically resected tumors from forty five pituitary tumor patients [gonadotropic (LH/FSH-secreting) = 17; prolactinomas (PRL-secreting) = 11, Cushings disease (ACTH-secreting) = 4, non-functional = 5, and mixed = 8] who underwent transsphenoidal selective adenomectomy. Compared to LH/FSH-secreting tumors, PRL-secreting tumors showed statistically significant decrease in the levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), myo-inositol (mI), scyllo-inositol (sI), glycine, taurine, ...
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Pituitary macroadenomas are the most common suprasellar mass in adults, and responsible for the majority of transsphenoidal hypophysectomy. They are defined as pituitary adenomas greater than 10 mm in size and are approximately twice as common as...
1.Pituitary adenomas are benign and slow-growing tumours whose clinical manifestations depend mainly on the secretory activity of the adenomatous cells. Except for prolactinomas, surgical removal of the tumour is the therapy of choice.. 2.Despite extensive research on their clinical and pathophysiological aspects, few studies have explored the oncological characteristics of these rare lesions. Among these, the growth fraction of pituitary adenomas has been determined by different methods, of which the most useful are those performed in archival material.. 3.The results reported in the literature show that adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting tumours seem to be characterized by a higher proliferation index than the other types of pituitary adenomas, despite their usually small tumour size.. 4.In small series of patients radiotherapy and medical treatment with dopaminergic drugs and octreotide were associated with a lower proliferation index than untreated tumours. Tumour size was not correlated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Rapid actions of estrogens in GH3/B6 pituitary tumor cells via a plasma membrane version of estrogen receptor-α. AU - Watson, Cheryl S.. AU - Norfleet, Andrea M.. AU - Pappas, Todd C.. AU - Gametchu, Bahiru. PY - 1999/1/1. Y1 - 1999/1/1. N2 - The focus of our work on rapid actions of estrogens has been on the immuno-identification of a membrane version of the estrogen receptor-α (mERα) and the correlation of the presence of this receptor to the rapid secretion of prolactin in pituitary tumor cells. We demonstrated the mERα by both fluorescence and immuno-enzyme-cytochemistry and with both conventional and confocal microscopy in the cell line GH3/B6 and its sublines. Its presence on cells (including recently subcloned ones) is very heterogenous, unlike the nuclear ERα, which is present in every cell. An impeded ligand (estradiol covalently linked to BSA) binds to mERα and elicits the same response. A total of eight antibodies to ERα recognize mERα, making it likely that ...
All interventions were performed with application of multicomponent anesthesia with tracheal intubation. The Polystar-2 universal rentgenologic C-arm system (Germany) was positioned so that lateral views of the skull and chiasm-sellar region could be taken (Fig.1).. A patient was placed on an operating table, whose head end was elevated about 30o. A surgeon stood on the right at the level of his thorax.. Endolumbar administration of oxygen (20 ml) was carried out before operation in an extrasellar growth for verifying neoplasms upper pole and ensuring optimum safety of intraoperative manipulations (Fig.2).. Infiltration anesthesia (10-15 ml of 0.5% novocain solution) was followed by hydropreparation of soft tissues of the nasal septum on the left. A vertical incision of the mucous membrane was performed in the area of the septum of the left nasal vestibule (1-2 mm backward from a free border of the septum cartilage). The incision ran from the nasal cavity bottom up to a place of junction of the ...
We have previously reported a critical role of HMGA proteins in pituitary tumorigenesis since either the Hmga1 or Hmga2 gene overexpression/activation induces the development of mixed growth hormone/prolactin cell pituitary adenomas by activating the E2F transcription factor 1, and then enhancing the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. Consistently, amplification and overexpression of the HMGA2 gene was found in human pituitary prolactinomas. Since impairment of the cell cycle control represents a feature of experimental and human pituitary adenomas, we have investigated the possible synergism between the alterations of other cell cycle regulators, such as p27 deficiency or Cdk4(R24C) mutation, with Hmga2 overexpression in pituitary tumorigenesis ...
Case Reports in Endocrinology is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes case reports related to the endocrine system and its associated diseases.
Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) expression is a hallmark in tumorigenesis and upregulated due to mutations and methylation of the human (h)TERT promoter. As mutations are rare but methylation is common in pituitary adenomas (PA), we determined promoter methylation and its clinical impact in 85 primary and 15 recurrent PA by methylation-specific PCR. 40 females (47 %) and 45 males (53 %) with a median age of 53 years harboring micro-, macro-, and giant adenomas in 12, 82, and 6 % were included (prolactinomas, corticotroph, somatotroph, gonadotroph, thyreotroph, plurihormonal, and null cell adenomas in 11, 18, 10, 29, 1, 10, and 21 %, respectively). In primary diagnosed tumors, methylation rate was 27 % and higher in males than in females (40 vs. 13 %, p = 0.001) after uni- and multivariate analyses. Methylation differed among PA subtypes (0-42 %, p = n.s.) and was not significantly correlated with tumor size, cavernous sinus invasion, or serum hormone levels. Ki67 labeling index and ...
