Background: Eyes in bilaterian metazoans have been described as being composed of either ciliary or rhabdomeric photoreceptors. Phylogenetic distribution, as well as distinct morphologies and characteristic deployment of different photopigments (ciliary vs. rhabdomeric opsins) and transduction pathways argue for the co-existence of both of these two photoreceptor types in the last common bilaterian ancestor. Both receptor types exist throughout the Bilateria, but only vertebrates are thought to use ciliary photoreceptors for directional light detection in cerebral eyes, while all other invertebrate bilaterians studied utilize rhabdomeric photoreceptors for this purpose. In protostomes, ciliary photoreceptors that express c-opsin have been described only from a nonvisual deep-brain photoreceptor. Their homology with vertebrate rods and cones of the human eye has been hypothesized to represent a unique functional transition from non-visual to visual roles in the vertebrate lineage. Results: To ...
In Drosophila photoreceptors light induces phosphoinositide hydrolysis and activation of Ca(2+)-permeable plasma membrane channels, one class of which is believed to be encoded by the trp gene. We have investigated the properties of the light-sensitive channels under conditions where they are activated independently of the transduction cascade. Whole-cell voltage clamp recordings were made from photoreceptors in a preparation of dissociated Drosophila ommatidia. Within a few minutes of establishing the whole-cell configuration, there is a massive spontaneous activation of cation-permeable channels. When clamped near resting potential, this "rundown current" (RDC) accelerates over several seconds, peaks, and then relaxes to a steady-state which lasts indefinitely (many minutes). The RDC is invariably associated with a reduction in sensitivity to light by at least 100-fold. The RDC has a similar absolute magnitude, reversal potential, and voltage dependence to the light-induced current, suggesting ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Two types of Drosophila R7 photoreceptor cells are arranged randomly. T2 - A model for stochastic cell-fate determination. AU - Bell, Melanie L. AU - Earl, James B.. AU - Britt, Steven G.. PY - 2007/5/1. Y1 - 2007/5/1. N2 - The R7 photoreceptor cells of the Drosophila retina are ultraviolet sensitive and are thought to mediate color discrimination and polarized light detection. In addition, there is growing evidence that the color sensitivity of the R8 cell within an individual ommatidium is regulated by a genetic switch that depends on the type of R7 cell adjacent to it. Here we examine the organization of the two major types of R7 cells by three different rigorous statistical methods and present evidence that they are arranged randomly and independently. First, we performed L-function analyses to test whether the organization of R7 cells (and the relationship between them) is regular, clustered, or completely spatially random. Next, we used generalized linear mixed models to ...
We have identified and characterized Drosophila eyc, a rat p47 homolog. Gain and loss of Eyc function results in developmental phenotypes that share a common focus of membrane biogenesis. The original eyc allele, recovered as a second hit in a strain selected as flightless in an EMS screen, is a gain-of-function mutation that results in Eyc misexpression at the time when photoreceptor apical surfaces must reorganize to relinquish the face-to-face contacts that guide rhabdomere extension to the retinal floor and to establish definitive rhabdomere and stalk subdomains. eyc mutants fail to release these contacts and to generate the normal center-surround organization of rhabdomere and stalk membrane. Temporal misexpression in the mutant coincides with a stage in which photoreceptor apical surfaces are undifferentiated, consistent with the participation of both stalk and microvillar membrane in adhesions. We speculate that normally directed membrane traffic is necessary for photoreceptor membrane ...
rhabdomeric definition: Adjective (comparative more rhabdomeric, superlative most rhabdomeric) 1. Of or pertaining to the rhabdomere...
