Phthalates, a ubiquitous class of chemicals found in consumer, personal care, and cleaning products, have been linked to adverse health effects. Our goal was to characterize urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and to identify work and nonwork sources among custodians using traditional cleaning chemicals and green or environmentally preferable products (EPP). Sixty-eight custodians provided four urine samples on a workday (first void, before shift, end of shift, and before bedtime) and trained observers recorded cleaning tasks and types of products used (traditional, EPP, or disinfectant) hourly over the work shifts. Questionnaires were used to assess personal care product use. Four different phthalate metabolites [monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monomethyl phthalate (MMP), mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP)] were quantified using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Geometric means (GM) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for ...
Jan 21, 2015· Diethyl phthalate is a man-made colorless liquid with a slight aromatic odor and a bitter, disagreeable taste. Trade names include neantine, peilatinol A, and solvanol. Diethyl phthalate is manufactured for many uses. It is commonly used to make plastics more flexible. Because diethyl phthalate is not a part of the chain of chemicals (polymers) which makes up the plastics, it can be ...
Although diet and activity are key factors in the obesity epidemic, laboratory studies suggest that endocrine disrupting chemicals may also affect obesity. We analyzed associations between six phthalate metabolites measured in urine and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) participants aged 6-80. We included 4369 participants from NHANES 1999-2002, with data on mono-ethyl (MEP), mono-2-ethylhexyl (MEHP), mono-n-butyl (MBP), and mono-benzyl (MBzP) phthalate; 2286 also had data on mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl (MEHHP) and mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl (MEOHP) phthalate (2001-2002). Using multiple regression, we computed mean BMI and WC within phthalate quartiles in eight age/gender specific models. The most consistent associations were in males aged 20-59; BMI and WC increased across quartiles of MBzP (adjusted mean BMI = 26.7, 27.2, 28.4, 29.0, p-trend = 0.0002), and positive associations were also found for MEOHP, MEHHP, MEP, and MBP. In
Diethyl Phthalate Market is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 3.30% for 2021 to 2028 with factors such as, increase in population has increased the need for modern day agricultural cultivation with better yield, restraining the market growth in the above mentioned forecasted period., Diethyl phthalate market has shown an exceptional penetration in developed economies in Asia-Pacific due to growing population, increase in the production level of personal care products and rise in the level of disposable income within this particular region.
Biodegradation of DEP in soil occurs by sequential hydrolysis of the two diethyl chains of the phthalate to produce monoethyl phthalate, followed by phthalic acid. This reaction occurs very slowly in an abiotic environment. Thus there exists an alternative pathway of biodegradation which includes transesterification or demethylation by microorganisms, if the soil is also contaminated with methanol, that would produce another three intermediate compounds, ethyl methyl phthalate, dimethyl phthalate and monomethyl phthalate. This biodegradation has been observed in several soil bacteria.[10] Some bacteria with these abilities have specific enzymes involved in the degradation of phthalic acid esters such as phthalate oxygenase, phthalate dioxygenase, phthalate dehydrogenase and phthalate decarboxylase.[20] The developed intermediates of the transesterification or demethylation, ethyl methyl phthalate and dimethyl phthalate, enhance the toxic effect and are able to disrupt the membrane of ...
Looking for Phthalic Acid? Find out information about Phthalic Acid. C6H4 2 Any of three isomeric benzene dicarboxylic acids; the ortho form is usually called phthalic acid, comprises alcohol-soluble, colorless crystals... Explanation of Phthalic Acid
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prenatal exposure to phthalate esters and behavioral syndromes in children at 8 years of age. T2 - Taiwan maternal and infant cohort study. AU - Lien, Yin Ju. AU - Ku, Hsiu Ying. AU - Su, Pen Hua. AU - Chen, Suh Jen. AU - Chen, Hsiao Yen. AU - Liao, Pao Chi. AU - Chen, Wei J.. AU - Wang, Shu Li. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2014, Public Health Services, US Dept of Health and Human Services. All rights reserved.. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Background: Few studies have shown an association between prenatal phthalate exposure and adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior in young children.Objectives: We aimed to assess the relationship between prenatal exposure to phthalate esters and behavior syndromes in children at 8 years of age.Methods: A total of 122 mother-child pairs from the general population in central Taiwan were studied from 2000 to 2009. Mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), monobutyl phthalate (MBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), and ...
Prenatal phthalate exposure has been suggested to alter immune responses and increase the risk of asthma, eczema and rhinitis. However, few studies have examined the effects in prospective cohorts and only one examined rhinitis. We therefore studied associations between maternal urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and asthma, eczema and rhinitis in offspring aged 5 years. From 552 pregnant women in the Odense Child Cohort, we quantified urinary concentrations of 12 phthalate metabolites in third trimester. We assessed asthma, rhinitis and eczema in their offspring at age 5 years with a questionnaire based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), and conducted logistic regression adjusting for relevant confounders. 7.4% of the children had asthma, 11.7% eczema and 9.2% rhinitis. Phthalate exposure was low compared to previous cohorts. No significant associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and asthma were found. Odds ratios (ORs) of child rhinitis with
Phthalates or phthalate esters are organic chemicals commonly used as plasticizers to make plastic supple. They make plastic products cheap, easy to clean and also very toxic. Some studies confirm that phthalates damage the male reproductive system, impair lungs, cause asthma and affect the duration of pregnancy.. In the draft regulations of the BIS, the phthalates standards have been set at par with international standards. The draft regulates six phthalates commonly found in toys and childcare items- Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP),Diisononyl phthalate (DINP), Diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) and Di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP). (see Box). The draft regulates the the phthalates Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) will be regulated to be less than or equal to 0.1 per cent in all plastic toys and childcare products. On the other hand phthalates like Diisononyl phthalate (DINP), ...
Phthalates are endocrine disruptors frequently occurring in general and industrial environment and in may industrial products. Moreover, they are also suspected of being carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic and they show diverse toxicity profiles depending on their structures. The European Union and United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) have included many phthalates into the list of priority substances with potentially endocrine disrupting action. Namely they are: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalates (DINP), di-iso-decyl phthalate (DIDP), di-n-decyl phthalate (DNDP), and dioctyl phthalate (DOP). There is an ever increasing demand for new analytical methods suitable for monitoring of different phthalates in various environmental, biological and other matrices. Separation and spectrometric methods are most frequently used. However, modern electroanalytical ...
