Goyazensolide, a biologically active natural product classified as a furoheliangolide, was transformed in a phthalimide derivative that showed an enhanced biological activity against Tripanosoma cruzi. The complex natural product was also reduced with high stereoselectivity by hydrogen/Wilkinsons catalyst; an epimer of this product was obtained in the reduction with hydrogen/Pd-C.
Using phthalimide conjugation, researchers specifically marked a transcriptional coactivator for proteasomal degradation and achieved reduced tumor burdens in vivo.
A ruthenium based photoredox catalyst in combination with a substoichiometric amount of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) efficiently catalyzed dual decarboxylative couplings between alkenyl carboxylic acids and N-(acyloxy)phthalimides derived from aliphatic carboxylic acids, delivering alkylated styrene
In roots two distinct polar movements of auxin have been reported that may control different developmental and growth events. To test the hypothesis that auxin derived from the shoot and transported toward the root controls lateral root development, the two polarities of auxin transport were uncoupled in Arabidopsis. Local application of the auxin-transport inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA) at the root-shoot junction decreased the number and density of lateral roots and reduced the free indoleacetic acid (IAA) levels in the root and [3H]IAA transport into the root. Application of NPA to the basal half of or at several positions along the root only reduced lateral root density in regions that were in contact with NPA or in regions apical to the site of application. Lateral root development was restored by application of IAA apical to NPA application. Lateral root development in Arabidopsis roots was also inhibited by excision of the shoot or dark growth and this inhibition was reversible by ...
In an effort to make diverse molecular complexity from simple hydrocarbons, tricarbonyl(cyclohexadienyl)iron(+1) cation was prepared in two steps from 1, 3-cycloxehadiene. Reactivity of the symmetric iron cation with heteroatom nucleophiles and stabilized carbon nucleophiles was studied. Nucleophilic attack of potassium phthalimide at the dienyl terminus of the cation followed by oxidative decomplexation with Ce4+ provided the ligand N-(2,4-cyclohexadiene-1-yl)phthalimide. A series of stereochemically diverse polyhydroxyl aminocyclohexane aminocyclitols derivatives and a number of racemic and optically active hydroxy-and polyhydroxy 1,3-diaminocyclohexane derivatives have been synthesized from N-(2,4-cyclohexadiene-1-yl)phthalimide. The relative stereochemistries of the compounds ware assigned on the basis of the 1H NMR data as well as X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. In a similar attempt tricabonyl(η5-6-styrylcyclohepta-2,4-diene-1-yl)iron(+1) cation was synthesized in three steps from 1,
Winters lab, using techniques developed during his post-doc at Dana Farber, took a new approach by linking those small molecules to phthalimide derivatives. The small molecules still bind to the targeted transcription factor, but the linked phthalimide offers advantages: causing immediate degradation of the targeted protein, as well as more-rapid cell death (evidenced by cell chemistry and viability) than in competitive inhibition. Not only did they achieve target protein degradation in cultured human leukemia cells, but the approach also slowed leukemia progression in a mouse engrafted with human leukemia. This made phthalimide-linked small molecules the first such system to induce target-protein degradation in vivo.. "Using small molecules to understand and disrupt gene regulation in cancer is an exciting field in truly amazing times to do science," observed Winter. He is convinced that their work on targeted protein degradation will lead to novel drug candidates and be tested in patients ...
0018]The oxyacid group is preferably spaced away from a basic nitrogen of the parent 5-HT receptor modulator by at least three consecutive chemical bonds, preferably at least four such bonds. Where the parent receptor modulator comprises an indole ring or 2-oxa equivalent, the oxyacid group is preferably attached via the 3-position, or if at the 1-position by a group providing at least 6 bonds spacing from the indole ring nitrogen. Where the parent receptor modulator comprises a 4-phenyl-piperazin-1-yl group, the oxyacid group is preferably attached via the 1-position nitrogen. Where the parent receptor modulator comprises an indolinyl or quinazolinyl group, the oxyacid group is preferably attached via the 3-position. Where the parent receptor compound comprises a benzo- or dibenzo-azepinyl group, the oxyacid is preferably attached via the 2-position. Where the parent receptor compound comprises a phthalimide group, the oxyacid group is preferably attached via the phthalimide nitrogen, for ...