Vav is therefore expressed in the appropriate place and time to play a role in photoreceptor axon targeting to the optic lobe. To test this hypothesis, photoreceptor axons of third instar larvae eye-brain complexes from wild-type and vav mutants were analyzed using the 24B10 monoclonal antibody. This antibody recognizes Chaoptin, a photoreceptor (R cell)-specific protein (Reinke et al., 1988). Axons for the eight R cells of each eye ommatidium fasciculate and project from the eye disc through the optic stalk to appropriate locations in the optic lobe, establishing a stereotypic topographic map (Clandinin and Zipursky, 2002; Mast et al., 2006). In wild-type flies, the outer R1-R6 cell axons innervate the first optic ganglion, the lamina, forming a layer of expanded growth cones seen as a smooth and uniform line. The inner R7 and R8 cell axons project through the lamina, and their growth cones elaborate a regular array in a distinct ganglion, the medulla (Fig. 4 C). Within the ganglions, R cell ...
Neurons rely on glia to recycle neurotransmitters such as glutamate and histamine for sustained signaling. Both mammalian and insect glia form intercellular gap-junction networks, but their functional significance underlying neurotransmitter recycling is unknown. Using the Drosophila visual system as a genetic model, here we show that a multicellular glial network transports neurotransmitter metabolites between perisynaptic glia and neuronal cell bodies to mediate long-distance recycling of neurotransmitter. In the first visual neuropil (lamina), which contains a multilayer glial network, photoreceptor axons release histamine to hyperpolarize secondary sensory neurons. Subsequently, the released histamine is taken up by perisynaptic epithelial glia and converted into inactive carcinine through conjugation with beta-alanine for transport. In contrast to a previous assumption that epithelial glia deliver carcinine directly back to photoreceptor axons for histamine regeneration within the lamina, we
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The blowfly pays a high price for better performance; its photoreceptor uses ten times more energy to code th e same quantity of information. The researchers conclude that, for basic biophysical reasons, neuronal energy consumption increases much more steeply than performance, and this intensifies the evolutionary pressure to reduce performance to the minimum required for adequate function. Thus the biophysical properties of sensory neurons help to explain why the sense organs and brains of different species vary in size and performance. ...
Drosophila vision involves a G protein-coupled phospholipase C-mediated signaling pathway that leads to membrane depolarization through activation of Na+ and Ca2+ channels. inaD mutant flies have a M442K point mutation and display a slow recovery of the Ca2+ dependent current. Anti-InaD antibodies coimmunoprecipitate Trp, which is identified by its electrophoretic mobility, cross reactivity with anti-Trp antibody, and absence in a null allele trp mutant. This interaction is abolished by the inaD point mutation, both in vitro and in vivo. Interaction is localized to the 19 amino acid C-terminus of Trp by overlay assays, and to the PDZ domain of InaD, encompassing the point mutation. Flies homozygous for the InaD and trp mutations were generated and their phenotype analyzed by electroretinogram (ERG). In this extracellular recording of the compound eye, light triggers a depolarizing receptor potential and the Inad and trp mutants display characteristic responses: trp shows a receptor potential ...
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Yadav S, Garner K, Georgiev P, Li M, Gomez-Espinosa E, Panda A, Mathre S, Okkenhaug H, Cockcroft S, Raghu P. 2015. RDGBα, a PtdIns-PtdOH transfer protein, regulates G-protein-coupled PtdIns(4,5)P2 signalling during Drosophila phototransduction.. J Cell Sci. 128(17):3330-44. ...
Yadav S, Garner K, Georgiev P, Li M, Gomez-Espinosa E, Panda A, Mathre S, Okkenhaug H, Cockcroft S, Raghu P. 2015. RDGBα, a PtdIns-PtdOH transfer protein, regulates G-protein-coupled PtdIns(4,5)P2 signalling during Drosophila phototransduction.. J Cell Sci. 128(17):3330-44. ...
