Definition of anterior pituitary gland in the Fine Dictionary. Meaning of anterior pituitary gland with illustrations and photos. Pronunciation of anterior pituitary gland and its etymology. Related words - anterior pituitary gland synonyms, antonyms, hypernyms and hyponyms. Example sentences containing anterior pituitary gland
Lipocortin 1 (LC1, also called annexin 1), a Ca2(+)- and phospholipid-binding protein, is an important mediator of glucocorticoid action in the anterior pituitary gland. Previous studies based on immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis suggest that LC1 is found intracellularly both in the cytoplasm and in association with membranes and also on the cell surface where it attaches to the membrane by a Ca2(+)-dependent mechanism. However, as yet it is unclear which anterior pituitary cell types express the protein. Accordingly, we have developed a method based on a combination of fluorescence activated cell (FAC) analysis/sorting and electron microscopy to detect and quantify intracellular LC1 in rat anterior pituitary cells and to identify the cell types in which it is expressed. In addition, we have measured cell surface LC1 and examined the influence of glucocorticoids on the cellular disposition of the protein. Anterior pituitary cells were dispersed with collagenase. For experiments measuring
TY - JOUR. T1 - Age-related changes in the numbers of mammotrophs, somatotrophs and mammosomatotrophs in the anterior pituitary gland of female rats. T2 - A flow cytometric study. AU - Shinkai, Tadashi. AU - Sakurai, Yoko. AU - Ooka, Hiroshi. PY - 1995/9/15. Y1 - 1995/9/15. N2 - Age-related changes in the numbers of mammotrophs, somatotrophs, mammosomatotrophs, and the cells of other types in the anterior pituitary of female Wistar rat were measured by flow cytometry. The mammotrophs increased with age, and the somatotrophs decreased with senescence. The mammosomatotrophs increased remarkably in senescent rats, and these cells of the rats older than 21 months were about 10 times more than those of 3, and 12-13 months old rats. This result indicates that the stability of gene expression in cell differentiation is reduced in the aging process of the anterior pituitary.. AB - Age-related changes in the numbers of mammotrophs, somatotrophs, mammosomatotrophs, and the cells of other types in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Arginine vasopressin is a much more potent stimulus to acth release from ovine anterior pituitary cells than ovine corticotropin-releasing factor. T2 - 1. In vitro studies. AU - Familari, Mlary. AU - Smith, A. Ian. AU - Smith, Robin. AU - Funder, John W.. PY - 1989/1/1. Y1 - 1989/1/1. N2 - Cultured rat and ovine anterior pituitary cells were treated with a range of doses (0.01-1,000 nM) of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and ovine corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), alone or in combination, and medium and cell content of immuno-reactive (ir-)ACTH determined. In rat cells, a dose-response curve to CRF was obtained, with a threshold dose of 0.1 nM\ A VP was much less effective alone, but augmented CRF responses when administered with CRF. In ovine pituitary cells AVP markedly stimulated ACTH release in a dose-dependent fashion, and with a threshold of 0.1 nM\ in contrast, CRF increased ACTH release over basal only at doses , 100 nM. In combination, subthreshold doses of AVP ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stimulation of d2 dopamine receptors decreases intracellular calcium levels in rat anterior pituitary cells but not striatal synaptosomes. T2 - A flow cytometric study using indo‐1. AU - Wolf, Marina E.. AU - Kapatos, Gregory. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - An important question is whether all D2 dopamine (DA) receptors employ the same signal transduction mechanisms. Anterior pituitary cells and striatal synaptosomes, which possess pharmacologically similar D2 DA receptors, were compared with respect to the effect of D2 DA receptor stimulation on free intracellular Ca2+ levels ([Ca2+]i). Flow cytometry, in combination with either the fluorescent calcium indicator indo‐1 or fluorescent voltage‐sensitive dyes, was used to measure [Ca2+]i and to detect changes in membrane potential. In subpopulations of anterior pituitary cells, increases in [Ca2+]i were produced by elevated K+, veratridine, thyrotropin‐releasing hormone, and BAY K 8644. These increases were blocked by ...
