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The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
InCHi String: canonical and isomeric SMILES: C(CC(C(=O)O)N)CC(C(=O)O)N. PUBCHEM iupac NAME: PUBCHEM iupac OPENEYE NAME: PUBCHEM iupac CAS NAME: PUBCHEM iupac SYSTEMATIC NAME ...
Biotin is an essential vitamin in plants and mammals, functioning as the carbon dioxide carrier within central lipid metabolism. Bacterial pimeloyl-CoA synthetase (BioW) acts as a highly specific substrate-selection gate, ensuring the integrity of the carbon chain in biotin synthesis. BioW catalyzes the condensation of pimelic acid (C7 dicarboxylic acid) with CoASH in an ATP-dependent manner to form pimeloyl-CoA, the first dedicated biotin building block. Multiple structures of Bacillus subtilis BioW together capture all three substrates, as well as the intermediate pimeloyl-adenylate and product pyrophosphate (PPi), indicating that the enzyme uses an internal ruler to select the correct dicarboxylic acid substrate. Both the catalytic mechanism and the surprising stability of the adenylate intermediate were rationalized through site-directed mutagenesis. Building on this understanding, BioW was engineered to synthesize high-value heptanoyl (C7) and octanoyl (C8) monocarboxylic acid-CoA and C8 ...
Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are N-succinyl-LL-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate and H2O, whereas its two products are succinate and LL-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate. This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, those acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds, specifically in linear amides. The systematic name of this enzyme class is N-succinyl-LL-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate amidohydrolase. This enzyme is also called N-succinyl-L-alpha,epsilon-diaminopimelic acid deacylase. This enzyme participates in lysine biosynthesis. ...
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by GAA repeat expansion within the FXN gene, leading to epigenetic changes and heterochromatin-mediated gene silencing that result in a frataxin protein deficit. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, including pimelic o-aminobenzamide compounds 106, 109 and 136, have previously been shown to reverse FXN gene silencing in short-term studies of FRDA patient cells and a knock-in mouse model, but the functional consequences of such therapeutic intervention have thus far not been described.. Prolonged treatment with pimelic o-aminobenzamide HDAC inhibitors ameliorates the disease phenotype of a Friedreich ataxia mouse model. ...
Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by GAA repeat expansion within the FXN gene, leading to epigenetic changes and heterochromatin-mediated gene silencing that result in a frataxin protein deficit. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, including pimelic o-aminobenzamide compounds 106, 109 and 136, have previously been shown to reverse FXN gene silencing in short-term studies of FRDA patient cells and a knock-in mouse model, but the functional consequences of such therapeutic intervention have thus far not been described. We have now investigated the long-term therapeutic effects of 106, 109 and 136 in our GAA repeat expansion mutation-containing YG8R FRDA mouse model. We show that there is no overt toxicity up to 5 months of treatment and there is amelioration of the FRDA-like disease phenotype. Thus, while the neurological deficits of this model are mild, 109 and 106 both produced an improvement of motor coordination, whereas 109 and 136 produced ...
Corn oil (CO) and Sterculic foetida oil (SFO) fed rats were injected with [9, 10-methylene-¹⁴C]sterculic acid. Less than 1% of the label was expired as carbon dioxide. The majority of the label was excreted in the urine as short-chain dicarboxylic acids with an intact cyclopropane ring. The major metabolites for both CO and SFO fed rats were cis-3, 4-methylene adipic acid and cis-3, 4- methylene suberic acid. Sterculic acid must undergo β- and [Greek w]-oxidation to form these urinary metabolites, α-oxidation played a minor role in the formation of cis- and trans-3, 4-methylene pimelic acid. Rats on the SFO diet could metabolize sterculic acid faster than fats on the CO diet. However, both CO and SFO fed rats produced the same urinary metabolites. CO fed rats incorporated more label from sterculic acid into protein and acid soluble liver fractions than SFO fed rats. Less than 0.01% of the label from either group was found in liver lipid sterol or glycerol fractions. There was a tendency for ...
The focus of this thesis was to evaluate the impact of mechanical activation (milling and dry mixing) and spray drying on the crystallinity of selected active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and to explore the feasibility of co-processing these drugs with low glass transition temperature (Tg) excipients as a strategy for preventing process induced amorphisation. Co-milling investigations were initially performed on sulfadimidine and salbutamol sulphate. Based on the data obtained for these two APIs, further analysis was conducted on budesonide to see if results could be generalised to other compounds. Co-spray drying experiments were performed with sulfadimidine as API. The excipients chosen were dicarboxylic acids (glutaric, adipic, succinic, pimelic and malic acid) and sugar alcohols (mannitol and xylitol ...