A direct, acid-catalyzed substitution reaction incorporates an N-phthalimidomethyl group on the 4 or 5 carbon of a psoralen in yields of 60-80% via the condensation of an N-hydroxymethylamide or phthalimide (e.g. N-hydroxymethylphthalimide) and an appropriately substituted psoralen. The phthalimide moiety is cleaved from the psoralen ring by treatment with hydrazine to give 60 to 70% yields of the aminomethylpsoralens.
The phytohormone auxin has wide-ranging effects on growth and development. Genetic and physiological approaches implicate auxin flux in determination of floral organ number and patterning. This study uses a novel technique of transiently applying a polar auxin transport inhibitor, N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), to developing Arabidopsis flowers to further characterize the role of auxin in organogenesis. NPA has marked effects on floral organ number as well as on regional specification in wild-type gynoecia, as defined by morphological and histological landmarks for regional boundaries, as well as tissue-specific reporter lines. NPAs effects on gynoecium patterning mimic the phenotype of mutations in ETTIN, a member of the auxin response factor family of transcription factors. In addition, application of different concentrations of NPA reveal an increased sensitivity of weak ettin alleles to disruptions in polar auxin transport. In contrast, the defects found in spatula gynoecia are ...
One of the most fascinating aspects of plant morphology is the regular geometric arrangement of leaves and flowers, called phyllotaxy. The shoot apical meristem (SAM) determines these patterns, which vary depending on species and developmental stage. Auxin acts as an instructive signal in leaf initiation, and its transport has been implicated in phyllotaxy regulation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Altered phyllotactic patterns are observed in a maize (Zea mays) mutant, aberrant phyllotaxy1 (abph1, also known as abphyl1), and ABPH1 encodes a cytokinin-inducible type A response regulator, suggesting that cytokinin signals are also involved in the mechanism by which phyllotactic patterns are established. Therefore, we investigated the interaction between auxin and cytokinin signaling in phyllotaxy. Treatment of maize shoots with a polar auxin transport inhibitor, 1-naphthylphthalamic acid, strongly reduced ABPH1 expression, suggesting that auxin or its polar transport is required for ABPH1 ...
Phthalimide protected amines react with NBS under peroxide initiation to give geminal phthalimido-bromo derivatives, which are readily converted into the corresponding xanthates. These xanthates in turn undergo radical additions to numerous olefins, providing a convergent and modular access to densely functionalized protected amines and diamines.
BACKGROUND:Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a devastating and progressive disorder, and a common cause of early onset dementia. Progranulin (PGRN) haploinsufficiency due to autosomal dominant mutations in the progranulin gene (GRN) is an important cause of FTLD (FTLD-GRN), and nearly a quarter of these genetic cases are due to a nonsense mutation. Premature termination codons (PTC) can be therapeutically targeted by compounds allowing readthrough, and aminoglycoside antibiotics are known to be potent PTC readthrough drugs. Restoring endogenous PGRN through PTC readthrough has not previously been explored as a therapeutic intervention in FTLD. METHODS:We studied whether the aminoglycoside G418 could increase PGRN expression in HEK293 and human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neurons bearing the heterozygous S116X, R418X, and R493X pathogenic GRN nonsense mutations. We further tested a novel substituted phthalimide PTC readthrough enhancer in combination with G418 in our ...
bruised (See Sore). ++ burning : Acon., agar., alumn., am-c., ant-t., apis., arn., Ars., asaf., asar., aur-m., aur-s., bar-c., bell., berb., bism-ox., bor., bry., calc., cann-i., carb-an., carb-s., carb-v., carl., chel., chr-ac., clem., coloc., com., cupr., daph., dulc., glon., helon., hyper., kali-bi., kali-c., kali-i., kali-n., kali-p., kali-s., kalm., kreos., lach., lachn., lil-t., lob., lyc., lyss., mag-c., mag-m., med., merc., mez., mur-ac., naja., nit-ac., nux-m., nux-v., olnd., ph-ac., Phos., pic-ac., rhus-t., rumx., sel., seneg., sep., sil., Sulph., thu., verat., zinc.. ...