Synonyms for adenohypophyseal hormones in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for adenohypophyseal hormones. 2 synonyms for hormone: endocrine, internal secretion. What are synonyms for adenohypophyseal hormones?
In seasonal mammals living in temperate zones, photoperiod regulates prolactin secretion, such that prolactin plasma concentrations peak during the summer months and are lowest during the winter. In sheep, a short-day breeder, circulating prolactin has important modulatory effects on the reproductive system via inhibitory actions on pituitary gonadotrophs and hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone release. The exact cellular mechanisms that account for the chronic hypersecretion of prolactin during the summer is not known, although evidence supports an intrapituitary mechanism regulated by melatonin. Folliculo-stellate (FS) cells are non-endocrine cells that play a crucial role in paracrine communication within the pituitary and produce factors controlling prolactin and gonadotrophin release. The present study examined the morphology of the FS and lactotroph cell populations and their distribution in the sheep pituitary during the annual reproductive cycle. Ovine pituitary glands were collected in
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It has been previously shown that beta-adrenergic agonists stimulate growth hormone (GH) release from perifused rat anterior pituitary cell aggregates cultured in serum-free defined medium for 5-6 days. The present data show that the natural beta-agonist epinephrine (EPI) stimulates GH release through an additional alpha-adrenergic mechanism. The involvement of this mechanism was suggested by the following findings. The intrinsic activity of EPI, at concentrations greater than 10 nM, was significantly higher than that of isoproterenol (ISO) in stimulating GH release. Phenylephrine (PHE), a specific agonist of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors, provoked a significant rise of GH release. The effect was concentration dependent between 100 nM and 10 microM. The stimulatory effect of EPI and PHE was lowered, respectively blocked, by low concentrations of the potent alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin. The EPI-induced GH release could be totally blocked only by administration of both alpha- and ...
Fresh anterior pituitary glands from beef and pig were separated by differential centrifugation into subcellular fractions. Nuclei and debris were obtained at 700 g for 15 minutes, secretory granules at 7000 g for 20 minutes, mitochondria at 34,000 g for 15 minutes, and microsomes at 78,000 g for 3 hours. Electron micrographs were taken of the individual fractions. Each fraction was analyzed for nitrogen, pentosenucleic acid (PNA), and phospholipide. Beef and pig anterior lobes were quite similar in their intracellular composition as seen in the subcellular fractions. Succinic dehydrogenase was localized in mitochondria, while alkaline phosphatase was concentrated in the microsomes. A proteinase with pH optimum at 8.2 was exclusively localized. in microsomal and supernatant fractions. Acid phosphatase, acid ribonuclease, and acid proteinase were distributed among the subcellular fractions in another pattern, indicating the presence of a particle type distinct from mitochondria and microsomes. ...
Human Growth Hormone (HGH) is a hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland in the brain that promotes tissue repairs, cell regeneration in the bones, muscles and vital organs, and generally supports the immune system in combating infections and diseases.. As the bodys cells die off, HGH acts to ensure that replacement cells are healthy and available. Thus, as we age, our HGH levels decline, causing our cell replacement levels to reduce to a fraction of the levels it was in our youth. And by the age of 40, nearly everyone is deficient in HGH, and by 80 years of age, the bodys production of HGH has usually diminished by 95%.. The above claims will make you wonder how some people never seem to lose their youthful vigor, no matter how much they age. ...