Biotin synthesis in Escherichia coli requires the functions of the bioH and bioC genes to synthesize the precursor pimelate moiety by use of a modified fatty acid biosynthesis pathway. However, it was previously noted that bioH has been replaced with bioG or bioK within the biotin synthetic gene clusters of other bacteria. We report that each of four BioG proteins from diverse bacteria and two cyanobacterial BioK proteins functionally replace E. coli BioH in vivo. Moreover, purified BioG proteins have esterase activity against pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester, the physiological substrate of BioH. Two of the BioG proteins block biotin synthesis when highly expressed and these toxic proteins were shown to have more promiscuous substrate specificities than the non-toxic BioG proteins. A postulated BioG-BioC fusion protein was shown to functionally replace both the BioH and BioC functions of E. coli. Although the BioH, BioG and BioK esterases catalyze a common reaction, the proteins are evolutionarily distinct.
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GenBank) UDP-N-acetylmuramoylalanyl-D-glutamate-2,6-diaminopimelate ligase (UDP-N-acetylmuramyl-tripeptide synthetase; meso-diaminopimelate-adding enzyme; UDP-MurNAc-tripeptide synthetase ...
https://cactus.nci.nih.gov/chemical/structure/N%[email protected]@H%5D(CCC%[email protected]%5D(N)C(O)... OpenBabel09142113213D Jmol version 14.31.45 2021-07-21 05:08 EXTRACT: ({0:26}) 27 26 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0999 V2000 2.5788 1.2169 1.3071 N 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.4982 -0.0372 0.5466 C 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.4420 -0.8783 1.2375 H 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.2491 -0.0186 -0.3369 C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -0.0000 -0.0000 0.5466 C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1.2491 0.0186 -0.3369 C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -2.4982 0.0372 0.5466 C 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -2.4420 0.8783 1.2375 H 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -2.5788 -1.2169 1.3071 N 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -3.7236 0.1793 -0.3193 C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -4.0779 1.3862 -0.7879 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -4.3870 -0.7931 -0.5915 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.7236 -0.1793 -0.3193 C 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.0779 -1.3862 -0.7879 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.3870 0.7931 -0.5915 O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.3597 1.2029 1.9458 H 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.6319 2.0122 0.6884 H 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ...
Biotin (vitamin H or vitamin B7) is the essential cofactor of biotin-dependent carboxylases, such as pyruvate carboxylase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Mammals cannot synthesize biotin, while in bacteria, fungi, and plants it is synthesized from pimelate thioester through different pathways. In E. coli and many organisms, pimelate thioester is derived from malonyl-ACP. The pathway starts with the methylation to malonyl-ACP methyl ester, followed by the fatty acid chain elongation cycle to form pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester, which is then demethylated to form pimeloyl-ACP [MD:M00572]. Pimeloyl-ACP is converted to biotin through the final four steps in the biotin bicyclic ring assembly, which are conserved among biotin-producing organisms [MD:M00123]. In B. subtilis, biotin is derived from pimeloyl-ACP formed by oxidative cleavage of long-chain acyl-ACPs [MD:M00573]. Some bacteria synthesize biotin from pimeloyl-CoA derived from pimelate [MD:M00577]. Biotin is covalently attached to biotin-dependent ...
A Moraxella sp. strain VG45 capable of utilizing o-phthalate and salicylate as a sole source of carbon and energy was isolated… Expand ...
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Cofactors, Vitamins, Prosthetic Groups, Pigments,Biotin,Biotin biosynthesis,Adenosylmethionine-8-amino-7-oxononanoate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.62 ...
The understanding of immunological interactions among the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes and their epidemiological implications is often hampered by the lack of individuallevel infection history. Using a statistical framework that infers full infection history, we analyze a prospective pediatric cohort in Nicaragua to characterize how infection history modulates the risks of DENV infection and subsequent clinical disease. After controlling for age, one prior infection is associated with 54% lower, while two or more are associated with 91% higher, risk of a new infection, compared to DENV-naive children. Children ,8 years old have 55% and 120% higher risks of infection and subsequent disease, respectively, than their younger peers. Among children with ≥1 prior infection, intermediate antibody titers increase, whereas high titers lower, the risk of subsequent infection, compared with undetectable titers. Such complex dependency needs to be considered in the design of dengue vaccines and ...