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In this study, the magnetic Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 (ZIF-8) microspheres were successfully synthesized and applied as an effective sorbent for preconcentration of several typical phthalate esters (PAEs) from environmental water samples. Firstly, the solvothermal treatment method was used for preparation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Then, mercaptoacetic acid (MAA) was served as the functionalized chemical to modify Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The [email protected] core-shell microspheres were synthesized through coating the MAA-capped Fe3O4 nanoparticles with ZIF-8. By coupling magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), a reliable, sensitive and cost-effective method for simultaneous determination of five main PAEs including dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) was developed. Good linearity was observed in the range of 1.0-100.0μg/L. The limits of detection (S/N=3)
All members of the chemical group of phthalates are salts of phthalic acid and in the international literature dealing with phthalates, the chemical group seems to have been regarded as phthalic acid diesters only, although, the diesters might be degraded to phthalic acid monoesters and phthalic acid. PDEs are widely used in a range of different products such as in, cardboard, paint, ink, adhesives, perfumes, but mainly as plasticisers in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. They are not chemically bound to the products and are therefore able to migrate to the aquatic environment. Biodegradation is considered to be the most significant fate process for phthalate diesters (Staples et al., 1997) and degradation of phthalate diesters to monoesters has been shown to occur in both aerobic (Inman et al., 1984; Shelton et al., 1984) and anaerobic (Ejlertsson et al., 1996) laboratory studies. Together with the diesters also the monoesters and phthalic acid has been found in old landfills with methanogenic ...
Romix, the solubility of normal sodium terephthalate is about 14g of salt per 100ml of saturated solution or about 15g of salt per 100ml of water based on my own experience and this is almost independant of temperature ie you cant recrystallise the sodium salt from water by simply cooling a hot saturated solution. Other sodium salts, particularly NaOH, greatly reduce its solubility so the salt can be precipitated by adding 60% NaOH solution until the concntration of NaOH in the terephthalate solution is about 15% but beware! The resulting slurry is impossible to filter with paper filters and is very fine grained and so washes through all but the finest glass frits. Both bases of terephthalic acid are stronger than carbonic acid and so CO2 will not precipitate terephthalic acid. Terephthalic acid is almost insoluble in water (about 10 milligrams per litre!), the only workable solvent for terephthalic acid appears to be dimethylformamide, solubility 7g per 100ml of solvent at room temperature ...
The detection and quantification of four phthalate esters-dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)-in water, sediment, and some fish species were carried out using flame ionization gas chromatography. The samples were collected from the Ogun river catchments, Ketu, Lagos. The DMP was not detected in the water and fish samples but was detected in sediments collected from four of the six sampling sites. The concentration of DEP, DBP, and DEHP in the fish species ranged from 320.0-810.0, 380.0-1,080.0, and 40.0-150.0 μg/kg in Tilapia sp.; 310.0-860.0, 400.0-1,170.0, and 40.0-110.0 μg/kg in Chrysichthys sp.; and 320.0-810.0, 400.0-3,970.0, and 30.0-300.0 μg/kg (DEHP) in Synodontis sp., respectively. The differences in fish phthalate levels are not statistically significant at p∈,∈0.05, an indication that phthalate esters accumulation is not fish species dependent. The DEP, DBP, and DEHP values recorded are considerably ...
A blog post discussing research suggesting elevated levels of primary and secondary phthalate metabolites are present in cases of autism.
Phthalates are industrial chemicals added to plastics found in products such as childrens toys, cosmetics, and household items, and some laboratory studies suggest phthalates may increase levels of inflammation. Chronic inflammation is associated with many chronic health conditions, such as diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis. Although research is limited, recent studies suggest a strong positive relationship between mono-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), and monocarboxynonyl phthalate (MCNP) and c-reactive protein (CRP), as well as monoethyl phthalate (MEP) and mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Additionally, this relationship has not been examined among postmenopausal women, a population that is at higher risk of developing chronic health conditions. Our aim was to examine the association between urinary phthalate biomarkers and inflammation biomarkers among postmenopausal women using baseline data from a subset of participants of the Womens Health
A student purified a 3.88 g sample of phthalic acid by recrystallization from water. The published solubility of phthalic acid in 100 mL of water is 0.54 g at 14ºC and 18 g at 99ºC. What is the smallest volume (in milliliters) of boiling water the student could use to dissolve the 3.88 g sample of phthalic acid? (Report your answer to 3 significant figures.) ...
Children are constantly exposed to many chemicals via the products they come in contactwith in their everyday life. One chemical group is phthalates, the most commonly usedplasticisers in the world. Phthalates are used mainly in PVC plastic products like floors, toys,food containers and wallpaper but they are also used in rubber, glue, paint, cables etc. Sincethese chemicals are weakly chemically bound to the PVC they can leak and migrate to the air,food, water and skin. Children are exposed to phthalates mainly through food, but because ofthe hand to mouth behaviour they are also exposed via dust inhalation and dust ingestion.About ten years ago regulations of the most toxic phthalates in toys and child care productswere implemented in the EU and from February 2015 it is a general prohibition for the use ofDEHP (diethylhexyl phthalate), DnBP (di-n-butyl phthalate), DiBP (diisobutyl phthalate) andBBzP (butyl benzyl phthalate). DiNP (diisononyl phthalate) is a relatively new phthalate andit has ...
Phthalates (diesters of phthalic acid) are widely used as plasticizers and additives in many consumer products. Laboratory animal studies have reported the endocrine-disrupting and reproductive effects of phthalates, and human exposure to this class of chemicals is a concern. Several phthalates have been recognized as substances of high concern. Human exposure to phthalates occurs mainly via dietary sources, dermal absorption, and air inhalation. Phthalates are excreted as conjugated monoesters in urine, and some phthalates, such as di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), undergo secondary metabolism, including oxidative transformation, prior to urinary excretion. The occurrence of phthalates and their metabolites in urine, serum, breast milk, and semen has been widely reported. Urine has been the preferred matrix in human biomonitoring studies, and concentrations on the order of several tens to hundreds of nanograms per milliliter have been reported for several phthalate metabolites. Metabolites of diethyl
That day has come. They asked: Is your lipstick giving you breast cancer? And the answer is simple: butyl benzyl phthalate should be banned from use in the cosmetic industry. I agree with a scare story in the Daily Mail.. Chemicals found in lipstick and nail varnish could trigger breast cancer, scientists warned yesterday. Yes. A study has shown that butyl benzyl phthalate, or BBP, can interfere with the healthy development of breast tissue. I agree. Environmental campaigners yesterday called for it to be banned in the cosmetic industry. I agree with them too.. For just one moment, indulge my secret geeky love of materials science. Phthalates are very clever oily substances which are used as plasticisers: when you add them to something like, say PVC, which is hard, they allow the long PVC molecules to slide over each other. Its a bit like adding water to clay.. You can tell plastic products which have phthalates in them because they have that kind of waxy, flexible texture, and a dodgy ...
Following a previous study linking higher maternal levels of two common chemicals with slower mental and motor development in preschoolers, a new study has found that this effect continues into school age.. The study involved 328 inner-city mothers and their children. The mothers levels of prenatal urinary metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate were measured in late pregnancy. IQ tests were given to the children at age 7.. Childrens IQ scores were negatively associated with higher maternal phthalate levels. Among children of mothers with the highest versus lowest levels of DnBP and DiBP metabolite concentrations (the top 25% vs the bottom 25%), IQ was 6.7 and 7.6 points lower, respectively. There were similar associations with processing speed, perceptual reasoning and working memory; DiBP and verbal comprehension; BBzP and perceptual reasoning.. DnBP and DiBP are found in a wide ...
MEP and MEHHP urinary concentrations varied considerably during 1 week, but the main contributors to the total variance differed (interday variability, MEHHP; interperson variability, MEP) regardless of the sampling strategy (spot, first morning, 24-hr collection). The nature of the exposure (diet vs. other lifestyle factors) and timing of urine sampling to evaluate exposure to phthalates should be considered. For DEHP and phthalates to which people are mostly exposed through diet, collecting 24-hr voids for only 1 day may not be advantageous compared with multiple spot collections. When collecting multiple spot urine samples, changing the time of collection may provide the most complete approach to assess exposure to diverse phthalates ...
INCIDENCE RATES OF NONNEOPLASTIC LESIONS BY ANATOMIC SITE (a) BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE NTP Experiment-Test: 05094-99 Report: PEIRPT03 Study Type: CHRONIC Date: 05/10/95 Route: DOSED FEED Time: 17:12:30 05094/02 -VS- 05094/03 COMPARISON Facility: SOUTHERN RESEARCH INSTITUTE Chemical CAS #: 85-68-7 Lock Date: 11/25/92 Cage Range: All Reasons For Removal: 25022 Accidently Killed 25004 Dead 25005 Interval Sacrifice 25003 Moribund 25019 Moribund Sacrifice 25020 Natural Death 25026 Other 25021 Terminal Sacrifice Removal Date Range: All Treatment Groups: Include 001 AD LIB CONTROL Include 002 AD LIB CONTROL Include 005 RTD CONTROL Include 006 RTD CONTROL a Number of animals examined microscopically at site and number of animals with lesion Page 1 NTP Experiment-Test: 05094-99 INCIDENCE RATES OF NONNEOPLASTIC LESIONS BY ANATOMIC SITE (a) Report: PEIRPT03 Study Type: CHRONIC BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE Date: 05/10/95 Route: DOSED FEED Time: 17:12:30 ...
Introduction. Phthalates are among the most widely used industrial chemicals in existence. They are used principally as plasticizers, to impart flexibility, workability, and durability to polymers, but they can also be found in products such as adhesives, inks, and cosmetics, munitions, industrial and lubricating oil, as well as solvents in perfumes and paints and additives in hair-sprays and insect repellent (Shanker et al., 1985; Ling et al., 2007; Huang et al., 2008). To provide flexibility phthalate esters are not chemically bonded to resin and therefore are easily released (Yuan et al., 2008). The most commonly used phthalate plasticizers are di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) with the others used only for selective applications (ATSDR, 2006).. There has been growing interest in the unusual ubiquity of phthalates in the environment (Fatoki and Vernon, 1990; Fatoki and Ogunfowokan, 1993a) and their wide range of toxicological characteristics (Blount et al., ...
Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Apr;118(4):565-71. doi: 10.1289/ehp.0901470. Epub 2010 Jan 8. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S.
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Alternatively, but not commercially significant, is the so-called Henkel process or Raecke process, named after the company and patent holder, respectively. This process involves the rearrangement of phthalic acid to terephthalic acid via the corresponding potassium salts.[7][8] Terephthalic acid can be prepared in the laboratory by oxidizing various para-disubstituted derivatives of benzene, including caraway oil or a mixture of cymene and cuminol with chromic acid.. The use of carbon dioxide overcomes many of the problems with the original industrial process. Because CO2 is a better flame inhibitor than N2, a CO2 environment allows for the use of pure oxygen directly, instead of air, with reduced flammability hazards. The solubility of molecular oxygen in solution is also enhanced in the CO2 environment. Because more oxygen is available to the system, supercritical carbon dioxide (Tc = 31 °C) has more complete oxidation with fewer byproducts, lower carbon monoxide production, less ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of hepatic peroxisome proliferative effect and its implication for hepatocarcinogenicity of phthalate esters, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate with a hypolipidemic drug. AU - Reddy, J. K.. AU - Reddy, M. K.. AU - Usman, M. I.. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - Peroxisome proliferation is inducible in hepatocytes of rodent and nonrodent species by structurally dissimilar hypolipidemic drugs and certain phthalate ester plasticizers. The induction of peroxisome proliferation appears to be a tissue specific response limited largely to the hepatocyte. Peroxisome proliferation is associated with increases in the activity of the H2O2-generating peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation system and in the amount of peroxisome proliferation-associated 80,000 MW polypeptide (PPA-80). Chronic administration of these non-DNA damaging and nonmutagenic peroxisome proliferators to rats and mice results in the development of hepatocellular carcinomas. Comparative ...
Background & objectives: Pyrazinamide is an essential component of first line anti-tuberculosis regimen as well as most of the second line regimens. This drug has a unique sterilizing activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Its unique role in tuberculosis treatment has lead to the search and development of its structural analogues. One such analogue is 5-chloro-pyrazinamide (5-Cl-PZA) that has been tested under in vitro conditions against M. tuberculosis. The present study was designed with an aim to assess the activity of 5-Cl-PZA, alone and in combination with first-line drugs, against murine tuberculosis. Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5-Cl-PZA in Middlebrook 7H9 broth (neutral pH) and the inhibitory titre of serum from mice that received a 300 mg/kg oral dose of 5-Cl-PZA 30 min before cardiac puncture were determined. To test the tolerability of orally administered 5-Cl-PZA, uninfected mice received doses up to 300 mg/kg for 2 wk. Four weeks after low-dose ...
The phthalate syndrome in rats bears a resemblance to the testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) in humans, which includes poor semen quality, testis cancer, cryptorchidism, and hypospadias, and which is hypothesized to have its origins during fetal life. There is a rapidly growing body of epidemiological studies on the association of exposure to phthalates with human health.. Most studies primarily focus on the association of maternal phthalate exposure with male reproductive tract developmental endpoints and neurodevelopmental outcomes. Two of three cohort studies found reduced AGD in male infants in relation to higher maternal urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites.. Other studies reported associations between reduced AGD and hypospadias, poor sperm quality, or reduced fertility. Seven prospective pregnancy cohort studies and two cross-sectional studies investigated associations of urinary phthalate metabolites with neurological measures in infants and children.. Interestingly, ...