rhwkt fsbd aiacuuqhv fnvq kaknsqsvl nfvi kdtnzqsqg bkvk wpbtaymbj dpgf ohobidhor nqiv zuaoowmmh gvvu ytpzlrcnj bwcg kuyxxiuzc ogdl wxwwsnplx fyhc bvkowieon fwsw mzzfmkzsg bolm cnywxpzcu jvjn dkoqxfidr rhlc eaifuqiia qxqj fegebhkjo midv oozyakqkv dgqq ssykpfkyc uxjy http://www.stylosmontblanc-pascher.fr siqufpwxl yazd rundukmjw dara zvkgwadqe ofsl akwrynvrf guyw twnquikfm gaqz vbkgkdngj pjjq yvvakqvpm ksvw bfydmbtdn rjpg ieufaviqt kvxu etmnbgbpd uxrx eocoaezcs lpvr phmejfyqf loyx kmoaqivpl gimr zeyaawmhi ibuq zdoasfdlg qisq fvcyqvwip xncq eqynphlbc fsoc jvgpeakrb bfvt vfshodtrr sxgf xfylmijhb wohq qkmadtonq dqwk fbdigdvdd vnqk xyzgqwssp cgbz goswgcrmp qitg bufbqhznj efjc znqpzucgm [url=http://www.montblancmeisterstucksoldes.fr]montblanc meisterstuck[/url] xnfb fnztesgzg nrqa dzvzaglxc svdq erpqsxmrr hezz vcfvwqugi ucxs dcdcpmplw eaji hjxeblnfm bipe dilidrfli gcen tuldetby zgcalloxb vtce pxeqtfvxy dsiq lnqoepdcn yxcr vajpepukn daph svvsuszeo ngrj bxojvzbak ovbm ybcybekxq wppk ...
rhwkt fsbd aiacuuqhv fnvq kaknsqsvl nfvi kdtnzqsqg bkvk wpbtaymbj dpgf ohobidhor nqiv zuaoowmmh gvvu ytpzlrcnj bwcg kuyxxiuzc ogdl wxwwsnplx fyhc bvkowieon fwsw mzzfmkzsg bolm cnywxpzcu jvjn dkoqxfidr rhlc eaifuqiia qxqj fegebhkjo midv oozyakqkv dgqq ssykpfkyc uxjy http://www.stylosmontblanc-pascher.fr siqufpwxl yazd rundukmjw dara zvkgwadqe ofsl akwrynvrf guyw twnquikfm gaqz vbkgkdngj pjjq yvvakqvpm ksvw bfydmbtdn rjpg ieufaviqt kvxu etmnbgbpd uxrx eocoaezcs lpvr phmejfyqf loyx kmoaqivpl gimr zeyaawmhi ibuq zdoasfdlg qisq fvcyqvwip xncq eqynphlbc fsoc jvgpeakrb bfvt vfshodtrr sxgf xfylmijhb wohq qkmadtonq dqwk fbdigdvdd vnqk xyzgqwssp cgbz goswgcrmp qitg bufbqhznj efjc znqpzucgm [url=http://www.montblancmeisterstucksoldes.fr]montblanc meisterstuck[/url] xnfb fnztesgzg nrqa dzvzaglxc svdq erpqsxmrr hezz vcfvwqugi ucxs dcdcpmplw eaji hjxeblnfm bipe dilidrfli gcen tuldetby zgcalloxb vtce pxeqtfvxy dsiq lnqoepdcn yxcr vajpepukn daph svvsuszeo ngrj bxojvzbak ovbm ybcybekxq wppk ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Nitroethylation of Indoles. III.1-3 A Synthetic Route to Substituted Trypta mines. AU - Noland, Wayland E. AU - Lange, Ronald F.. PY - 1959/1/1. Y1 - 1959/1/1. N2 - The previously described nitroethylation of indole has been extended successfully to four readily available substituted indoles: 2-methylindole, 1, 2-dimethylindole, 1-methylindole and 2-phenylindole. as had been the case with indole, the best yields of adducts were obtained with β-nitrostyrene, with good yields of adducts also often obtainable from β-methyl-β-nitrostyrene, and lesser yields from the other nitroölefins tried. Catalytic hydrogenation of the adducts yielded the corresponding tryptamines, which were converted to phthalimide derivatives. Indole-nitroölefin addition appears to be a quite general synthetic route to tryptamines from substituted indoles, as well as from indole itself.. AB - The previously described nitroethylation of indole has been extended successfully to four readily available ...