Summary: The effect of different β-lactam antibiotics on the growth and morphology of Myxococcus xanthus has been examined. Exposure to penicillin and cephalexin resulted in spheroplast and filament formation, respectively. Mecillinam appeared to inhibit cell elongation and caused the formation of bent cells with central bulges. Myxospore formation was inhibited by cephalexin but not by mecillinam, although myxospores formed in the presence of mecillinam showed defects after germination. Germination of myxospores involves substantial cell-wall turnover as measured by uptake and loss of meso-diamino[14C]pimelic acid. Although turnover was observed when myxospores were germinated in the presence of mecillinam, the bacteria remained as spheres. Growth of these germinated myxospores following removal of mecillinam indicated that wall material laid down during the early stages of germination is stable and a rod shape could be re-established only by bipolar growth of new wall.
0036]As the dicarboxylic acid usable in the present invention is exemplified in the form of dicarboxylic acid, it can be exemplified by aliphatic dicarboxylic acids such as oxalic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid, glutaric acid, adipic acid, pimelic acid, suberic acid, azelaic acid, and sebacic acid; and aromatic dicarboxylic acids such as phthalic acid, isophthalic acid, terephthalic acid, 3,3-dicarboxyldiphenyl ether, 3,4-dicarboxyldiphenyl ether, 4,4-dicarboxyldiphenyl ether, 3,3-dicarboxyldiphenylmethane, 3,4-dicarboxyldiphenylmethane, 4,4-dicarboxyldiphenylmethane, 3,3-dicarboxyldiphenyldifluoromethane, 3,3-dicarboxyldiphenyldifluoromethane, 3,4-dicarboxyldiphenyldifluoromethane, 4,4-dicarboxyldiphenyldifluoromethane, 3,3-dicarboxyldiphenyl sulfone, 3,4-dicarboxyldiphenyl sulfone, 4,4-dicarboxyldiphenyl sulfone, 3,3-dicarboxyldiphenyl sulfide, 3,4-dicarboxyldiphenyl sulfide, 4,4-dicarboxyldiphenyl sulfide, 3,3-dicarboxyldiphenyl ketone, 3,4-dicarboxyldiphenyl ketone, ...
The four last steps of biotin biosynthesis, starting from pimeloyl-CoA, are conserved among all the biotin-producing microorganisms. Two enzymes of this pathway, the 8-amino-7-oxononanoate synthase (AONS) and the 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid aminotransferase (DAPA AT) are dependent on pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP). This review summarizes our current understanding of the structure, reaction mechanism ...
Doripik is an ultra-broad spectrum injectable antibiotic. It is a beta-lactam and belongs to the subgroup of carbapenems. It is particularly active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Primarily, doripenem decreases the process of cell wall growth, which eventually leads to elimination of the infectious cell bacteria altogether. ...
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Sigma-Aldrich offers Aldrich-392642, meso-2,3-Dibromobutane for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
Fluorescent dyes with free amino groups, for the coupling with various electrophilic compounds like activated esters and epoxides ...
Sedimentological, palynological, and micropalaeontological studies carried out throughout the first half of the Holocene, during the Mesolithic/Neolithic transition in the Bay of Brest (i.e. 9200-9000...
Recently, the overproduction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis diaminopimelic acid (DAP) epimerase MtDapF in Escherichia coli using a novel codon alteration cloning strategy and the characterization of the purified enzyme was reported. In the present study, the effect of sulphydryl alkylating agents on the in vitro activity of M. tuberculosis DapF was tested. The complete inhibition of the enzyme by 2-nitro-5-thiocyanatobenzoate, 5,5-dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) and 1,2-benzisothiazolidine-3-one at nanomolar concentrations suggested that these sulphydryl alkylating agents modify functionally significant cysteine residues at or near the active site of the epimerase. Consequently, the authors extended the characterization of MtDapF by studying the role of the two strictly conserved cysteine residues. The putative catalytic residues Cys87 and Cys226 of MtDapF were replaced individually with both serine and alanine. Residual epimerase activity was detected for both the serine replacement mutants ...