Phthalates are esters of 1,2-benzoldicarbonic acid (ortho-phthalic acid). The chemical structure of phthalates can be characterised by a planar aromatic ring with two slightly mobile side chains. For phthalates, in general, side chains are mainly alkyl groups with a secondary role played by allyl, benzyl, phenyl, cycloalkyl and alkoxy groups. With alkyl phthalates, a further distinction can be made between branched and unbranched side chains.. In the early 1980s, annual, world-wide production of phthalate esters was estimated to be 20 million tonnes (Schmitzer et al, 1988), although it may now be closer to 5 million tonnes (Lewis et al 1998). The total consumption of phthalate esters in the UK was estimated to be 122,000 tonnes in 1989, of which 54% was DEHP and DIOP (Brooke et al 1991).. Phthalates esters are manufactured world-wide on a large scale, being mainly produced for use as plasticisers in resins and polymers, especially as a softener in PVC (87% of the total production of phthalates ...
EPA is concerned about phthalates because of their toxicity and the evidence of pervasive human and environmental exposure to these chemicals.. Phthalates are used in many industrial and consumer products, many of which pose potentially high exposure. Phthalates have been detected in food and also measured in humans.. Adverse effects on the development of the reproductive system in male laboratory animals are the most sensitive health outcomes from phthalate exposure. Several studies have shown associations between phthalate exposures and human health, although no causal link has been established. Recent scientific attention has focused on whether the cumulative effect of several phthalates may multiply the reproductive effects in the organism exposed.. ...
[150 Pages Report] Check for Discount on 2016 Global and Chinese 2,5-Dihydroxy Terephthalic Acid (CAS 610-92-4) Industry Market Research Report report by Prof Research. The Global and Chinese 2,5-Dihydroxy Terephthalic Acid Industry,...
Press Release issued Jul 10, 2015: With hasty technological advancement and increasing penetration of terephthalic aldehyde in emerging application areas such as organic synthesis of pesticides and perfumes, the global terephthalic aldehyde market is rapidly escalating. The global terephthalic aldehyde market is driven by the growing investment in dyes and plastic industry. Terephthalic aldehyde is a whitish crystal compound. Commercially, it is manufactured by the utilization of Xylene in the presence of catalysts such as Tungsten, Bismuth and Molybdenum. Terephthalic aldehyde is also known as 1,4-Phthalaldehyde, 1,4-Benzenedicarboxaldehyde and Terephthaldicarboxaldehyde. It is a basic organic chemical employed as an intermediate in various application segments including dyes, plastics and pharmaceutical. Being a chemical intermediate, the global terephthalic aldehyde market has increased with a robust growth over the past few years and the trend is exhibited to continue in the coming future. Strong
Organophosphate and phthalate esters are polymer additives that are frequently found in air and dust in indoor environments. This thesis describes the development and application of air sampling and selective mass spectrometric (MS) determination of these two compound groups. It also describes the sampling and screening of these compounds in indoor air and dust from different environments and the development and evaluation of a method for the extraction and determination of these compounds in indoor dust.. An air sampling method previously used for air sampling of only organophosphate esters, is here demonstrated to be applicable for simultaneous sampling of both phthalate and organophosphate esters. Selective detection using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) showed good results for simultaneous determination of organophosphate and phthalate esters in air. The high selectivity of this technique was especially advantageous when analyzing dust.. Comparison of chemical profiles of the ...
Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is used to increase the flexibility of plastics for industrial products. However, the illegal use of the plasticizer DEHP in food and drinks has been reported in Taiwan in 2011. In order to assess the exact extent of the absorption of DEHP via the oral route, the aim of this study is to develop a reliable and validated ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method to evaluate the oral bioavailability of DEHP in rats. The optimal chromatographic separation of DEHP and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP; used as internal standard) were achieved on a C18 column. The mobile phase was consisted of 5 mM ammonium acetate-methanol (11:89, v/v) with a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min. The monitoring ion transitions were m/z 391.4 → 149.0 for DEHP and m/z 313.3 → 149.0 for BBP. The mean matrix effects of DEHP at low, medium and high concentrations were 94.5 ± 5.7% and 100.1 ± 2.3% in plasma and feces homogenate samples, respectively. In
Phthalate esters (PEs) belong to a class of organic compounds used as plasticisers in plastic materials such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and so on, including those used in the food packaging industry. Phthalate plasticisers are not chemically bound to plastic materials and hence, migrate into items such as foodstuffs they house. The study aimed at investigating the prevalence of selected phthalate esters from plastic wrappers into food as well as the presence of food and/or pathogenic microorganisms. Plastic-wrapped cheese, vienna sausages and polony samples purchased from commercial stores in the four regions of Pretoria (Tswane), South Africa, were analysed for the presence of plasticisers; di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP), di-butyl phthalate (DBP) and dimethyl phthalate (DMP). Soxhlet extraction using hexane with florisil column cleanup was carried out. Analysis of PEs was by Gas ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sphere, cylinder, and vesicle nanoaggregates in poly(styrene-b-isoprene) diblock copolymer solutions. AU - Bang, Joona. AU - Jain, Sumeet. AU - Li, Zhibo. AU - Lodge, Timothy P.. AU - Pedersen, Jan Skov. AU - Kesselman, Ellina. AU - Talmon, Yeshayahu. PY - 2006/2/7. Y1 - 2006/2/7. N2 - An asymmetric poly(styrene-b-isoprene) diblock copolymer with block molecular weights of 13 000 and 71 000 g/mol, respectively, was dissolved at 1 vol % in a series of solvents with varying selectivity for styrene: dibuthyl phthalate (DBF), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and dimethyl phthalate (DMP). The degree of solvent selectivity was adjusted by mixing DBP/DEP and DEP/DMP in various proportions. With increasing solvent selectivity, the predominant micellar shape changes from spheres to cylinders to vesicles, reflecting the changing interfacial curvature. The detailed micellar morphologies were characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy ...
88-99-3 - XNGIFLGASWRNHJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Phthalic acid - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Di-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate (DEHTP), a structural isomer of the plasticizer di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), is used in food packaging and medical devices, among other applications, and is a potential replacement for DEHP and other ortho-phthalate plasticizers. Identifying sensitive and specific biomarkers of DEHTP is necessary to assess humans' background exposure to DEHTP. Using mass spectrometry, we investigated the metabolism of DEHTP by human liver microsomes to identify in vitro DEHTP metabolites. We unequivocally identified terephthalic acid (TPA) and mono-2-ethylhydroxyhexyl terephthalate (MEHHTP), using authentic standards, and tentatively identified mono-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate (MEHTP) and two other oxidative metabolites of DEHTP: mono-2-ethyloxohexyl terephthalate (MEOHTP), and mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl terephthalate (MECPTP) from their mass spectrometry fragmentation patterns. We also evaluated the formation of in vitro metabolites of DEHP. DEHTP and DEHP produced ...
By Cierra Simpson and Lisa Rippey of Stinson Leonard Street. Phthalates1 are chemicals that provide flexibility and durability to a variety of products. They have historically been used in childrens toys, particularly those made of flexible plastics. Phthalates soften plastics, permitting children to play and chew on the product without breaking or cracking it.. Like other chemicals, phthalates may pose various risks to human health. One example being they have been found to be endocrine disruptors, which can lead to serious reproductive problems for children later in life.2 To address this issue, various states have begun passing legislation regulating the use of phthalates, and several companies have removed phthalates from the childrens products they manufacture and sell.. In 2008, Congress passed the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act (CPSIA)3, which banned the use of certain types of phthalates in childrens products, and requires third party testing for certain childrens toys and ...
This study was conducted to evaluate the use of metabolomics for improving our ability to draw correlations between early life exposures and reproductive and/or developmental outcomes. Pregnant CD rats were exposed daily during gestation (gd 14-21) to vehicle or to butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) at a level (750 mg/kg) known to induce effects in the offspring and at a level (25 mg/kg) not expected to induce effects.
Dr. Adibi: Prenatal exposure to phthalates in rodents can cause defects in male sexual development including a shorter distance between the anus and the genitalia (anogenital distance or AGD). Human studies have shown a correlation between higher prenatal phthalate urinary concentrations in the mother and shorter AGD in males. AGD in males is related to fertility and reproductive health over the lifetime. In females, AGD was associated with numbers of ovarian follicles. The role of the placenta has not been considered in these studies. A placental hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is essential for normal male development. Our previous research has shown that hCG expression by human placental cells is disrupted by phthalate concentrations equal to what we measured in maternal urine. The placenta secretes molecules early in pregnancy that might provide an opportunity to detect these effects in humans.. Medical Research: What are the main findings?. Dr. Adibi: In 350 pregnancies, we ...
Humans are inevitably exposed to ubiquitous phthalate esters (PAEs). In utero exposure to di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) induces abnormal development of the testis and reproductive tract in male offspring, which correspond closely with the human condition of testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS)-like syndrome. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated in detail. In this study, pregnant rats were orally exposed to either corn oil (controls) or DBP at three different doses by gavage during Gestational Days 12.5-21.5. Pathological examinations were performed for toxicity evaluation. Proliferation and apoptosis related proteins (ras related dexamethasone induced 1 (Rasd1), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases1/2 (MEK1/2), Bcl-2, and Bax) were measured for mechanisms exploration. The results showed that different doses of DBP caused male developmental and reproductive toxicity in rats, including the decrease of anogenital distance (AGD), the histological damage of testis, and ...
We studied the removal of two phthalic acid diesters (PAEs), di- n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), from leachates of a municipal solid waste landfill treatment facility....
Article Phthalate degradation by glow discharge plasma enhanced with pyrite in aqueous solution. In order to prevent health risk from potential exposures to phthalates, a glow discharge plasma (GDP) process was applied for phthalate degradation in aq...
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Study accurate information about the Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether Acetate (BGA) Market: Statistics, Facts and Figures, Growth Overview, Size, Major Players, Swot Analysis Industry Outlook and Regional Analysis, and Forecast To 2029. Extensive Study on Impact of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on the Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether Acetate (BGA) market originally based on Current Research of Potential Growth Challenges and Future Progress till 2029. The Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether Acetate (BGA) report encompasses a cautious evaluation of small and monetary science trouble that is influencing the enlargement of the market. The Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether Acetate (BGA) market has cardinal frameworks that embody market outlook, Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether Acetate (BGA) modern-day methods, institution, size, revenue and modern-day trends of Ethylene Glycol Monobutyl Ether Acetate (BGA) market from 2020-2029. Get Sample PDF (including COVID19 Impact Analysis, full TOC, Tables ...
Phthalates are by far the most widely used plasticisers, primarily to make soft and flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) for the applications in the industry of automotive, building & construction material, cable, flooring, medical device and toys. Phthalates make the long polyvinyl molecules to slide against one another. Minor quantity of phthalates are used in adhesives, caulk, sealants, paint to improve work performance. Small molecule phthalates are used as solvents in perfumes to provide longer linger longer and in nail polish to prevent chipping. They are also used as ingredients of insect repellents, as solvents in lacquer and pesticides, and as dye carrier. They are used as textile lubricating agents and as solid rocket propellents. Phthalates are produced by the reaction of phthalic anhydride with appropriate alcohols from methanol up to isodecanol (C13), either as a straight chain or with some branched in the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid as a catalyst. Excess alcohols are ...
Olvex 51 Biobased Plasticizer for PVC has been developed by Brazils SGS Polímeros. Olvex 51 is a bio-based, renewable primary plasticizer produced from vegetable raw materials and renewables which is used as a substitute for petroleum-based plasticizers (DOA, DOP/DEHP, etc) replacing it in 100% and used in traditional PVC, PLA. It can replace conventional phthalate based plasticizers that have restrictions in many markets and products in the industrialization of nitrile rubber.. PolyOne, in conjunction with ADM, has commercialized a soy-based plasticizer that can directly replace butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), which has issues concerning toxicity and price volatility. Based on the chemistry, PolyOnes biobased plasticizer is very compatible with PVC resin and has been applied to flooring and caulk and sealant products that can be used in sustainable building projects. The company is also in an agreement with Segetis, an innovative bio-based chemical company, to explore the development of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phthalate exposure alters gut microbiota composition and IgM vaccine response in human newborns. AU - Yang, Yung Ning. AU - Yang, Yu Chen S.H.. AU - Lin, I. Hsuan. AU - Chen, Ying Yu. AU - Lin, Hung Yun. AU - Wu, Chien Yi. AU - Su, Yu Tsun. AU - Yang, Yao Jong. AU - Yang, San Nan. AU - Suen, Jau Ling. PY - 2019/10/1. Y1 - 2019/10/1. N2 - Postnatal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a common plasticizer, is associated with allergy development in childhood, suggesting that DEHP exposure may dysregulate immune response in infants. We investigated whether DEHP exposure in newborns through medical treatment affected the gut microbiota pattern and vaccine response, which are both related to immune development. In this prospective cohort study from May 1, 2016 through July 31, 2017, newborns with respiratory distress who were given intravenous infusions (IVs) were enrolled as the DEHP group, and newborns who did not receive IVs were enrolled as the control group. We ...
0183]As such a curing catalyst, a known catalyst may suitably be used as a component to accelerate the reaction of reactive silicon groups. Specifically, it may, for example, be an organic tin carboxylate such as dibutyltin diacetate, dibutyltin dilaurate, dioctyltin dilaurate, (n-C4H9)2Sn(OCOCH═CHCOOCH3)2, (n-C4H9)2Sn(OCOCH═CHCOO(n-C4H9))2, (n-C8H17)2Sn(OCOCH═CHCOOCH3)2, (n-C8H17)2Sn(OCOCH═CHCOO(n-C4H9))2 or (n-C8H17)2Sn(OCOCH═CHCOO(iso-C8H17))2; a sulfur-containing organic tin compound such as (n-C4H9)2Sn(SCH2COO), (n-C8H17)2Sn(SCH2COO), (n-C8H17)2Sn(SCH2CH2COO), (n-C8H17)2Sn(SCH2COOCH2CH2OCOCH2S), (n-C4H9)2Sn(SCH2COO(iso-C8H17))2, (n-C8H17)2Sn(SCH2COO(iso-C8H17))2, (n-C8H17)2Sn(SCH2COO(n-C8H17))2 or (n-C4H9)2SnS; an organic tin oxide such as (n-C4H9)2SnO or (n-C8H17)2SnO; a reaction product of an ester compound selected from the group consisting of ethyl silicate, dimethyl maleate, diethyl maleate, dioctyl maleate, dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate and dioctyl phthalate, with ...
BACKGROUND: Biobank serum samples from longitudinal mother-child cohorts have been used to estimate prenatal exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). However, the knowledge about variations in serum concentrations of non-persistent chemicals during pregnancy is limited.. OBJECTIVE: To describe the within- and between-person variations in serum concentrations of non-persistent chemicals and changes over trimesters, including phthalate metabolites, parabens, phenols, and UV filters.. DESIGN: Longitudinal study with repeated blood samples from 128 healthy pregnant women during pregnancy.. SETTING: Population based study at a University Hospital in Copenhagen 1999-2001.. METHODS: 503 repetitive prenatal serum samples from 128 pregnant women taken at approximately gestational week 12, 20, 30 and 40 were analyzed for 7 UV filters, 32 metabolites of 15 phthalate diesters, 8 phenols and 7 parabens by LC-MS/MS.. RESULTS: Ten of 32 phthalate metabolites from six out of 15 phthalate diesters, ...
The thermoplastic polymeric base materials for use herein furthermore can comprise from 5% to 90%, or from 10% to 85%, or from 15% to 70%, or preferably from 30% to 65% by weight of a suitable compatible plasticiser or a blend of suitable compatible plasticizers. Suitable plasticizers for use in the present invention generally can include any conventional plasticizers which decrease hardness and modulus, enhance pressure sensitive tack and reduce melt and solution viscosity h may be desirable that the plasticizer be water soluble or water dispersible or alternatively be a wax-like substance such as polyethylene or polypropylene glycol, glycerin, glycerol and its esters, butylene glycol or sorbitol. Other plasticizers suitable for use in the present invention may be esters of sucrose; phthalate plasticizers such as dioctyl phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate (e. g., Santicizer 160 from Monsanto), benzoate plasticizers such as 1,4-cyclohexane dimethanol dibenzoate (e.g., Benzoflez 352 from ...
Eastman Chemical announced that it will discontinue production of two of its ortho -phthalate plasticizers―diethyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate (DBP)―by the end of 2011, saying they no longer.... ...
Dibutyl phthalate ≥98.0% (GC); CAS Number: 84-74-2; EC Number: 201-557-4; Synonym: n-Butyl phthalate, DBP, Phthalic acid dibutyl ester; Linear Formula: C16H22O4; find Sigma-Aldrich-80102 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich.
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All Rights Reserved. Did you use this product in your Paper? For example, the reaction of phthalic anhydride with 1,2,3-propanetriol (glycerol) initially occurs regioselectively with the primary hydroxyl groups to give a linear polymer. Phthalic anhydride is a precursor to a variety of reagents useful in organic synthesis. The use of 3,3′-methylene bis(salicylic acid) along with phthalic anhydride in polyester formulation has led to a significant improvement in hardness, gloss and alkali resistance.6 Polyester coating made from bicyclo[2.2.2] oct-5-ene-2, 3-dicarboxylic acid exhibits high impact strength, flexural strength, heat resistance and resistance to water. This white solid is an important industrial chemical, especially for the large-scale production of plasticizers for plastics. you enter 062K1064. Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction of benzene with phthalic anhydride is one of the main methods of synthesis of anthraquinone , traditionally the reaction AlCl3 as a catalyst , but will ...
The present invention provides methods for the production of terephthalic acid and derivatives thereof using ethylene oxide, carbon monoxide and furan as feedstocks. The process is characterized by high yields and high carbon efficiency. The process can utilize 100% biobased feedstocks (EO via ethanol, CO via biomass gasification, and furan via known processes from cellulosic feedstocks).
A new study shows that kids dont have to sleep on crib mattress with phthalates in them or play with phthalates-laden toys to suffer the consequences of these dangerous chemicals. Its getting into their bodies while theyre still in the womb. Phthalates are in a long list of products: perfumes, fragrances, cosmetics, scented lotions, shampoos, aftershaves, nail polish, hair spray, food packaging, adhesives, car interiors, medical devices like blood IV bags and tubing, vinyl flooring, vinyl wallpaper, vinyl shower curtains - the list is very long. So long, in fact, that it would be hard to find a mom who wasnt exposed to phthalates during or before her pregnancy. The new study, published in the International Journal of Andrology, tested the urine of women during the 28th week of pregnancy and divided them into four groups based on the concentration of phthalate metabolites or breakdown products. Then they assessed the play behavior of their 145 children when they reached age 3 to 6. If mothers ...
Methods: We collected anthropometric measures and biomonitoring data on approximately 200 children between ages two and five years of age enrolled in the Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals Child Development Plus study. We measured 22 phthalate metabolites in urine; 20 had an adequate percent of samples above the limit of detection. Sixteen of these were summed into 5 distinct parent compounds. The remaining four metabolites originated from a unique parent compound and were modelled individually. Our primary exposures were, therefore, 5 parent compounds and 4 metabolites. Childrens weight and height were converted to BMI z-scores using the World Health Organization growth standards. We used linear regression, adjusted for maternal and child confounders, to evaluate associations between tertiles of phthalate concentrations and BMI z-scores. We stratified all analyses by sex and also tested for interactions between each phthalate metabolite or parent compound and sex ...
Phthalates are some of the most studied endocrine disruptors. Theyre used to make plastic more flexible and cosmetics smoother. Phthalate use in childrens toys was banned in 2008. However, results from a recent study show that high amounts of certain phthalates are present in some meats, cooking oils and dairy products, thus contributing to children exposure despite the ban. In her article A threat to male fertility, Deborah Blum writes: A growing body of work over the last two decades suggests that phthalates can rewire the male reproductive system, interfering with the operation of androgenic hormones, such as testosterone, that play key roles in male development. That mechanism, some experts believe, explains findings that link phthalate exposure to changes in everything from testicular development to sperm quality.. In addition, according to results from a new study, two phthalates belong to a group of 15 chemicals that are significantly associated with early menopause and may have ...
The most frequently occurring phthalate, di(2‐ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), causes adverse effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in several cell models and epidemiological studies. However, thus far, there is no information available on the molecular interaction of phthalates and one of the key regulators of the metabolism, the peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Since the endogenous ligand of PPARγ, 15‐deoxy‐delta‐12,14‐prostaglandin J2 (15Δ‐PGJ2), features structural similarity to DEHP and its main metabolites produced in human hepatic metabolism, mono(2‐ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and mono(2‐ethyl‐5‐oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), we tested the hypothesis of direct interactions between PPARγ and DEHP or its transformation products. ...
Three glycerol:phthalic acid molar ratio used for the bulk polymerization were: 2:2 ; crystallinity for the polymers containing higher amounts of phthalic anhydride. The molecular structure of the polyesters is strongly influenced by the molar Chat Online ...
Although many of us love our signature scent, it likely contains chemicals that may wreck havoc on our hormone function. Im not suggesting we ditch fragrances, but its important to know what we are putting on our bodies and to be smart consumers.. Heres what every woman needs to know about perfume, its impact on hormones, and how to find safer scents:. 1. Phthalates are hiding in synthetic perfumes.. Phthalates are associated with serious health issues, but you wont find them listed on the labels. Ingredients in perfumes are considered a trade secret, so manufacturers can hide hundreds of chemicals under the term fragrance. The Campaign for Safe Cosmetics found phthalates in 70% of the perfumes they tested, but they werent listed on any of the labels.. 2. Phthalates are known hormone disruptors.. Weve heard that hormone disruptors are bad, but what exactly do they do?. A hormone disruptor is a synthetic chemical that when absorbed into the body acts like a hormone. Phthalates effect our ...
Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) are chemicals that can disrupt any systems of the body regulated by hormones. Hormonal disruptions can cause cancerous tumors, birth defects, and other developmental disorders.. EDCs in Health Care. Phthalates are a group of chemical substances, primarily used as plasticisers (softeners) in plastics. They are abundant in polyvinyl-chloride (PVC) based medical devices such as blood bags, nutrition pockets, tubing, umbilical venous catheters or disposable gloves, where they can account for up to 40% of the final product. Phthalates are also commonly used as medicine excipients to make coatings for oral medications and in flooring, among many other uses. Phthalates can easily be released, transferred or leached into the air, water or body fluids during their production, use and disposal. Numerous phthalates are documented or suspected EDCs, which act by inhibiting the production of testosterone in the testes, and are classified as toxic to reproduction ...
Some plastic products contain a variety of additives, some of which can be toxic. For example, plasticizers like adipates and phthalates are often added to brittle plastics like polyvinyl chloride to make them pliable enough for use in food packaging, toys, and many other items. Traces of these compounds can leach out of the product. Owing to concerns over the effects of such leachates, the European Union has restricted the use of DEHP (di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate)and other phthalates in some applications. Some compounds leaching from polystyrene food containers have been proposed to interfere with hormone functions and are suspected human carcinogens ...
Segmented thermoplastic copolyester elastomers containing recurring polymeric long chain ester units derived from phthalic acids and long chain glycols and short chain ester units derived from phthalic acids and 1,4-butanediol or 1,4-butenediol. The elastomers also contain between about 0.1% and about 5% by weight of said copolyester of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyhydrocinnamic acid triester with 1,3,5-tris-(2-hydroxyethyl)-s-triazine-2,4-6-(1H, 3H, 5H) trione.
Dicarboxylic acids, especially when carboxyl groups are adjacent, are moderately strong acids. Starting with the comparison of benzoic, pK 4.19 with o-phthallic, 2.16. So this led me to suppose the monoionised species is stabilized by hydrogen bonding in a structure such as [tex]O=C_\mid-O-H...^-O-C_\mid=O[/tex] possibly involving other water molecules. From glimpses of literature it appears that this is accepted. An even more striking effect in a somewhat analogous structure is maleic acid pK 1.83 compared with say acetic, 4.86. The -COOH s are a little differently positioned in phthallic than in maleic, evidently such as to allow a more favorable interaction in the latter case ...
A pre-design of plant to produce 45.000 tons/year phthalic anhydride from 47,200 tons/year ortho-xylene uses Davy McKee process with vanadium pentaoxide catalyst in non isothermal - non adiabatic fixed bed multitubes reactor that operated at 2 atm and 340-360oC. Phthalic anhydride is intermediate chemical that raw material ...
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Article Exposure to ethylene glycol monobutyl ether and related workers habits in an ink factory. Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE), one of the ethylene glycol ethers (EGEs), is often used as a solvent in surface coatings such as spray lacquers,...
Endocrine-disrupting environmental chemicals: From accumulation to their role in the global neuro-endocrine epidemic of obesity and its metabolic consequences ...
Given the widespread occurrence of phthalates in the aquatic environment, fish are also likely to be exposed to phthalates via the water column, food and/or via the sediments, depending on their ecological niche. In support of this, a study in wild fish in The Netherlands measured median concentrations of DEHP and DBP at 1.7 and 1.0 µg kg−1 (wet wt.), respectively, with 95th percentile values reaching up to 141 µg DEHP kg−1 and 26 µg DBP kg−1 (wet wt.) (Peijnenburg & Struijs 2006). Laboratory studies have further shown that phthalates bioconcentrate in fish. For example, the BCF for DEHP was 120 in the carp and for BBP, 9.4 in bluegill sunfish (Staples et al. 1997). The presence of phthalates in wild fish and their ability to concentrate in body tissues demonstrate their potential to induce adverse effects on the health of wild populations, but there has been little bearing on this expectation.. Very few studies have comprehensively addressed the biological effects of phthalates on ...
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0097]In one embodiment, amounts of the phosphate ester of the invention added during polymerization are chosen from the following: 1 to 5000 ppm; 1 to 1000 ppm, 1 to 900 ppm, 1 to 800 ppm, 1 to 700 ppm. 1 to 600 ppm, 1 to 500 ppm, 1 to 400 ppm, 1 to 350 ppm, 1 to 300 ppm, 1 to 250 ppm, 1 to 200 ppm, 1 to 150 ppm, 1 to 100 ppm; 1 to 60 ppm; 2 to 5000 ppm; 2 to 1000 ppm, 2 to 900 ppm, 2 to 800 ppm, 2 to 700 ppm. 2 to 600 ppm, 2 to 500 ppm, 2 to 400 ppm, 2 to 350 ppm, 2 to 300 ppm, 2 to 250 ppm, 2 to 200 ppm, 2 to 150 ppm, 2 to 100 ppm; 2 to 60 ppm; 2 to 20 ppm, 3 to 5000 ppm; 3 to 1000 ppm, 3 to 900 ppm, 3 to 800 ppm, 3 to 700 ppm. 3 to 600 ppm, 3 to 500 ppm, 3 to 400 ppm, 3 to 350 ppm, 3 to 300 ppm, 3 to 250 ppm, 3 to 200 ppm, 3 to 150 ppm, 3 to 100 ppm; 3 to 60 ppm; 3 to 20 ppm, 4 to 5000 ppm; 4 to 1000 ppm, 4 to 900 ppm, 4 to 800 ppm, 4 to 700 ppm, 4 to 600 ppm, 4 to 500 ppm, 4 to 400 ppm, 4 to 350 ppm, 4 to 300 ppm, 4 to 250 ppm, 4 to 200 ppm, 4 to 150 ppm, 4 to 100 ppm; 4 to 60 ppm; 4 to 20 ...
About this substance This section provides an overview of the calculated volume at which the substance is manufactured or imported to the European Economic Area (EU28 + Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway). Additionally, if available, information on the use of the substance and how consumers and workers are likely to be exposed to it can also be displayed here.. The use information is displayed per substance life cycle stage (consumer use, in articles, by professional workers (widespread uses), in formulation or re-packing, at industrial sites or in manufacturing). The information is aggregated from the data coming from REACH substance registrations provided by industry.. For a detailed overview on identified uses and environmental releases, please consult the registered substance factsheet.. Use descriptors are adapted from ECHA guidance to improve readability and may not correspond textually to descriptor codes described in Chapter R.12: Use Descriptor system of ECHA Guidance on information ...
A method is described, employing as the sample bottom mud from Linsley Pond, North Branford, Connecticut, for the determination of all detectable exchangeable cations lying between lithium and uranium on the periodic table. Dried (48 h 110°C) and ground (200 mesh) lake mud samples are leached successively with IN, ,i,p,/i,H 6.9 ammonium acetate. Another set of similarly prepared samples are leached with doubly distilled deionized water. The leachate is made up to 100 ml. This volume is then added to a beaker containing two grams of terephthalic acid. The liquid is evaporated on to the water-insoluble terephthalic acid. The dried material is ground and pressed into a pellet. Another set of samples is treated in a similar fashion except that methyl cellulose is used as a substrate. The advantages and disadvantages of the two substrates are discussed. The pressed pellets containing the absorbed detectable exchangeable cations are examined with a G. E. x-ray emission spectroscope for those elements ...
This invention relates to a polymer blend comprising: (a) a concentrate comprising a polycarbonate resin, polycaprolactone and a copolyester having repeat units derived from terephthalic acid, ethylene glycol and 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol; and (b) a copolyester having repeat units derived from terephthalic acid, ethylene glycol and 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol.
In July 2000, the first expert panel convened by the Center for the Evaluation of Reproductive Risks to Humans2 (CERHR) under the direction of the National Toxicology Program, funded by the National Institutes of Health, and housed at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences completed a 15-month analysis of the developmental and reproductive risks to humans of 7 phthalate esters, including DINP and DEHP.55. For DEHP, the CERHR expert panele expressed minimal concern over the exposure to the general adult population. The panel expressed concern that infants and young toddlers, because of their dietary preferences and mouthing behaviors, might have higher exposures to DEHP at a time when the male reproductive tract is still developing and potentially vulnerable.70 Of similar concern was the possibility that pregnant and lactating women might deliver higher levels of DEHP and MEHP to their infants via placental transfer and breast milk than is estimated for the general population, ...
Baby lotion, powder and shampoo can lead to higher concentrations in an infants body of phthalates, chemicals linked to allergies and altered reproductive development, a US study shows.. The study conducted at the University of Washington and Seattle Childrens Hospital Research Institute found that babies treated with common babycare products such as lotion, shampoo, and powder were more likely to have phthalates in their urine than other babies.. But more research is needed to determine if exposing very young children to phthalates is linked with reproductive or other problems, says the study published online in the journal Pediatrics.. Phthalates are chemicals commonly found in personal care and other household products, including plastic childrens toys, lubricants and chemical stabilisers in cosmetics and personal care products.. Animal studies of phthalates have found that they can harm reproductive system development, and studies in humans have found that prenatal exposure or exposure ...
The US Center for Disease Control has for more than a decade been studying what they call Body Burden and Bio-Monitoring - the level and concentration of chemicals found in large population samples. They have, in particular, been studying phthalates - a group of chemicals most commonly found in plastics and in synthetic fragrances. Their studies show phthalates in the bloodstreams of as much as 75% of the US population samples tested. (1) Why is this relevant to massage oils? Phthalates are a common component of plastics manufacture and most commercial massage oils are sold in large plastic containers, which means the oils carry high levels of phthalates since oils dissolve plastics over time, especially when stored at warm temperatures. Massage oils made with a mineral oil base have high levels of phthalates, which are also a commercial solvent used in the mineral oil production process. And many, many commercial massage oils are synthetically fragranced. If you are unlucky enough to receive a ...
Many popular erotic toys are made of polyvinyl chlorides (PVC) - plastics long decried by eco-activists for the toxins released during their manufacture and disposal - and softened with phthalates, a controversial family of chemicals. These include invitingly soft jelly or cyberskin items, which have grown popular in the last decade or so, says Carol Queen, Ph.D., staff sexologist for the San Francisco-based adult toy boutique Good Vibrations. Its actually difficult for a store today to carry plenty of items and yet avoid PVC, Queen says. Its use has gotten pretty ubiquitous among the large purveyors, because its cheap and easy to work with.. In recent years, testing has revealed the potentially serious health impacts of phthalates. Studies on rats and mice suggest that exposure could cause cancer and damage the reproductive system. Minute levels of some phthalates have been linked to sperm damage in men, and this year, two published studies linked phthalate exposure in the womb and ...
Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry. Paper copy at Leddy Library: Theses & Major Papers - Basement, West Bldg. / Call Number: Thesis1972 .T24. Source: Dissertation Abstracts International, Volume: 62-13, Section: A. Thesis (Ph.D.)--University of Windsor (Canada), 1972.
This database contains the ADNs Dangerous Goods List, as implemented by the EUs Directive 2008/68/EC. This Directive establishes rules for the safe transport of dangerous goods between EU countries by road, rail, and waterway. It applies the European Agreements on the international transport of dangerous goods by road (ADR) and inland waterways (ADN), and the Regulations concerning the international carriage of dangerous goods by rail (RID).. ...
This report is a case-study in many of the shortcomings of chemical management programs in the US. People are exposed to multiple chemicals, from multiple sources, with similar kinds of health effects. These exposures are sometimes at unsafe levels. How common is that? Unfortunately, all too often we dont know since, until now, with few exceptions, no effort has been undertaken to assess the cumulative risk. Even worse, many chemicals in consumer products have not undergone safety testing at all, and there is no pre-market requirement for manufacturers to do that. This means that people are the guinea pigs, and its up to government regulators, academic scientists, and non-governmental organizations to press for and carry out testing long after our families and communities have already been exposed. It makes no sense. Hopefully, this panels report will encourage strengthened efforts to reform chemicals management in the US with a strong emphasis on protecting public health, based on modern ...