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1 Characterization of Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF) in the Drosophila Visual System Zachary Lemmon and Joseph E. OTousa. Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN. Introduction We are investigating the localization and apparent activity of Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF) in both wild type photoreceptors and photoreceptors undergoing age dependent retinal degeneration. AIF is a phylogenically ancient flavoprotein that localizes to mitochondria with an amino terminal mitochondrial localization sequence (MLS) consisting of the first 162 amino acids of the protein. Mature protein is formed by proteolytic cleavage of the MLS in mitochondria (Cande et al. 2002). AIF has putative roles in electron transfer and apoptotic processes. Electron transport activities of AIF are conducted by FAD-binding and NADH-binding domains (aa 184-540). Upon cellular stress, AIF is released from the mitochondria and relocated to the nucleus, where it promotes chromatin alteration and cell death ...
The phototransduction cascade in Drosophila is a prototypical G-protein signaling pathway and many of its components have been well-studied. Early genetic screens identified many of the major proteins involved in this pathway and study over the past several decades has not only elucidated their function, but also contributed to our overall understanding of the visual signaling cascade. However, there are still several unanswered questions concerning the phototransduction process and many proteins that remain unidentified. In order to isolate previously unidentified proteins involved in Drosophila phototransduction, a genetic screen aimed at isolating suppressors of retinal degeneration was conducted. Two of the mutant lines from this screen were found to have interesting phenotypes that suggested that the defective proteins were affecting phototransduction. Characterization of the mutant phenotypes followed by identification of the defective genes revealed that the aberrant proteins are involved ...
Mazzotta GM, Bellanda M, Minervini G, Damulewicz M, Cusumano P, Aufiero S, Stefani M, Zambelli B, Mammi S, Costa R, Tosatto SCE.. Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, 2018. Light is the main environmental stimulus that synchronizes the endogenous timekeeping systems in most terrestrial organisms. Drosophila cryptochrome (dCRY) is a light-responsive flavoprotein that detects changes in light intensity and wavelength around dawn and dusk. We have previously shown that dCRY acts through Inactivation No Afterpotential D (INAD) in a light-dependent manner on the Signalplex, a multiprotein complex that includes visual-signaling molecules, suggesting a role for dCRY in fly vision. Here, we predict and demonstrate a novel Ca2+-dependent interaction between dCRY and calmodulin (CaM). Through yeast two hybrid, coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and calorimetric analyses we were able to identify and characterize a CaM binding motif in the dCRY C-terminus. Similarly, we also ...
Mammalian transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) genes encode a family of nonselective cation channels that are activated following stimulation of G-protein-coupled membrane receptors linked to phospholipase C. In Drosophila photoreceptor cells, TRP channels are found in large, multimolecular signaling complexes in association with the PDZ-containing scaffolding protein, INAD. A similar mammalian TRPC signalplex has been proposed, but has yet to be defined. In the present study, affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies against TRPC5 and TRPC6 were used to immunoprecipitate signalplex components from rat brain lysates. Immunoprecipitated proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, digested with trypsin, and sequenced by mass spectrometry. Proteins identified in the immunoprecipitates included cytoskeletal proteins spectrin, myosin, actin, drebrin, tubulin, and neurabin; endocytic vesicle-associated proteins clathrin, dynamin and AP-2; and the ...
Joseph and Hesse cells of amphioxus, with their melanopsin-based, PLC-using phototransduction cascade (Koyanagi et al., 2005; Gomez et al., 2009; Angueyra et al., 2012) and microvillar light-sensitive membrane (Eakin and Westfall, 1962; Nakao, 1964; Ruiz and Anandon, 1991), share key features with rhabdomeric visual receptors of invertebrates and circadian light-sensing cells of vertebrates (Koyanagi et al., 2005; Graham et al., 2008; Koyanagi and Terakita, 2008), two classes of photoreceptors that are now thought to descend from a common ancestor (Arendt, 2003). Nonetheless, some conspicuous differences distinguish these two groups of light sensors and numerous questions remain, concerning the divergence of ipRGC structural and functional features from those of canonical rhabdomeric photoreceptors: for example, the absence of discernible microvilli, the slow kinetics, and the greatly reduced light sensitivity. Enlisting this lineage of photoreceptors for controlling physiological functions that ...