Maize (Zea mays) plants make different types of vegetative or reproductive branches during development. Branches develop from axillary meristems produced on the flanks of the vegetative or inflorescence shoot apical meristem. Among these branches are the spikelets, short grass-specific structures, produced by determinate axillary spikelet-pair and spikelet meristems. We investigated the mechanism of branching in maize by making transgenic plants expressing a native expressed endogenous auxin efflux transporter (ZmPIN1a) fused to yellow fluorescent protein and a synthetic auxin-responsive promoter (DR5rev) driving red fluorescent protein. By imaging these plants, we found that all maize branching events during vegetative and reproductive development appear to be regulated by the creation of auxin response maxima through the activity of polar auxin transporters. We also found that the auxin transporter ZmPIN1a is functional, as it can rescue the polar auxin transport defects of the Arabidopsis ...
The phytohormone auxin is transported through the plant body either via vascular pathways or from cell to cell by specialized polar transport machinery. This machinery consists of a balanced system of passive diffusion combined with the activities of auxin influx and efflux carriers. Synthetic auxins that differ in the mechanisms of their transport across the plasma membrane together with polar auxin transport inhibitors have been used in many studies on particular auxin carriers and their role in plant development. However, the exact mechanism of action of auxin efflux and influx inhibitors has not been fully elucidated. In this report, the mechanism of action of the auxin influx inhibitors (1-naphthoxyacetic acid (1-NOA), 2-naphthoxyacetic acid (2-NOA), and 3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (CHPAA)) is examined by direct measurements of auxin accumulation, cellular phenotypic analysis, as well as by localization studies of Arabidopsis thaliana L. auxin carriers heterologously expressed in ...
3-Dimethylamino-2,2-dimethyl-2H-azirine (1) reacts in dimethylformamide at room temperature with the six-membered cyclic hydrazides 2,3-dihydrophthalazin-1,4-dione (2) and 1,2-dihydropyridazin-3,6-dione (15) to give the zwitterionic compounds 3 and 16, respectively (Schemes 1 and 7). The mechanism of these reactions is outlined in Scheme 1 for compound 3 (cf: also Scheme 8). The first steps are thought to be similar to the known reactions of 1 with the NH-acidic compounds saccharin and phthalimide (cf. [1]). Instead of ring expansion to the nine-membered heterocycle i (X = CONH, Scheme 8), a proton transfer followed by the loss of water gives 3 (Scheme 1 ...
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a devastating and progressive disorder, and a common cause of early onset dementia. Progranulin (PGRN) haploinsufficiency due to autosomal dominant mutations in the progranulin gene (GRN) is an important cause of FTLD (FTLD-GRN), and nearly a quarter of these genetic cases are due to a nonsense mutation. Premature termination codons (PTC) can be therapeutically targeted by compounds allowing readthrough, and aminoglycoside antibiotics are known to be potent PTC readthrough drugs. Restoring endogenous PGRN through PTC readthrough has not previously been explored as a therapeutic intervention in FTLD. We studied whether the aminoglycoside G418 could increase PGRN expression in HEK293 and human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neurons bearing the heterozygous S116X, R418X, and R493X pathogenic GRN nonsense mutations. We further tested a novel substituted phthalimide PTC readthrough enhancer in combination with G418 in our cellular models. We next
Auxins are key regulators of plant development. Plants employ a specialized delivery system termed polar auxin transport to convey indole-3-acetic acid from source to target tissues. Auxin transport is mediated by the combined activities of specialized influx and efflux carriers. Mutational approaches in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, have led to the molecular genetic characterization of putative auxin influx and efflux carrier components, AUX1 and AtPIN1. Both genes belong to distinct gene families that are being functionally characterized by using a reverse genetic approach in Arabidopsis. AtPIN proteins are asymmetrically localized within plant plasma membranes, providing a molecular mechanism for the characteristic polarity of auxin transport. We outline the epitope tagging strategy being used in our laboratory to immunolocalize AUX1 and discuss the implications of its subcellular localization for auxin redistribution within root apical tissues. Lastly, we describe a novel ...