Adenohypophyseal hyposecretion information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recent advances in the control and function of the anterior pituitary. AU - Stonesifer, Larry D.. AU - Kohler, Peter O.. PY - 1981/10. Y1 - 1981/10. N2 - Major advances in our understanding of the synthesis and release of anterior pituitary hormones have been made over the past several years. Neurons of the hypothalamus have been found to serve as "neuroendocrine transducers" in that they have both electrical and secretory functions. Peptidergic neurons respond to appropriate stimuli with a release of hypothalamic factors into the hypophyscal-portal system. These factors or hormones ultimately control the endocrine function of anterior pituitary cells. Three hormones, Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRII), Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH or LHRH) and somatostatin have been identified, synthesized and tested for clinical applications. The clinical assessment of pituitary function has been greatly improved by new and improved radioimmunoassays. One of the recent clinical ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Perfusion of the rat anterior pituitary via a cannulated portal vessel.. AU - Porter, J. C.. AU - Mical, R. S.. AU - Ondo, J. G.. AU - Kamberi, I. A.. PY - 1972. Y1 - 1972. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0015258166&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0015258166&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 4536844. AN - SCOPUS:0015258166. VL - 158. SP - 249. EP - 269. JO - European Journal of Endocrinology. JF - European Journal of Endocrinology. SN - 0804-4643. ER - ...
The integrated functions of the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary gland, and ovaries serve to regulate normal female reproductive function. The hypothalamus secretes Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH), a peptide hormone, in a pulsatile manner. GnRH stimulates the anterior pituitary gland via binding to specific, high-affinity receptors on the plasma membrane of gonadotrophs. GnRH binding initiates a cascade of intracellular events resulting in synthesis and secretion of the gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and also synthesis and insertion of its own receptors into the plasma membrane. When gonadotropins are released into circulation, they exert their primary biological effects at the gonads. Ovarian hormones, progesterone, inhibin, and estradiol, feedback effects at both the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Progesterone reduces the pulse frequency and amplitude of GnRH being released from the hypothalamus, thus, decreasing gonadotropin secretion. It is
The relationship between prolactin (PRL) and the immune system has been demonstrated in the last two decades and has opened new windows in the field of immunoendocrinology. individuals and 12.1% of the control subjects presented HPRL (= .740). Assessment between the pAPS individuals with hyper- and normoprolactinemia exposed no significant variations related to anthropometrics, medical manifestations, medications, smoking, and antiphospholipid antibodies (> .05). This study showed that HPRL does not seem to play a role in medical manifestations of the pAPS, from other autoimmune rheumatic diseases differently. 1. Launch Prolactin (PRL) is normally a peptide hormone secreted in the anterior pituitary gland and governed by tonic inhibition from the hypothalamus via dopamine [1]. It Flavopiridol really is secreted not merely with the anterior pituitary gland, but by many extrapituitary sites also, including immune system cells [2]. Pituitary secretion of PRL is normally Flavopiridol activated by ...
After research its been found, CB1 receptor clusters are present in the hypothalamic pituitary access and have been shown to act as an inhibitory. This in turn altering production of hormones, which in turn can affect a womens hormone cycles. This is something that we believe to not be of risk, but important for the population to be aware of.. You can read more from select abstracts below:. Immunocytochemical demonstration of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Both exogenous and endogenous cannabinoids can influence hormone secretion from the anterior pituitary gland. A large body of information proves that the primary target of these effects is the neuroendocrine hypothalamus. However, recent studies using cannabinoid (CB) receptor autoradiography, messenger RNA in-situ hybridization and in-vitro analysis, indicate direct effects of cannabinoids at the level of the anterior pituitary gland itself. In the present paper, the immunocytochemical distribution of ...
The molecular basis for the little (lit) mouse phenotype, characterized by a hypoplastic anterior pituitary gland, is the mutation of a single nucleotide that alters Asp 60 to Gly in the growth hormone releasing factor receptor. Detailed analysis of the lit mouse anterior pituitary reveals spatially …
Although physiological and anatomical evidence had clearly indicated for many years that the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones is under control by the central nervous system, it is only recently that the isolation and determination of structure of three hypo- thalamic hypophysiotropic hormones have been accomplished. This has brought the concept of neurohormonal control of adenohypophyseal function into precise biochemical and chemical terms. The relative ease of synthesis of TRH (thyrotropin-releasing hormone), LH-RH (luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone), somatostatin and their analogues has opened a new era in the field of endocri- nology and has led to a rapid expansion of our knowl- ge of the control of anterior pituitary function. The rapid evolution of fundamental and clinical research on hypothalamic hormones and the many potential clinical applications indicate the importance of inte- grating the knowledge gained in recent years. This is well illustrated in the Proceedings of the
A novel neuropeptide which stimulates adenylate cyclase in rat anterior pituitary cell cultures was isolated from ovine hypothalamic tissues. Its amino acid sequence was revealed as: His-Ser-Asp-Gly-Ile-Phe-Thr-Asp-Ser-Tyr-Ser-Arg-Tyr-Arg-Lys-Gln- Met-Ala- Val-Lys-Lys-Tyr-Leu-Ala-Ala-Val-Leu-Gly-Lys …
The aging in men is accompanied by an increase in the presence of connective tissue in all the organs and tissues, and with increase of corticotrophs and folliculostellate cells in adenohypophysis, which can affect the function of the HPA axis in healthy elderly individuals. Objective of the research was to perform quantification of structural changes during aging (cellularity, presence of the connective tissue and blood flow), collagen type IV, corticotrophs and folliculostellate cells on the pituitary tissue, obtained at autopsy, using histochemical, immunohistochemical and morphometric methods. Histochemical part of the research showed an increase of the cell size that occured during normal aging in the adenohypophysis. The analyzed cells of the adenohypophysis were significantly larger and, at the same time, they were characterized by a substantially more regular shape in female in comparison to the male patients cases. Differences in the cellular composition of the pituitary ...
As shown in the above figure, the thyroid gland is located in the front of the neck. Its follicles contain thyroglobulin, which contains tyrosine amino acids. Reception of TSH from the anterior pituitary gland causes active receptors on the follicle cells to transport I- (iodide) ions into the cell, where they are oxidized to I2. After peroxydase enzymes link them to tyrosine, the products finally form two hormones, triiodothyronine (T3), containing three iodines, and thyroxine (T4), containing four.[ref]The explanation of this process given here is greatly simplified.[/ref]. In a later step, low levels of T3 and T4 in the blood are detected by the hypothalamus, which releases TRH into the anterior pituitary gland, triggering it to release more TSH which in turn signals the thyroid gland to release its hormones into the blood stream. The same system allows the hypothalamus to stop TRH release, thus leading the thyroid to cease emission of its hormones. This feedback mechanism is shown in the ...
The research involved 31 men between 18 and 35 who have been requested to consider 600mg (around three tablets) of ibuprofen every single day for six days. Other volunteers received a placebo, serving as a control group to check the outcomes. In the finish from the study period, both groups were tested to evaluate the outcome ibuprofen had on every participant.. They figured that in only two days, participants had increases in LH hormone. This result signifies that ibuprofen causes issues with certain cells within the testicles and subsequently prevents testosterone levels and sperm cells.. This transformation in biological hormone production seemed to be seen to modify the anterior pituitary gland, a pea-sized structure found at the bottom of the mind that plays an important role in producing critical hormones that control various bodily processes. The anterior pituitary gland paid for decreases in testosterone by producing much more of another hormone.. Overall, while participants on ibuprofen ...
The effect of somatostatin on GH-releasing factor (GRF)-induced desensitization of somatotrophs was studied in vitro. Primary cultures of rat anterior pituitary cells pretreated for 4 or 18 h with GRF(1-40) (100 nmol/l) showed a 50% or greater reduction in maximal GH release when rechallenged with 10 nmol GRF/l. Rechallenge GRF dose-response curves were either very flat, making accurate measurement of the dose giving 50% maximum stimulation (ED50) impossible, or the ED50 concentration was increased from 0·3 nmol/l (untreated) to 2 nmol/l (GRF pretreated). Although GRF pretreatment reduced cellular GH content by 40-50%, correction for this did not restore GRF responsiveness measured in terms of maximal GRF-stimulated/unstimulated GH release (maximal/basal ratio), or the GRF ED50 concentration. Maximal/basal GH release per 4 h from GRF-pretreated cells was reduced when cells were rechallenged with forskolin (5 μmol/l) or calcium ionophore (A23187; 10 μmol/l), to the same extent as when ...
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Colour enhanced transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of a hormone-secreting cell from pituitary gland. Magnification: x9,500 @ 5.5 x 6.5 inches. - Stock Image C022/1313
Prolactin is a polypeptide hormone that is synthesized in and secreted from the lactotrophs of the anterior pituitary gland. We are now aware that synthesis and secretion of prolactin is not restricted to the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, but other organs and individual cells can also produce it. This book provides the headlines to follow a course of cumulated knowledge on prolactin research during the last two-three decades and it may also help us understand some of the concerns that we face today.... ...
Stem cells of the primordium of the anterior pituitary, the Rathkes Pouch, give rise to all of the hormone-producing cell types in this tissue. During adulthood, when the organ reaches homeostasis, there is a requirement to replenish hormone-producing cells and to expand the populations depending on hormonal demand e.g. during pregnancy. We have shown that stem cells, expressing the transcription factor SOX2, are capable of generating new cells throughout life. The mechanisms that regulate the size of the stem cell pool and instruct proliferation and commitment are poorly understood. We are studying the signaling mechanisms controlling these processes in the mouse. ...
Abarelix is a synthetic decapeptide and antagonist of naturally occurring gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Abarelix directly and competitively binds to and blocks the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor in the anterior pituitary gland, thereby inhibiting the secretion and release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). In males, the inhibition of LH secretion prevents the release of testosterone. As a result, this may relieve symptoms associated with prostate hypertrophy or prostate cancer, since testosterone is required to sustain prostate growth.
Looking for a-HCG? Find out information about a-HCG. : see gonadotropic hormone gonadotropic hormone or gonadotropin, any one of three glycoprotein hormones released by either the anterior pituitary gland or... Explanation of a-HCG
Also known as gonadotrophins. Released by the anterior pituitary gland in response to GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone) from the hypothalamus. Lutei...
Sustanon-Deca.com HGH 22,5 IU - Caretropin 22,5 IU [4X Caretropin HGH 22,5 IU Liquid] - Caretropin, also commonly referred to as human growth hormone (HGH), is a hormone that is produced in the human body and excreted into the blood by the somatotrope cells of the anterior pituitary gland. It is a single-chain protein that is composed of 191 amino acids with a molecular weight
Sustanon-Deca.com HGH 4 IU - Somagena 4IU [5X SOMAGENA HGH 4IU Asia Pharma] - Somagena, also commonly referred to as human growth hormone (HGH), is a hormone that is produced in the human body and excreted into the blood by the somatotrope cells of the anterior pituitary gland. It is a single-chain protein that is composed of 191 amino acids with a molecular weight
Growth Hormone (GH) is considered the master hormone, because it is released by the master gland - the anterior pituitary gland. GH is not necessary or critical to ones survival, but it does play an important role in human development. During puberty, GH levels determine a persons height and bone size. After puberty,
There is an ongoing debate as to the effectiveness of Sytropin. However, some recent studies (and people reviews) have shown that Sytropin is effective, offering virtually the same level of benefits one would derive from costly HGH injections. Sytropin is a specialized blend of homeopathic HGH, growth factors, and potent amino acid releasers. It is designed to stimulate greater production of human growth hormone by the anterior pituitary gland in the brain and all Sytropin ingredients comply fully with the FDAs. It is 100% legal. It is better because combine homeopathic HGH with proven growth factors and potent amino acid releasers maximize the effectiveness of each dose. Sytropin contains the most effective combination of ingredients vs. any other HGH product. This was concluded through comparisons of other supplements and cross-referencing that information with the known effectiveness of each individual herbal ingredient ...
jordin sparks There is no doubting the benefits that human growth hormone nutritional supplements can provide, but with a number of items available to order, which HGH releaser is most effective. HGH is effortlessly produced inside brain from the anterior pituitary gland, however the ranges established decreases with age. The...
On the sixth human chromosome, there is a gene that codes for the glycoprotein leuteinizing hormone (LH), produced by the brains anterior pituitary gland. LH is less known for the role it plays in male testosterone production, and more on the minds of women who are trying to conceive. Its concentration peaks like a sole…
Theres no doubting the benefits that human progress hormone dietary supplements can offer, but with quite a few merchandise accessible to purchase, which HGH releaser is greatest HGH is by natural means produced inside brain by the anterior pituitary gland, but the levels produced decreases with age. The purpose of...
Physiology Test Question - Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is produced and released by these cells of the anterior pituitary gland:
A.Series of rhythmic reproductive cycle From the onset of menstrual bleeding to the next period Characterized by changes in the ovaries and uterus Influenced by normal hormonal variation mediated by hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland via feedback mechanism Recurring cyclically beginning at puberty with first menstruation called the MENARCHE and ceasing at MENOPAUSE Mean cycle…
Kochman K, Blitek A, Kaczmarek M, Gajewska A, Siawrys G, Counis R, Ziecik A. Different signaling in pig anterior pituitary cells by GnRH and its complexes with copper and nickel. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2005 Aug; 26(4): 377-382 ...
Much time and effort have been spent in the study of the probably complex interrelationship existing between the anterior pituitary and the pancreatic islets in their regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. Many points are still obscure. However, there is evidence for an over-all antagonistic action between the hypophysis and the islets of Langerhans which is well supported by the following data.. Hypophysectomy results in a marked improvement in the diabetic state of depancreatized animals,1, 2 and permanent diabetes can be induced by injecting extracts from the anterior pituitary.3, 4, 5, 6, 7 These facts indicate that a diabetogenic principle is formed ...
Principal Investigator:MORISHIGE Kenichiro, Project Period (FY):1997 - 1998, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Obstetrics and gynecology
Secretary growth hormone with exclusively owned patent of protein stabilizer Growth hormone (GH) is a kind of peptide hormone secreted by anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis), the weight of human pituitary is about 0.5 g and the content of GH is extremely
Looking for online definition of adenohypophyseal hormones in the Medical Dictionary? adenohypophyseal hormones explanation free. What is adenohypophyseal hormones? Meaning of adenohypophyseal hormones medical term. What does adenohypophyseal hormones mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Luteinizing hormone secretion from wild-type and progesterone receptor knockout mouse anterior pituitary cells. AU - Turgeon, Judith L. AU - Waring, Dennis W.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - The progesterone receptor (PR) has a central role in the hypothalamo-pituitary events culminating in the preovulatory LH surge, and mice with genetically ablated PR provide a model for dissecting cellular pathways subserving this role. The aims of this study were to determine 1) whether the GnRH self-priming response and acute progesterone augmentation of secretagogue-stimulated LH secretion are present in cultured wild-type (WT) mouse pituitary cells, and 2) whether the PR is essential for self-priming by comparing the responses in PR knockout (PRKO) cells. Pituitary cells from ovariectomized WT or PRKO mice cultured ± 17β-estradiol (E2) for 3 days were challenged with hourly pulses of 1 nM GnRH or 54 mM K+. A background of E2 had no effect on the initial LH secretory response for either WT or ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ionic currents in two strains of rat anterior pituitary tumor cells. AU - Dubinsky, Janet M.. AU - Oxford, Gerry S.. PY - 1984/3/1. Y1 - 1984/3/1. N2 - The ionic conductance mechanisms underlying action potential behavior in GH3 and GH4/C1 rat pituitary tumor cell lines were identified and characterized using a patch electrode voltage-clamp technique. Voltage-dependent sodium, calcium, and potassium currents and calcium-activated potassium currents were present in the GH3 cells, GH4/C1 cells possess much less sodium current, less voltage-dependent potassium current, and comparable amounts of calcium current. Voltage-dependent inward sodium current activated and inactivated rapidly and was blocked by tetrodotoxin. A slower-activating voltage-dependent inward calcium current was blocked by cobalt, manganese, nickel, zinc, or cadium. Barium was substituted for calcium as the inward current carrier. Calcium tail currents decay with two exponential components. The rate constant for ...
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