A link to a list of current clinical trials is included for each treatment section. For some types or stages of cancer, there may not be any trials listed. Check with your doctor for clinical trials that are not listed here but may be right for you.Non-functioning Pituitary TumorsTreatment may include the following: Surgery (transsphenoidal surgery, if possible) to remove the tumor, followed by watchful waiting (closely monitoring a patients condition without giving any treatment until symptoms appear or change). Radiation therapy is given if the tumor comes back.Radiation therapy alone.Treatment for luteinizing hormone -producing and follicle-stimulating hormone -producing tumors is usually transsphenoidal surgery to remove the tumor.Prolactin-Producing Pituitary TumorsTreatment may include the following:Drug therapy to stop the tumor from making prolactin and to stop the tumor from growing.Surgery to remove the tumor (transsphenoidal surgery or craniotomy) when the tumor does
In this study we have shown that molecular analysis can detect changes intrinsic to pituitary tissue derived from patients with ACTH-dependent Cushings disease even where conventional histopathology appears normal. The patients showed all three histological patterns reportedly associated with Cushings disease, namely corticotroph adenoma, corticotroph hyperplasia, and apparently normal pituitary (7 , 8 , 34) . MS-PCR analysis of the p16 gene CpG island showed this to be frequently methylated irrespective of the histological findings.. This particular tumor suppressor gene was chosen because of its known association with pituitary tumorigenesis (reviewed in 12 ) as well as being a regulatory component of the RB1 G1-S cell cycle pathway. Although RB1 knockout mice develop neurointermediate lobe tumors of the corticotroph lineage, RB1 gene mutations are uncommon in human pituitary tumors. However, loss of pRB has been demonstrated frequently in human somatotrophinomas as a consequence of or ...
Pituitary adenoma (PA) is usually a common benign neuroendocrine tumor; however, the incidence and proportion of hormone-producing PAs in Korean patients remain unknown. slightly more prevalent in women (M: F = 1:1.17) with a mean age of 48.8 yr (9-80 yr). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that prolactin-producing PAs (16.6%) and growth hormone-producing adenomas (9.2%) were the most common functional PAs. Plurihormonal PAs and nonfunctioning (null cell) adenomas were found in 14.9% and 42.4% of patients with PAs, respectively. The recurrence rate of PAs was 11.1%, but nearly 0% for the remaining benign lesions such as RCCs. 25.4% of patients with PAs were treated by gamma-knife after surgery due to residual tumors or regrowth of residual tumor. In conclusion, the pituitary lesions and the proportions of hormone-producing PAs in Korean patients are similar to those of previous reports except nonfunctioning Etizolam (null cell) PAs, which are unusually frequent. Graphical Abstract Keywords: ...
The Stanford Pituitary Center provides comprehensive, multidisciplinary, and streamlined care for the evaluation and treatment of pituitary tumors and other neuroendocrine disorders, including: acromegaly, prolactinomas, Cushings syndrome, nonfunctioning pituitary tumors, craniopharygiomas and disorders of the pituitary and hypothalamic region that lead to growth hormone deficiency or adrenal, thyroid, ovarian, or testicular deficiency.. The pituitary and neuroendocrine clinical programs at Stanford bring together knowledge and expertise in clinical research and teaching applications to treatment of neuroendocrine diseases. Our endocrinologists and neurosurgeons collaborate in multidisciplinary management of patients, and are experienced in the most advanced diagnostic strategies and directed medical, neurosurgical or radiation options for patients with pituitary tumors.. Our clinical program is aimed at integration of care in a patient-friendly setting for people with pituitary disorders - not ...
The Stanford Pituitary Center provides comprehensive, multidisciplinary, and streamlined care for the evaluation and treatment of pituitary tumors and other neuroendocrine disorders, including: acromegaly, prolactinomas, Cushings syndrome, nonfunctioning pituitary tumors, craniopharygiomas and disorders of the pituitary and hypothalamic region that lead to growth hormone deficiency or adrenal, thyroid, ovarian, or testicular deficiency.. The pituitary and neuroendocrine clinical programs at Stanford bring together knowledge and expertise in clinical research and teaching applications to treatment of neuroendocrine diseases. Our endocrinologists and neurosurgeons collaborate in multidisciplinary management of patients, and are experienced in the most advanced diagnostic strategies and directed medical, neurosurgical or radiation options for patients with pituitary tumors.. Our clinical program is aimed at integration of care in a patient-friendly setting for people with pituitary disorders - not ...
Pituitary tumors represent from 10% to 25% of all intracranial neoplasms. Depending on the study cited, pituitary tumors can be classified into three groups according to their biological behavior:[1,2] Benign adenoma. Invasive adenoma. Carcinoma. Adenomas comprise the largest portion of pituitary neoplasms with an...
Pituitary tumors are abnormal growths that develop in your pituitary gland. Some pituitary tumors result in too many of the hormones that regulate important functions of your body. Some pituitary tumors can cause your pituitary gland to produce lower levels of hormones.. Most pituitary tumors are noncancerous (benign) growths (adenomas). Adenomas remain in your pituitary gland or surrounding tissues and dont spread to other parts of your body.. There are various options for treating pituitary tumors, including removing the tumor, controlling its growth and managing your hormone levels with medications. Your doctor may recommend observation - or a "wait and see" approach. ...
Molecular pathology of pituitary adenomas by Cristiana Pistol Tanase; 1 edition; First published in 2012; Subjects: Adenoma, Physiopathology, Pituitary Neoplasms, Genetics