A wall-plus-membrane preparation from a Bacillus licheniformis mutant incorporated radioactivity from a peptidoglycan precursor in which the free amino group of diaminopimelic acid was blocked by 14C-labelled acetyl group. This incorporation was penicillin-sensitive. The enzymically degraded product contained cross-linked dimers, showing that newly synthesized peptidoglycan chains had been cross-linked to the pre-existing cell wall.. ...
Citation: N/A Interpretive Summary: Uncontrollable softening of fresh fruits and vegetables contribute significantly to the loss of quality and product. The cost of loss is estimated to be greater than $5 billion annually. Biochemical studies are providing knowledge on key enzymes involved in the ripening processes, so progress is being made in identifying possible genes that can be manipulated to control softening. Biochemical studies are not able to identify changes in specific sites of cell wall, thus ultrastructural analysis was undertaken to better understand the biochemistry of these sites. This research on the ultrastructural analysis provided information on possible biochemical composition of complex areas that connect cell walls of adjacent cells. This information will be useful to scientists in better interpretating biochemical findings of cell wall composition during fruit development and ripening. As more information becomes available on biochemical changes during ripening, key ...
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This work presents the synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of novel methoxy and hydroxy derivates of amidino substituted benzimidazoles and benzamides. Novel compounds were prepared by classical reactions of organic chemistry. Hydroxy derivates of amidino substituted benzimidazoles 13-18 were prepared by the condensation reaction from 4-amidino substituted 1,2-phenylenediamine hydrochlorides 8 and 9 with aromatic aldehydes. In the condensation of corresponding methoxy substituted benzoyl-chlorides 19-21 with p-cyanoaniline methoxy substituted N-(4-cyanophenyl)benzamides 26-28 were prepared. Hydroxy substituted benzamide derivates 29-31 were prepared removing methoxy protection groups using reagents BCl3 and BBr3. Amidino substituted benzamide derivates 33-36 were prepared in the acidic Pinner reaction from the corresponding cyano substituted benzamides 29-30. The Pinner reaction was monitored with IR spectroscopy while the structures of all newly prepared compounds were confirmed by ...
Information for Muramic acid 1114-41-6 including Muramic acid CAS NO 1114-41-6, Muramic acid Suppliers, Muramic acid Manufacturers, related products of Muramic acid.
Within the past 18 months work has continued on the structure and mechanisms of enzymes involved in the diaminopimelic acid/lysine biosynthetic pathway. A novel structure has been determined for a PLP-independent epimerase, and structures with bound substrates have been solved for two other enzymes. …
The peptidoglycan sacculus, or cell wall, is what defines bacterial cell shape. Cell wall composition can be best characterized at the molecular level by digesting the peptidoglycan murein polymer into its muropeptide subunits and quantifying the abundance of muropeptides using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Certain features of the cell wall including muropeptide composition, glycan strand length, degree of crosslinking, type of crosslinking and other peptidoglycan modifications can be quantified using this approach. Well-established protocols provide us with highly-resolved and quantitatively reproducible chromatographic data, which can be used to investigate bacterial cell wall composition under a variety of environmental or genetic perturbations. The method described here enables the purification of muropeptide samples, their quantification by HPLC, and fraction collection for peak identification by mass spectrometry. Although the methods for peptidoglycan purification and HPLC analysis have
Meso*blast (?), n. [Meso- + -blast.] Biology|Biol. (a) The mesoderm. (b) The cell nucleus; mesoplast.   © Webste...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Maize Stover and Cob Cell Wall Composition and Ethanol Potential as Affected by Nitrogen Fertilization. AU - Sindelar, Aaron J.. AU - Sheaffer, Craig C.. AU - Lamb, John A.. AU - Jung, Hans Joachim G. AU - Rosen, Carl J.. PY - 2015/9/8. Y1 - 2015/9/8. N2 - Maize (Zea mays L.) stover and cobs are potential feedstock sources for cellulosic ethanol production. Nitrogen (N) fertilization is an important management decision that influences cellulosic biomass and grain production, but its effect on cell wall composition and subsequent cellulosic ethanol production is not known. The objectives of this study were to quantify the responses of maize stover (leaves, stalks, husks, and tassel) and cob cell wall composition and theoretical ethanol yield potential to N fertilization across a range of sites. Field experiments were conducted at rainfed and irrigated sites in Minnesota, USA, over a 2-year period. Stover cell wall polysaccharides, pentose sugar concentration, and theoretical ...
Tsai, A. Y.-L., Canam, T., Gorzsás, A., Mellerowicz, E. J., Campbell, M. M. and Master, E. R. (2012), Constitutive expression of a fungal glucuronoyl esterase in Arabidopsis reveals altered cell wall composition and structure. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 10: 1077-1087. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7652.2012.00735.x ...
The same tendency that causes soap bubbles to achieve a minimum surface area for the volume enclosed seems to account for many of the features of growth and division of bacteria, including both bacilli and cocci. It is only necessary to assume that growth takes place in zones and that only in these zones does the tension caused by hydrostatic pressure create the strain that forces the cell to increase the wall area. The stress developed by osmotic pressure creates strains that significantly lower the free energy of bond splitting by hydrolysis or transfer. We believe this is sufficient to make growing wall have some of the properties ordinarily associated with surface tension. The feature common to all bacterial cell wall growth is that peptidoglycan is inserted under strain-free conditions. Only after the covalent links have been formed are the intervening stressed peptide bonds cleaved so that the new unit supports the stress due to hydrostatic pressure. The present paper analyses the growth of
GT:ID BAD56666.1 GT:GENE bioD GT:PRODUCT putative dethiobiotin synthetase GT:DATABASE GIB00210CH01 GT:ORG nfar0 GB:ACCESSION GIB00210CH01 GB:LOCATION 1987153..1987884 GB:FROM 1987153 GB:TO 1987884 GB:DIRECTION + GB:GENE bioD GB:PRODUCT putative dethiobiotin synthetase GB:PROTEIN_ID BAD56666.1 LENGTH 243 SQ:AASEQ MNTLLVTGTSTDVGKTVVTAALTALARAEALPVAVCKPAQTGVAPGEPGDLAEVRRLAGPVPTLELARYPEPLAPDTAARRCGAPLLTLDETATAVRGLDAELTVVEGAGGLLVRIGEFTLLDLARELDAPVLVVAAAGLGTLNHTELTIRALDAAGVRCAGVVIGAWPAEPDLASVCNREDLPRLTGVPIVGAVPAGVGAWDHDRFTAAVPGWFAPGWSPRLPFNSDSPPSTWGFDTSQSGT GT:EXON 1,1-243:0, SW:ID BIOD_NOCFA SW:DE RecName: Full=Dethiobiotin synthetase; EC=6.3.3.3;AltName: Full=Dethiobiotin synthase;AltName: Full=DTB synthetase; Short=DTBS; SW:GN Name=bioD; OrderedLocusNames=NFA_18200; SW:KW ATP-binding; Biotin biosynthesis; Complete proteome; Ligase;Magnesium; Nucleotide-binding. SW:EXACT T SW:FUNC + BL:SWS:NREP 1 BL:SWS:REP 1-,243,BIOD_NOCFA,e-114,100.0,243/243, GO:SWS:NREP 4 GO:SWS GO:0005524,GO:ATP ...
Bacterial Lifestyles - Choices and Weaponry. Bacteria communicate with each other and behave as either individuals and act as multi-cell and/or multi-species communities. Through signalling molecules, they can also cross-talk with eukaryotic hosts. Bacteria deploy a whole armoury of devices within these processes, ranging from modulation of gene expression and their cell wall composition to production of specialized nano-machines to combat predators and competitors and deliver virulence factors into host-cells. Our research includes elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms within these processes which are important for both human and environmental health.. Gemma Atkinson: Functional evolution of (p)ppGpp-synthesising/hydrolysing stress response proteins and ABCF translation and antibiotic resistance factors. Felipe Cava: Bacterial cell wall composition and its contribution to long-standing and emerging infectious diseases. Åke Forsberg: Molecular mechanism of Type III secretion ...
The peptidoglycan layer is a unique and essential structural element in the cell wall of most bacteria (Peptidoglycan structure and architecture. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 08 Jan 2008). Made of glycan strands cross-linked by short peptides, the so-called peptidoglycan sacculus forms a closed, bag-shaped structure surrounding the cytoplasmic membrane. Peptidoglycan sacculi have the strength to withstand…
in Chemistry and Physics of Lipids (2002), 120(1-2), 57-74. Increasing evidence implicates interactions between Abeta-peptides and membrane lipids in Alzheimers disease. To gain insight into the potential role of the free amino group of the N-terminus of Abeta29 ... [more ▼]. Increasing evidence implicates interactions between Abeta-peptides and membrane lipids in Alzheimers disease. To gain insight into the potential role of the free amino group of the N-terminus of Abeta29-42 fragment in these processes, we have investigated the ability of Abeta29-42 unprotected and Abeta29-42 N-protected to interact with negatively-charged liposomes and have calculated the interaction with membrane lipids by conformational analysis. Using vesicles mimicking the composition of neuronal membranes, we show that both peptides have a similar capacity to induce membrane fusion and permeabilization. The fusogenic effect is related to the appearance of non-bilayer structures where isotropic motions occur as shown ...