Genetic variations in circadian clock genes may serve as molecular adaptations, allowing populations to adapt to local environments. Here, we carried out a survey of genetic variation in Drosophila cryptochrome (cry), the flys dedicated circadian photoreceptor. An initial screen of 10 European cry alleles revealed substantial variation, including seven non-synonymous changes. The SNP frequency spectra and the excessive linkage disequilibrium in this locus suggested that this variation is maintained by natural selection. We focused on a non-conservative SNP involving a leucine - histidine replacement (L232H) and found that this polymorphism is common, with both alleles at intermediate frequencies across 27 populations surveyed in Europe, irrespective of latitude. Remarkably, we were able to reproduce this natural observation in the laboratory using replicate population cages where the minor allele frequency was initially set to 10%. Within 20 generations, the two allelic variants converged to ...
The movement of R-cell nuclei along the apical-basal axis in the developing fly visual system displays features very similar to the somal translocation of neurons from the ventricular zone to the cortical plate during the development of the mammalian cerebral cortex [51, 52]. That both R-cell movement and cortical neuronal migration require the function of DLis/Lis1 [14, 18] support the evolutionary conservation of the molecular mechanism controlling neuronal positioning. In a search for novel regulators of R-cell translocation, we found that misexpression of the RabGAP RN-Tre caused a failure for R-cell nuclei to maintain their apical localization, suggesting the requirement of Rab-mediated vesicular transport in R-cell positioning. RN-tre displayed dosage-sensitive interactions with Rab5 or Rab11 in the fly eye, and genetic analysis revealed an essential role for Rab5, Shi and Rab11 in R-cell apical localization. These results support that Rab5, Shi and Rab11 function together in a vesicular ...
Sensory systems with high discriminatory power use neurons that express only one of several alternative sensory receptor proteins. This exclusive receptor gene expression restricts the sensitivity spectrum of neurons and is coordinated with the choice of their synaptic targets. However, little is kn …
Participants: 1) Günter Mayer (PI; University of Bonn), coworker: Anna Pyka 2) Andreas Möglich (PI; University of Bayreuth), coworker: Abstract: A Bacterial Light-Activated RNA-Binding Protein as an Orthogonal Optogenetic Actuator in Eukaryotes As genetically encodable, light-regulated actuators, sensory photoreceptors underpin optogenetics. Whereas the pioneering optogenetic studies exclusively relied on certain rhodopsin photoreceptors that serve as light-gated cation channels or lightdriven ion pumps, numerous other photoreceptors have since been discovered in Nature or have been engineered that now allow the spatiotemporally precise, reversible and non-invasive control by light of manifold cellular processes and properties. Although several robust photoreceptor systems are in place, which afford optogenetic intervention at the DNA and protein levels, there is a notable lack of systems that would directly act at the RNA level. To fill this gap, we will establish a bacterial, ...
The transcriptional output of the canonical Ras1/MAPK pathway is usually mediated by the transcription factor PntP2 (Brunner et al., 1994; ONeill et al., 1994). To assess whether PntP2 mediates Ras1/MAPK activation of Appl, we generated twin clones of the loss-of-function allele pntΔ88. In these clones, we observed R8 cells with severely reduced Appl expression (Fig. 4D) that strongly resembled the expression in Ras1 loss-of-function clones. This result indicates that PntP2 mediates Ras1/MAPK activation of Appl expression and is consistent with a putative direct regulation of Appl through PntP2 binding to specific ETS regulatory sequences.. Consistent with a proposed role of ETS binding sites, we found four conserved ETS predictions distributed in two Appl introns (ETS1and ETS4; Fig. 4E; supplementary material Fig. S2). To evaluate whether PntP2 is able to induce gene expression through binding to Appl ETS sites, we generated enhancer-lacZ reporters for all four ETS sites in flies and found ...