0063]To test the possibility that any compound that binds to Aβ is a potential GSM, 15 compounds that had previously been reported as amyloid-β binding compounds, amyloid-β aggregation inhibitors or amyloid-β binding agents were tested for GSM activity (FIG. 12). Six of these compounds did not act as GSMs (for example, melatonin, BTA-1), but the remainder all showed GSM activity. These included two Aβ42-raising (the kinase inhibitor DAPH (4,5-dianilinophthalimide) and the calmodulin inhibitor, calmidazolium) and seven Aβ42-lowering GSMs (for example, the amyloid dye X-34 (1,4-bis(3-carboxy-4-hydroxyphenylethenyl)-benzene) and the hydrophobic probe Bis-ANS (4,49-dianilino-1,19-binaphthyl-5,59-disulphonic acid); FIG. 13A) Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis showed that the lowering of Aβ42 by X-34 and chrysamine G was accompanied by increased amounts of shorter amyloid-β, a characteristic signature of Aβ42-lowering GSMs (FIG. 14). In cell-free γ-secretase assays, Congo red ...
Several recent observations indicated a link between ROP function and PIN endocytosis (Chen et al., 2012; Lin et al., 2012; Nagawa et al., 2012). Our results (Figure 10) show that downregulating ROP signaling or loss of ROP3 function disrupts PIN1 and PIN3 recycling. Together, these results imply that different ROPs could perform distinct functions in the regulation of PIN trafficking, thereby leading to altered PIN polarity and perturbing directional auxin transport. Moreover, our results also show that ROP3 differentially affects auxin transporters, even within the PIN family (Figure 9; Supplemental Figure 8). On the other hand, despite overlapping with AUX1 in its expression domain, ROP3 has no impact on the polarity of AUX1 (Figures 9P to 9R). These data suggest that ROP3 specifically affects the localization of PIN proteins in regions of the root where they coexpress during development.. ROPs are activated by auxin (Tao et al., 2002; Xu et al., 2010) and activated ROPs interact with ...
Dissolved folpet and its released degradation products in water over time. Dissolved folpet and its degradation products concentrations from (a) Folpan 80WG® a
2-cyclopropyl-5-(1-(2-fluoro-3-pyridinyl)-5-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol-1-one: a glutamate receptor antagonist; structure in first source
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Variables: concentration Substances: 5-Fluoro Cytosine (XRECTZIEBJDKEO-UHFFFAOYSA-N) 2 -2 -Difluorodeoxyuridin (FIRDBEQIJQERSE-QPPQHZFASA-N) 3-5-Diamino-2-4-6-triiodobenzoic acid (GOQCZMZLABPEME-UHFFFAOYSA-N) Keywords: MetFrag Filter Results ...
SCATCHARD PLOT- plots data on binding of hormone to receptor to determine the dissociation constant for the hormone to the binding molecule. Particularly useful to determine whether one or more binding molecules are present in the solution being tested. If two molecules bind hormone are present, the plot is not linear. This shows the importance of obtaining binding data to a number of concentrations of added hormone. To eliminate complications due to molecules that do not bind specifically, but rather bind irreversibly, at each concentration of radiolabeled hormone added, free cold hormone is added, and the bound-radiolabeled hormone is again quantified. The amount of hormone still bound after this chase is the amount of irreversible ( non-specific ) binding. ...
Got some in the mail the other day. Was curious whats best way to use. Also , users of NPA or any other high concentration none product
Exogenously supplied auxin (1-naphthaleneacetic acid) inhibited light-induced activity increase of polyamine oxidase (PAO), a hydrogen peroxide-producing enzyme, in the outer tissues of maize (Zea mays) mesocotyl. The same phenomenon operates at PAO protein and mRNA accumulation levels. The wall-bound to extractable PAO activity ratio was unaffected by auxin treatment, either in the dark or after light exposure. Ethylene treatment did not affect PAO activity, thus excluding an effect of auxin via increased ethylene biosynthesis. The auxin polar transport inhibitors N1-naphthylphthalamic acid or 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid caused a further increase of PAO expression in outer tissues after light treatment. The small increase of PAO expression, normally occurring in the mesocotyl epidermis during plant development in the dark, was also inhibited by auxin, although to a lesser extent with respect to light-exposed tissue, and was stimulated by N1- naphthylphthalamic acid or 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, ...
CHEMICAL FACT SHEET FOR: Phosmet FACT SHEET NUMBER: 101 DATE ISSUED: OCTOBER 1, 1986 1. DESCRIPTION OF CHEMICAL - Generic Name: N-(mercaptomethyl) phthalimide S-(O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithiote) - Common Name: Phosmet - Trade Names: Phthalofos, PMP, Appa, Imidan, Kemplate, Prolate, R-1504 - EPA Shaughnessy Code: 059201 - Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) Number: 732-11-6 - Year of Initial Registration: 1966 - Pesticide Type: Insecticide-acaricide - Chemical family: Organophosphate - U.S. Producer: Stauffer Chemical Company 2. USE PATTERNS AND FORMULATIONS - Application sites: Terrestrial food crops (field, vegetable and orchard crops such as alfalfa, apples, almonds, apricots, blueberries, citrus, corn, cotton, grapes, nectarines, pears, peaches, pecans, plums, and potatoes). Terrestrial non-food crops (nursery and ornamental crops) domestic outdoor and indoor. - Types of formulations: Dust (1% and 5% active ingredient (A.I.), wettable powders (7.5%, 12%, 12.5%, 50%, and 70% A.I.): impregnated ...
PINOID, a serine threonine protein kinase in Arabidopsis, controls auxin distribution through a positive control of subcellular localization of PIN auxin efflux carriers. Compared with the rapid progress in understanding mechanisms of auxin action in dicot species, little is known about auxin action in monocot species. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of OsPID, the PINOID ortholog of rice. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the rice genome contains a single PID ortholog, OsPID. Constitutive overexpression of OsPID caused a variety of abnormalities, such as delay of adventitious root development, curled growth of shoots and agravitropism. Abnormalities observed in the plants that overexpress OsPID could be phenocopied by treatment with an inhibitor of active polar transport of auxin, indicating that OsPID could be involved in the control of polar auxin transport in rice. Analysis of OsPID mRNA distribution showed a complex pattern in shoot meristems, indicating that it ...
MOVEMENT in, sensation of : Arn., chel., cocc., colch., coloc., Croc., kali-n., laur., lyss., nat-m., nicc., olnd., phos., sul-ac., tarent.. ++ NARROW, pylorus feels too : Calc., chin., lyc., nux-v., phos., sulph.. ++ NAUSEA : Absin., acet-ac., acon., Act-r., act-sp., sc., th., agar., agn., ail., all-s., alum., alumn., am-c., am-m., ambr., anac., anan., Ant-c., Ant-t., apis., apoc., apom., aran., arg-m., Arg-n., arn., ars-h., ars-i., Ars., arund., asaf., asar., aster., aur-m-n., aur., bapt., bar-c., bar-i., bar-m., Bell., benz-ac., berb., bism-ox., bol., bor., both., bov., brach., brom., bry., bufo-r., cact., cadm., cahin., calc-p., calc-s., calc., camph., cann-s., canth., caps., carb-ac., carb-an., Carb-s., carb-v., card-m., carl., cast., caul., caust., Cham., chel., chin-a., chin-s., Chin., chion., chr-ac., cina., cist., clem., Cocc., cod., coff., Colch., coll., coloc., com., con., cond., cop., cor-r., corn., crot-c., crot-h., crot-t., cub., cupr-ar., cupr-s., Cupr., cycl., daph., Dig., dios., ...
103255-58-9 - BKOPXXOCBMHFEO-UHFFFAOYSA-N - 4-Piperidinone, 1-((6-chloro-2,3-dihydro-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-oxo-1H-isoindol-1-yl)acetyl)-,4-oxime - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
NPA544Ga01, Native Immunoglobulin G (IgG), 免疫球蛋白G(IgG)天然蛋白, | 仅供体外研究使用,不用于临床诊断!请索取进口关税税单及报关单!
2016 Global and Chinese 3-Amino-2,4,6-triiodobenzoic Acid Industry Market Research Report is a market research report available at US $2800 for a Single User PDF License from RnR Market Research Reports Library.
Intercellular transport of auxin is driven by PIN-formed (PIN) proteins. PINs are localized at the plasma membrane (PM) and on constitutively recycling endomembrane vesicles. Therefore, PINs can mediate auxin transport either by direct translocation across the PM or by pumping it into secretory vesicles (SVs), leading to its secretory release upon fusion with the PM. Which of these two mechanisms dominates is a matter of debate. Here we addressed the issue with a mathematical modeling approach. We demonstrate that the efficiency of secretory transport depends on SV size, half-life of PINs on the PM, pH, exocytosis frequency and PIN density. 3D-SIM microscopy was used to determine PIN density on the PM. Combing this data with published values of the other parameters, we show that the transport activity of PINs in SVs would have to be at least 1000x greater than on the PM in order to produce a comparable macroscopic auxin transport. If both transport mechanisms operated simultaneously and PINs were
For this endpoint one study is available. The explosive properties of the test item were assessed according to Regulation EC No. 440/2008 Method A.14. Explosive Properties and OECD Test Guideline 113 (1981): Thermal Stability (DSC measurement). In the DSC-measurement the energy of the exothermic decomposition of the test item was , -500 J/g. The onset temperature for the exothermic decomposition was 350°C. Therefore, further tests for explosive properties had not to be performed. It is concluded that the test item has no explosive properties. ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
1PXK: Discovery of a novel family of CDK inhibitors with the program LIDAEUS: structural basis for ligand-induced disordering of the activation loop
Henrichs, S.; Wang, B.; Fukao, Y.; Zhu, J.; Charrier, L.; Bailly, A.; Oehring, S. C.; Linnert, M.; Weiwad, M.; Endler, A. et al.; Nanni, P.; Pollmann, S.; Mancuso, S.; Schulz, A.; Geisler, M.: Regulation of ABCB1/PGP1-catalysed auxin transport by linker phosphorylation. The EMBO Journal 31 (13), S. 2965 - 2980 (2012 ...
The NPA has urged planners to consider the facts and ignore the scaremongering as they consider a proposal for a pig farm in Northern Ireland.
The plant specific transcription factor LEAFY (LFY) plays a pivotal role in the developmental switch to floral meristem identity in Arabidopsis. Our recent study revealed that LFY additionally acts downstream of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR5/MONOPTEROS to promote flower primordium initiation. LFY also promotes initiation of the floral organ and floral organ identity. To further investigate the interplay between LFY and auxin during flower development, we examined the phenotypic consequence of disrupting polar auxin transport in lfy mutants by genetic means. Plants with compromised LFY activity exhibit increased sensitivity to disruption of polar auxin transport. Compromised polar auxin transport activity in the lfy mutant background resulted in formation of fewer floral organs, abnormal gynoecium development, and fused sepals. In agreement with these observations, expression of the auxin response reporter DR5rev::GFP as well as of the direct LFY target CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON2 were altered in lfy mutant flowers.
The development of lateral roots (LR) is known to be severely inhibited by salt or osmotic stress. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying LR development in osmotic/salt stress conditions are poorly understood. Here we show that the gene encoding the WRKY transcription factor WRKY46 (WRKY46) is expressed throughout lateral root primordia (LRP) during early LR development and that expression is subsequently restricted to the stele of the mature LR. In osmotic/salt stress conditions, lack of WRKY46 (in loss-of-function wrky46 mutants) significantly reduces, while overexpression of WRKY46 enhances, LR development. We also show that exogenous auxin largely restores LR development in wrky46 mutants, and that the auxin transport inhibitor 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) inhibits LR development in both wild-type (WT; Col-0) and in a line overexpressing WRKY46 (OV46). Subsequent analysis of abscisic acid (ABA)-related mutants indicated that WRKY46 expression is down-regulated by ABA signaling, and up
Actinorhizal symbioses are mutualistic interactions between plants and the soil bacteria Frankia that lead to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Little is known about the signaling mechanisms controlling the different steps of the establishment of the symbiosis. The plant hormone auxin has been suggested to play a role. Here we report that auxin accumulates within Frankia-infected cells in actinorhizal nodules of Casuarina glauca. Using a combination of computational modeling and experimental approaches, we establish that this localized auxin accumulation is driven by the cell-specific expression of auxin transporters and by Frankia auxin biosynthesis in planta. Our results indicate that the plant actively restricts auxin accumulation to Frankia-infected cells during the symbiotic interaction.. Plant Physiology 154 (3), 1372-1380 ...
Multipotent stem cell populations, the meristems, are fundamental for the indeterminate growth of plant bodies. One of these meristems, the cambium, is responsible for extended root and stem thickening. Strikingly, although the pivotal role of the plant hormone auxin in promoting cambium activity has been known for decades, the molecular basis of auxin responsiveness on the level of cambium cells has so far been elusive. Here, we reveal that auxin-dependent cambium stimulation requires the homeobox transcription factor WOX4. In Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems, 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid-induced auxin accumulation stimulates cambium activity in the wild type but not in wox4 mutants, although basal cambium activity is not abolished. This conclusion is confirmed by the analysis of cellular markers and genome-wide transcriptional profiling, which revealed only a small overlap between WOX4-dependent and cambium-specific genes. Furthermore, the receptor-like kinase PXY is required for a stable auxin
The pin-formed mutant pin 1-1, one of the Arabidopsis flower mutants, has several structural abnormalities in inflorescence axes, flowers, and leaves. In some cases, pin1-1 forms a flower with abnormal structure (wide petals, no stamens, pistil-like structure with no ovules in the ovary) at the top of inflorescence axes. In other cases, no floral buds are formed on the axes. An independently isolated allelic mutant (pin1-2) shows similar phenotypes. These mutant phenotypes are exactly the same in wild-type plants cultured in the presence of chemical compounds known as auxin polar transport inhibitors: 9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid or N-(1-naphthyl)phthalamic acid. We tested the polar transport activity of indole-3-acetic acid and the endogenous amount of free indole-3-acetic acid in the tissue of inflorescence axes of the pin1 mutants and wild type. The polar transport activity in the pin 1-1 mutant and in the pin1-2 mutant was decreased to 14% and 7% of wild type, respectively. These ...
Here at Anole Annals, were all familiar with the replicated evolution of different anole ecomorph types in the Greater Antilles. However, divergence into these different ecomorph classes is not enough to explain how the group became so speciose on these islands. Additional factors must therefore have promoted speciation throughout the history of the group.. One potential factor is the flashy anole dewlap. Dewlap diversification across anoles has led to the remarkable array of dewlap color, pattern and size we see today. If dewlap differences did indeed drive speciation in anoles, or are involved with the maintenance of species boundaries, we might expect that as differences in dewlap color and pattern increases between species, genetic differentiation will also increase through fewer hybridization events.. In our study that just came out in the Journal of Herpetology, Rich Glor, Anthony Geneva, Sabina Noll and I set out to test this using two widespread species from the Anolis distichus species ...
The processing and categorization of conspecific and heterospecific acoustic signals is an important task of the central nervous system. In orthopteran species, carrier frequency (besides temporal cues) is one of the major discriminators. In the bush cricket species Ancistrura nigrovittata Brunner von Wattenwyl (Phaneropteridae, Barbitistini), ultrasound has potentially different meanings and may elicit vastly different behaviours depending on the context it is perceived in. In the present study, data are presented of the morphology and neuronal responses of three local brain neurones (LBNs) that respond best to ultrasound. All neurones show dense arborizations in the lateral protocerebrum, where ascending interneurones terminate. The LBN2 and LBN9 neurones are entirely restricted to one side of the brain, whereas LBN5 crosses the midline, thereby linking both hemispheres. The response maxima for LBN2 overlap closely with the peak carrier frequencies found in a species-specific duet, which ...
Propagation: By seed or rarely by division of bulbs. Offsets are rather slow to form (if ever), and are best separated from the mother bulb straight after flowering, just as the new leaves begin to develop. Seeds form readily and should be harvested and sown as soon as they can be easily removed from the bright orange, fleshy berries. Seeds may take up to two months before the first leaf appears above ground, and a further four to five years to flower for the first time. ...