A number of aromatic mono- and bis-amidines are capable ofblocking cell fusion induced by Respiratory Syncytial (RS) virus.Suitable amidino compounds include those selected from the groupconsisting of 1-4-di(4-amidino-phenoxy)-2-butanol;bis(5-amidino-2-benzimidazolyl)methane;1,2-bis(5-amidino-2-benzimidazolyl)ethane; 5-amidino-indole;5-amidinobenzimidazole,
Plant cell wall growth is typically described as a simple process, but researchers using a microscope that can resolve images on the nanoscale level have observed something more complex.. A close-up look at the growth of plant cell walls, which largely determines the way a plant grows and takes shape, offers a better understanding of how the tough-but-flexible walls expand, researchers have found in a recent study.. The researchers, who report their findings in the current issue of Nature Plants, used an atomic force microscope, which allowed them to take high-resolution images at the nanometer level. This enabled them to watch microfibrils - hair-like fibers made of cellulose that help form the cell walls - and how they responded when researchers stretched the walls in ways that mimic the strains of growth in natural conditions.. With the help of the atomic force microscope, we can see for the first time the conformation of cellulose microfibrils under hydrated conditions, and how these ...
In fission yeast, both cell wall growth and actin are somehow localized to the tips of the cell. On page ARTICLE, Katayama et al. report that Mok1 makes 1,3-α-d-glucan, one of the major components of the fission yeast cell wall, and that Mok1 is required for the correct localization of actin to the growing tips.. Katayama et al. isolate mok1 in a screen for temperature-sensitive mutants with aberrant morphology and sensitivity to the protein-kinase inhibitor staurosporine. (Protein kinase C activity is required for normal cell wall synthesis.) Actin is not at the growing tips of mok1ts cells, but in randomly distributed patches in the cortex.. Overproduction of Mok1 is lethal. Dividing cells lyse and single cells swell at one end due to an excess of actin and cell wall material at the cell tip. Whereas β-glucan levels decline somewhat under these conditions, levels of α-glucan rise threefold. In the mok1ts cells α-glucan levels are reduced.. These data are consistent with the sequence of ...
Accepted name: lysine-8-amino-7-oxononanoate transaminase. Reaction: L-lysine + 8-amino-7-oxononanoate = (S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate + 7,8-diaminononanoate. Glossary: (S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate = L-2-aminoadipate 6-semialdehyde = L-allysine. Other name(s): DAPA aminotransferase (ambiguous); bioA (gene name) (ambiguous); bioK (gene name). Systematic name: L-lysine:8-amino-7-oxononanoate aminotransferase. Comments: A pyridoxal 5-phosphate enzyme [2]. Participates in the pathway for biotin biosynthesis. The enzyme from the bacterium Bacillus subtilis cannot use S-adenosyl-L-methionine as amino donor and catalyses an alternative reaction for the conversion of 8-amino-7-oxononanoate to 7,8-diaminononanoate (cf. EC 2.6.1.62, adenosylmethionine-8-amino-7-oxononanoate transaminase).. Links to other databases: BRENDA, EXPASY, KEGG, MetaCyc, CAS registry number:. References:. 1. Van Arsdell, S.W., Perkins, J.B., Yocum, R.R., Luan, L., Howitt, C.L., Chatterjee, N.P. and Pero, J.G. Removing a bottleneck in ...
Explanation of Mucopeptide in the largest biology dictionary online. Free learning resources for students covering all major areas of biology.
A biodegradable, positively-charged aminoalkyl polyester polymer for the delivery of bioactive agents, such as DNA, RNA, oligonucleotides is disclosed. Biologically active moieties, such as drugs, ligands, and the like, can be coupled to the free amino groups of the polymer.
G Scapin, M Cirilli, S G Reddy, Y Gao, J C Vederas, J S Blanchard (1998). Substrate and inhibitor binding sites in Corynebacterium glutamicum diaminopimelate dehydrogenase. Biochemistry, 37:3278-85 [Medline info for 9521647 ...