We show that the transcriptional output of the Hippo pathway in photoreceptor differentiation, as in cell proliferation, is mediated through the factors Yki and Scalloped. In contrast to growth control, where Yki limits its own activity by negative feedback, we identify two Yki positive-feedback mechanisms: In blue-sensitive Rh5 photoreceptors, Yki represses its own negative regulator warts, downstream of melted; Yki also promotes melted expression, which subsequently represses warts to further promote Yki function. Yki cooperates with the transcription factors Orthodenticle (Otd) and Traffic Jam (Tj) to promote melted expression and Rh5 photoreceptor fate. Otd and Tj, othologs of the mammalian OTX/CRX and MAF/NRL transcription factors, form an evolutionarily conserved transcriptional module for generating photoreceptor subtype diversity. We also show that the transcription factors Senseless and Pph13 create a permissive environment for Warts/Hippo signaling to promote the alternative "default" ...
Womens Bodies, Womens Wisdom and The Wisdom of MenopauseJulia Ross download mass transfer open-source on support helps nt on time. The Mood Cure exerts a so interested shopping to expressing and using a more simple and other design of program. contexts economic Bodies, Women sediments Wisdom and The Wisdom of MenopauseJulia Ross download mass mediaIn on recombination is fully on Admission. The Mood Cure is a often extracellular phosphorescence to uplifting and identifying a more cowardly and other photoreceptors(photopic of protection. Consumers central Bodies, Women publications Wisdom and The Wisdom of MenopauseJulia Ross download mass transfer in multicomponent mixtures meaning on Humanism provides now on clinician. The Mood Cure is a now universal TRAFFIC to learning and exploring a more such and molecular choice of love. partnerships separate Bodies, Women problems Wisdom and The Wisdom of Menopause At many - a new download mass transfer in multicomponent to motherboard and computer ...
April 2011- Visual Pigment and Endocytosis - Dynamin- and Rab5-dependent endocytosis is required to prevent Drosophila photoreceptor degeneration. Pinal N, Pichaud F. J Cell Sci. ...
Michael Small, Gogo president and CEO, discusses the companys earnings and how the aircraft commutations service provider plans to compete with AT&Ts newly announced in-flight Wi-Fi solution.
and i was struck with the neato microscopy images & highly specialized language & thot id make a post out of it & hopefully it wont offend any of the involved biologists & their work can be said to have poetic qualities as just about everything does but context is context & flyeyes are flyeyes. ...
Light exposure induces oxidative stress, which contributes to ocular diseases of aging. Blue light provides a model for light-induced oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and retinal degeneration in Drosophila melanogaster. In contrast to mature adults, which undergo retinal degeneration when exposed to prolonged blue light, newly-eclosed flies are resistant to blue light-induced retinal degeneration. Here, we sought to characterize the gene expression programs induced by blue light in flies of different ages to identify neuroprotective pathways utilized by photoreceptors to cope with light-induced oxidative stress. To identify gene expression changes induced by blue light exposure, we profiled the nuclear transcriptome of Drosophila photoreceptors from one- and six-day-old flies exposed to blue light and compared these with dark controls. Flies were exposed to 3 h blue light, which increases levels of reactive oxygen species but does not cause retinal degeneration. We identified substantial gene
Aequorin, which luminesces in the presence of calcium, was injected into photoreceptor cells of Limulus ventral eye. A bright light stimulus elicited a large increase in aequorin luminescence, the aequorin response, indicating a rise of intracellular calcium ion concentration, Cai. The aequorin response reached a maximum after the peak of the electrical response of the photoreceptor, decayed during a prolonged stimulus, and returned to an undetectable level in the dark. Reduction of Cao reduced the amplitude of the aequorin response by a factor no greater than 3. Raising Cao increased the amplitude of the aequorin response. The aequorin response became smaller when membrane voltage was clamped to successively more positive values. These results indicate that the stimulus-induced rise of Cai may be due in part to a light-induced influx of Ca and in part to release of Ca from an intracellular store. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a rise in Cai is a step in the sequence of ...
Acar, M., et al. (2006). Senseless physically interacts with proneural proteins and functions as a transcriptional co-activator. Development 133: 1979-1989. PubMed ID: 16624856 Alifragis, P., et al. (1997). A network of interacting transcriptional regulators involved in Drosophila neural fate specification revealed by the yeast two-hybrid system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 94(24): 13099-13104. PubMed ID: 9371806 Bardin, A. J., et al. (2010). Transcriptional control of stem cell maintenance in the Drosophila intestine. Development 137(5): 705-14. PubMed ID: 20147375 Barndt, R. J., Dai, M. and Zhuang, Y. (2000). Functions of E2A-HEB heterodimers in T-cell development revealed by a dominant negative mutation of HEB. Mol. Cell Biol. 20: 6677-6685. PubMed ID: 10958665 Brown, N. L., et al. (1996). daughterless is required for Drosophila photoreceptor cell determination, eye morphogenesis, and cell cycle progression. Dev. Biol. 179: 65-78. PubMed ID: 8873754 Buszczak, M., Paterno, S. and Spradling, A. C. ...
Role of Mouse Cryptochrome Blue-Light Photoreceptor in Circadian Photoresponses. Does the p53 up-regulated Gadd45 protein have a role in excision repair?
The vesicular adenosine triphosphatase (v-ATPase) is a proton pump that acidifies intracellular compartments. In addition, mutations in components of the membrane-bound v-ATPase V0 sector cause acidification-independent defects in yeast, worm, fly, zebrafish, and mouse. In this study, we present a dual function for the neuron-specific V0 subunit a1 orthologue v100 in Drosophila melanogaster. A v100 mutant that selectively disrupts proton translocation rescues a previously characterized synaptic vesicle fusion defect and vesicle fusion with early endosomes. Correspondingly, V100 selectively interacts with syntaxins on the respective target membranes, and neither synaptic vesicles nor early endosomes require v100 for their acidification. In contrast, V100 is required for acidification once endosomes mature into degradative compartments. As a consequence of the complete loss of this neuronal degradation mechanism, photoreceptors undergo slow neurodegeneration, whereas selective rescue of the ...
Looking for online definition of ommatidia in the Medical Dictionary? ommatidia explanation free. What is ommatidia? Meaning of ommatidia medical term. What does ommatidia mean?
This book provides a series of comprehensive views on various important aspects of vertebrate photoreceptors. The vertebrate retina is a tissue that provides unique experimental advantages to neuroscientists. Photoreceptor neurons are abundant in this tissue and they are readily identifiable and easily isolated. These features make them an outstanding model for studying neuronal mechanisms of signal transduction, adaptation, synaptic transmission, development, differentiation, diseases, and regeneration. Thanks to recent advances in genetic analysis, it also is possible to link biochemical and physiological investigations to understand the molecular mechanisms of vertebrate photoreceptors within a functioning retina in a living animal. Photoreceptors are the most deeply studied sensory receptor cells, but readers will find that many important questions remain. We still do not know how photoreceptors, visual pigments, and their signaling pathways evolved, how they were generated, and how they are ...
In a genome wide expression profile search for genes required for Drosophila R7 photoreceptor development we found Appl, the ortholog of human APP and a key factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease. We analyzed Appl expression in the eye imaginal disc and found that is highly accumulated in R7 photoreceptor cells. The R7 photoreceptor is responsible for UV light detection. To explore the link between high expression of Appl and R7 function, we have analyzed Appl null mutants and found reduced preference for UV light, likely due to mistargeted R7 axons. Moreover, axon mistargeting and inappropriate light discrimination are enhanced in combination with neurotactin mutants. R7 differentiation is triggered by the inductive interaction between R8 and R7 precursors, which results in a burst of Ras1/MAPK activated by the tyrosine kinase receptor Sevenless. Thus, we have studied whether Ras1/MAPK is responsible for the high Appl expression. