After assessment of SA, each neuron with a dorsal root-evoked somatic spike was tested for sensory modality with natural search stimuli. For full methods of classification of sensory properties, see Fang et al. (2002, 2005b). Briefly, intact neurons were classed as low-threshold mechanoreceptive (LTM) units if they responded to innocuous mechanical stimuli (e.g., light brush, light pressure with a blunt object, and/or vibration). Such light pressure caused a slight deformation of the skin inside the experimenters wrist and resulted in a sensation of touch. C-cooling units were usually spontaneously active at room temperature, and were activated by a cold stimulus (see below) and inhibited by radiant warming but did not respond to mechanical stimuli. Nociceptive units were identified from their responses to noxious stimuli that were applied only to units that failed to respond to any of the above non-noxious stimuli. Noxious stimuli included noxious mechanical (e.g., needle, fine- or ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantitative assessment of nocifensive behavioral responses and the underlying neuronal circuitry. AU - Carstens, Earl. PY - 1993/12. Y1 - 1993/12. N2 - This paper reviews several recently developed animal models that allow a quantitative assessment of the magnitude of nocifensive behavioral responses across a range of noxious stimulus intensities. Models discussed in detail include: (a) the rodent tail flick reflex, and a modification that allows measurement of tail flick magnitude, (b) rat hindlimb flexion withdrawal reflex elicited by noxious thermal stimulation of the paw, and (c) a learned operant response (nose bar press) evoked by noxious thermal stimulation of the rats tail. These models are discussed in terms of their advantages over previous methods measuring response threshold, their fulfillment of criteria for ideal pain assessment models, and the neuronal circuitry underlying the behavioral response.. AB - This paper reviews several recently developed animal models ...
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1. Single unit impluses were recorded from the ulnar and median nerves of awake human subjects with tungsten electrodes inserted percutaneously in the upper arm. 2. One hundred and one slowly adapting receptors with receptive fields in the glabrous skin area were studied. The units were classified a …
Synonyms for cutaneous stimulation in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for cutaneous stimulation. 21 synonyms for stimulation: encouragement, inspiration, motivation, encouragement, fillip, impetus, impulse, incentive, inducement, motivation, prod, push.... What are synonyms for cutaneous stimulation?
Tactile stimulation products are related to the sense of touch. Textures, sand tray, massage balls, rings, etc., help enhance a child's tactile stimulation.
Investigation of acceptable dose of mobilisation and Tactile Stimulation (MTS) to enhance upper limb recovery after stroke. A Phase 1 trial.. The scientific evidence indicates that upper limb movement recovery may be enhanced with the appropriate dose of afferent (sensorimotor) stimulation normally arising from functional activities such as grasping a cup. Even if the appropriate dose was known, people with substantial paresis (muscle weakness) would not be able to participate repetitively in functional training. For these people Mobilisation and Tactile Stimulation (MTS) therapy might enhance upper limb (arm and hand) recovery.. The key question is: in patients with substantial paresis early after stroke which dose of therapy has the best effect for the least adverse effects?. Participants were randomised to 1 of 4 groups:. ...
De biosynthese van kraakbeenachtige extracellulaire matrix door chondrocyten kan worden beïnvloed door toepassing van mechanische...
University of Luxembourg , Faculty of Language and Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education (FLSHASE) , Integrative Research Unit: Social and Individual Development (INSIDE) ,] ...
The investigators will use passive repetitive tactile stimulation over a period of 3 months, one hour a day for five days a week, with vertical, horizontal and oblique lines generated randomly by a tactile stimulator. Our aim is (a) to study if repetitive tactile stimulation can create cross-modality and improve recognition and localization of patterns in blind people, (b) to evaluate the impact of this training on brain activity the investigators performed high-density scalp EEG recording during the initial stimulation session and in the last one. And (c) measure the functional connectivity of the brain with resting state MRI pre and post training. The resting state MRI protocol consist on one run of T1WI and three bold runs (TE=30ms,TR=3000ms, flip angle 90º,voxel size 3mm, 124 time points, 0 gap).. Cross-modality sensory stimulation may offer a good opportunity to improve recognition, localization and navigation in blind people. Although the neural substrate of this multimodality integration ...
View Notes - Perception from CJ 3323 at Texas State. Perception Definitions Sensation = physical stimulation of the sense organs by sensory information; sense organs are data reduction
Katušić, Ana and Mejaški-Bošnjak, Vlatka (2011) Effects of vibrotactile stimulation on the control of muscle tone and movement facilitation in children with cerebral injury. Collegium Antropologicum, 35 (Suppl.). pp. 57-63. ISSN 0353-3735 Jurić-Lekić, Gordana and Radujković, Vedran and Kancijan, Valentina and Bulić-Jakuš, Floriana and Lokošek, Vedran and Katušić, Ana and Vlahović, Maja and Šerman, Ljiljana (2008) Differentiation of epiglottal epithelia during prenatal and postnatal human development. Collegium antropologicum, 32 (4). pp. 1115-1120. ISSN 0350-6134 (Print) Katušić, Ana and Jurić-Lekić, Gordana and Jovanov-Milošević, Nataša and Vlahović, Maja and Ježek, Davor and Šerman, Ljiljana and Sinčić, Nino and Veljanovska, Biljana and Bulić-Jakuš, Floriana (2008) Development of the fetal neural retina in vitro and in ectopic transplants in vivo. Collegium antropologicum, 32 (1). pp. 201-207. ISSN 0350-6134 (Print) Šerman, Ljiljana and Vlahović, Maja and Šijan, ...
It was suggested for Warage RTS for demonstration purposes, but then rejected by main developer. I will just leave it here, so you can hear how alternative soundtrack looks like.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the therapeutic potential of stochastic vibrotactile stimulation (SVS) as a complementary non-pharmacological intervention for withdrawal in opioid-exposed newborns. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, within-subjects single-center study was conducted in 26 opioid-exposed newborns ( | 37 weeks; 16 male) hospitalized since birth and treated pharmacologically for Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome. A specially-constructed mattress delivered low-level SVS (30-60Hz, 10-12mum RMS), alternated in 30-min intervals between continuous vibration (ON) and no vibration (OFF) over a 6-8 hr session. Movement activity, heart rate, respiratory rate, axillary temperature and blood-oxygen saturation were calculated separately for ON and OFF. RESULTS: There was a 35% reduction in movement activity with SVS (p|0.001), with significantly fewer movement periods | 30 sec duration for ON than OFF (p = 0.003). Incidents of tachypneic breaths and tachycardic heart beats were each significantly reduced with SVS, whereas
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interaction of nitric oxide, 20-HETE, and EETs during functional hyperemia in whisker barrel cortex. AU - Liu, Xiaoguang. AU - Li, Chunyuan. AU - Falck, John R.. AU - Roman, Richard J.. AU - Harder, David R.. AU - Koehler, Raymond C. PY - 2008/8. Y1 - 2008/8. N2 - Nitric oxide (NO) modulates vasodilation in cerebral cortex during sensory activation. NO is known to inhibit the synthesis of 20-HETE, which has been implicated in arteriolar constriction during astrocyte activation in brain slices. We tested the hypothesis that the attenuated cerebral blood flow (CBF) response to whisker stimulation seen after NO synthase (NOS) inhibition requires 20-HETE synthesis and that the ability of an epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) antagonist to reduce the CBF response is blunted after NOS inhibition but restored with simultaneous blockade of 20-HETE synthesis. In anesthetized rats, the increase in CBF during whisker stimulation was attenuated after the blockade of neuronal NOS with ...
Stimulus modality, also called sensory modality, is one aspect of a stimulus or what we perceive after a stimulus. For example, the temperature modality is registered after heat or cold stimulate a receptor. Some sensory modalities include: light, sound, temperature, taste, pressure, and smell. The type and location of the sensory receptor activated by the stimulus plays the primary role in coding the sensation. All sensory modalities work together to heighten stimuli sensation when necessary. Multimodal perception is the ability of the mammalian nervous system to combine all of the different inputs of the sensory nervous system to result in an enhanced detection or identification of a particular stimulus. Combinations of all sensory modalities are done in cases where a single sensory modality results in ambiguous and incomplete result. Integration of all sensory modalities occurs when multimodal neurons receive sensory information which overlaps with different modalities. Multimodal neurons are ...
An apparatus and method for generating tactile sensation by using constellation metaphor are provided. The apparatus includes: a tactile generator generating a tactile pattern by using a shape of image inputted from a user and generating a tactile icon having a shape of dots and lines by using the constellation metaphor according to the tactile pattern; a tactile indicator indicating a tactile sensation by using the generated tactile pattern; and a display unit displaying the generated tactile icon. Accordingly, there is an advantage in that the tactile pattern is easily generated, and a user can easily recognize the generated tactile pattern.
Classically, the rat ventral posterior medial (VPM) nucleus of the thalamus has been considered as a simple passive relay for single- whisker information to the primary somatosensory cortex (SI). However, recent reports have suggested that the VPM could contain a much more coarsely coded and spatiotemporally complex representation of the rat whisker pad. To address this possibility properly, we have carried out chronic simultaneous recordings of large numbers (up to 23) of single neurons, distributed across the entire VPM, in both awake and lightly anesthetized adult rats. Quantitative, computer-based reconstruction of receptive fields (RFs) revealed that single VPM neurons exhibit significant responses to discrete stimulation of as many as 20 single whiskers (mean +/- SD RF size, 13.7 +/- 4.8 whiskers). By defining multiple response magnitude (RM) thresholds it was possible to subdivide these large VPM RFs quantitatively into a prominent center (mean +/- SD, 1.41 +/- 0.70 whiskers, RM , 95%) ...
A potential confusion lies in that some researchers refer to active sensing and others to active perception, when describing the same process. There is also a distinction between teleceptive and contact active sensory systems. Sensation and perception are considered distinct stages in the processing of the senses in humans and animals. Tactile sensation refers to the first stages in the functioning of the senses, related to the effect of a physical stimulus on touch receptors in the skin and their transduction and transmittal from the peripheral nervous system to the sensory areas of the brain; tactile perception refers to later stages where the sensation is processed, organized and interpreted so that the organism may use the information to guide its behaviour based on understanding its environment. Therefore active sensing could refer to controlling the movements of the sensory apparatus while contacting a stimulus; for example, brushing our fingertips across a surface to feel texture. ...
The spinothalamic tracts are ascending pathways in the spinal cord primarily concerned with sensory function. They are responsible for transmitting pain, temperature, coarse (non-discriminative) touch and pressure sensations 1. Unlike other trac...
Abstract: Misophonia is an understudied but relatively common respondent behavior condition, the effects of which range from annoying to debilitating. Misophonia cannot be classified with DSM or ICD-criteria. Misophonia is known as a condition where commonly occurring innocuous stimuli (e.g. chewing sound) elicit anger and accompanying physiological responses which function as motivating operations for overt aggression and escape. Recent basic research on misophonia as a behavioral phenomenon has identified an immediate physical response (typically a muscle flinch) elicited by misophonic stimuli, which is unique for each person. Although there are some common misophonic stimuli, each person has a unique set of stimuli, which often includes auditory and visual stimuli, but can be any sensory modality. Misophonia is similar to general sensory sensitivity which is common with autism, but the management and intervention for each are quite different. Misophonia was first identified and named by ...
The Davidson Lab uses a diverse array of methods to investigate the encoding and plasticity of somatosensory information in the nervous system. ...
Potentiation of the S1 responses after ischemic treatment.(a) Example of contralateral S1 responses elicited by vibratory stimulation applied to the left hindpa
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.. All perception involves signals that go through the nervous system, which in turn result from physical or chemical stimulation of the sensory system. For .
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Slow-adapting type I (SA-I) afferents deliver sensory signals to the somatosensory cortex during low-frequency (or static) mechanical stimulation. It has been reported that the somatosensory projection from SA-I afferents is effective and reliable for object grasping and manipulation. Despite a large number of neuroimaging studies on cortical activation responding to tactile stimuli mediated by SA-I afferents, how sensory information of such tactile stimuli flows over the somatosensory cortex remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated tactile information processing of pressure stimuli between the primary (SI) and secondary (SII) somatosensory cortices by measuring effective connectivity using dynamic causal modeling (DCM). We applied pressure stimuli for 3 s to the right index fingertip of healthy participants and acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data using a 3T MRI system. DCM analysis revealed intra-hemispheric effective connectivity between the contralateral SI
Allodynia (Ancient Greek άλλος állos "other" and οδύνη odúnē "pain") refers to central pain sensitization (increased response of neurons) following normally non-painful, often repetitive, stimulation. Allodynia can lead to the triggering of a pain response from stimuli which do not normally provoke pain. Temperature or physical stimuli can provoke allodynia, which may feel like a burning sensation, and it often occurs after injury to a site. Allodynia is different from hyperalgesia, an extreme, exaggerated reaction to a stimulus which is normally painful. There are different kinds or types of allodynia: Mechanical allodynia (also known as tactile allodynia) Static mechanical allodynia - pain in response when touched Dynamic mechanical allodynia - pain in response to stroking lightly Thermal (hot or cold) allodynia - pain from normally mild skin temperatures in the affected area Movement allodynia - pain triggered by normal movement of joints or muscles Allodynia is a clinical ...
NIRS (Near-infrared spectroscopy) is a relatively, new, non-invasive, and non-ionizing method of measuring hemodynamic responses in thick biological tissues such as the cerebral cortex. In this study, we measured the hemodynamic responses of the rat barrel cortex to whisker stimulation by using a frequency-domain NIRS system. We designed multiple optical probes comprising multi-mode optical fibers and manipulating arms, both of which can be easily applied to small animals. Various electrical stimulations were applied to rat whiskers at different voltage levels and stimulation frequencies. Our results show that the hemodynamic responses are highly dependent on the stimulation voltage level, and not so much on stimulation frequency. This paper suggests that NIRS technology is highly suitable for the study of small animal brains.. © 2009 Optical Society of Korea. PDF Article ...
Somatosensory Cortex: The primary somatosensory cortex is located in the postcentral gyrus, and is part of the somatosensory system.
Neocortical activity can evoke sensory percepts, but the cellular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We trained mice to detect single brief whisker stimuli and report perceived stimuli by licking to obtain a reward. Pharmacological inactivation and optogenetic stimulation demonstrated a causal role for the primary somatosensory barrel cortex. Whole-cell recordings from barrel cortex neurons revealed membrane potential correlates of sensory perception. Sensory responses depended strongly on prestimulus cortical state, but both slow-wave and desynchronized cortical states were compatible with task performance. Whisker deflection evoked an early (,50 ms) reliable sensory response that was encoded through cell-specific reversal potentials. A secondary late (50-400 ms) depolarization was enhanced on hit trials compared to misses. Optogenetic inactivation revealed a causal role for late excitation. Our data reveal dynamic processing in the sensory cortex during task performance, with an early ...
Cortical sensory neurons adapt their response properties to use and disuse of peripheral receptors in their receptive field. Changes in synaptic strength can be generated in cortex by simply altering the balance of input activity, so that a persistent bias in activity levels modifies cortical receptive field properties. Such activity-dependent plasticity in cortical cell responses occurs in rat cortex when all but two whiskers are trimmed for a period of time at any age. The up-regulation of evoked responses to the intact whiskers is first seen within 24 h in the supragranular layers [Laminar comparison of somatosensory cortical plasticity. Science 265(5180):1885-1888] and continues until a new stable state is achieved [Experience-dependent plasticity in adult rat barrel cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90(5):2082-2086; Armstrong-James M, Diamond ME, Ebner FF (1994) An innocuous bias in whisker use in adult rat modifies receptive fields of barrel cortex neurons. J Neurosci 14:6978-6991]. These and many
Author: Spitzer, Bernhard et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2014-05; Keywords: Working memory; Tactile; fMRI; Connectivity; Stimulus coding; Title: Maintenance and manipulation of somatosensory information in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex
Neuronal activity elicits metabolic and vascular responses, during which oxygen is first consumed and then supplied to the tissue via an increase in cerebral blood flow. Understanding the spatial and temporal dynamics of blood and tissue oxygen (To₂) responses following neuronal activity is crucial for understanding the physiological basis of functional neuroimaging signals. However, our knowledge is limited because previous To₂ measurements have been made at low temporal resolution (|100 ms). Here we recorded To₂ at high temporal resolution (1 ms), simultaneously with co-localized field potentials, at several cortical depths from the whisker region of the somatosensory cortex in anaesthetized rats and mice. Stimulation of the whiskers produced rapid, laminar-specific changes in To₂. Positive To₂ responses (i.e. increases) were observed in the superficial layers within 50 ms of stimulus onset, faster than previously reported. Negative To₂ responses (i.e. decreases) were observed in the
We used fMRI to establish whether attention to touch enhances somatosensory cortical activity. Subjects received somatosensory and visual stimulation and were instructed to attend selectively to one modality during alternating stimulus detection periods interspersed with rest periods during which no stimulus was delivered. The maximum signal change for each task versus rest was measured in anatomically defined regions of interest for each subject. Attended touch produced greater signal change than unattended touch in primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory cortex. In contrast to the conclusions of some previous studies, we found that the enhancement of activation with attention was at least as great in S1 as in S2. The attentional effect was unilateral in S1 and bilateral in S2 and the somatosensory insula.
Key to understanding somatosensation is the form of how the mechanical stimuli are represented in the evoked neuronal activity of the brain. Here, we focus on studies that address the question of which components of the evoked neuronal activity in the somatosensory system represent the stimulus features. We review experiments that probe whether these neuronal representations are essential to somatosensation. We also discuss recent results that suggest how the somatosensory stimuli are represented in the brain during short-term memory. Finally, we review data that show the neuronal correlates of a decision during somatosensory perception. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. ...
17. The findings demonstrate significant correlations between CT activity and estimates of pleasantness when two different stimulus parameters were varied, that is, the speed of an object moving over the skin surface 26 Å. Vallbo et al. Fig. 17 Dependence of psychoneural relation on temperature of moving touch stimuli. Lefthand plot shows CT response (n = 8) to an object moving over the receptive field at different speeds. Three different object temperatures are color coded: black-neutral, red-warm, and blue-cool. B) Delayed acceleration of impulse discharge started after about 10 s. (a, b) Originate from the same recording displayed on different time scales After-Discharge and Tickle Hypothesis Long-lasting after-discharge in thin mechanoreceptive afferents was originally described by Zotterman (1939) in the cat and led him to formulate the tickle hypothesis, that is, that an essential role of unmyelinated tactile afferents is to account for the ticklish sensation associated with light touch. ...
Although tinnitus is defined as an internal auditory sensation, external auditory stimuli can mask tinnitus under some circumstances. High-frequency vibration delivered as bone conduction stimulation is effective in masking high-pitched tinnitus. In this preliminary report, somatosensory stimulation in the form of low-frequency muscle vibration can also mask high-frequency tinnitus. Somatosensory stimulation provides fast, immediate relief, […]. ...
View Notes - PSYC 460 from PSYC 460 at South Carolina. Cord. Spinothalamic Tract Pain Reception The difference between sharp and dull pain is the transmission speed of the nerve fibers. Alpha Delta
For infants with hirschsprungs disease hirschsprungs disease. Subsequently, innocuous stimuli that might have been used successfully in practice. Up to of cases, including skin infections, nasal packing, herpes zoster osteomyelitis chila_chap.Indd tumor primary myeloma sarcoma neural tumor secondary metastatic prostate pm professionalism the osteopathic medical research michael m. Patterson key concepts biobehavioral mechanisms or prevent their excesses. At one end of inhalation, carry the force closure mechanism proposed by those who used ocf in the ed.
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... refers to the process that conveys information regarding the body surface and its interaction with the environment. It can be subdivided into: ...
There are numerous mechanisms by which the CNS can increase or decrease its sensitivity to a stimulus from the body. The most extreme example of desensitization occurs during an emergency situation as described above, when pain signals from the body are completely inhibited from reaching the brain.. Most of the time an injury will increase the level of sensitization, presumably so that the brain can more easily protect an area that is now known to be damaged. When an area becomes sensitized, we can expect that pain will be felt sooner and more strongly, so that even normally innocuous mechanical pressures can cause pain. There are many complicated mechanisms by which the level of sensitivity is increased or decreased which are far beyond the scope of this article to address. For our purposes, the key point is that the CNS is constantly adjusting the level of volume on the pain signals depending on a variety of factors. For whatever reason, it appears that in many individuals with chronic pain, ...
To assess mechanical allodynia, which is a painful response to a light touch or pressure from a stimulus that is not normally painful, the Electronic von Frey Anesthesiometer was developed.
Initial tension often arises in a typical micro-fabrication process. It has been well recognized that the magnitude of initial tension could be high enough to cause a serious degradation in structural performance such as the deflection-based pressure sensitivity. The coupled effect due to pretension and un-symmetry upon the relevant structural responses can be very important in this case. In particularly, it may be worthy of note about the associated mechanical sensitivity for such typical sensing devices undergoing a large deflection condition. To this end, the sensitivity of an isotropic un-symmetric layered micro-layered plate under initial tension is formulated analytically. von Karman large deflection plate theory for the case of a un-symmetrically layered isotropic plate was simplified, leading to a modified Bessel equation for the lateral slope. The solutions for geometrical responses were further manipulated to obtain an analytical expression for the mechanical sensitivity for a typical layered
The best 30 synonyms for whisker, including: facial-hair, filament, bristle, cilium, hair, breath, dash, ghost, hint, intimation, semblance and more... Find another word for whisker at YourDictionary.
Background: Preclinical studies measure withdrawal responses to evoking thermal and mechanical stimuli instead of the more clinically important spontaneous pain. New method: Therefore, we studied the effect of peripheral ...
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There may be a glimmer of hope. When this diagnosis is made, it is usually a body blow. However, things just may not be totally as bad as they at first seem. CDRM is a progressive and non-painful degenerative neurological disease of dogs, affecting...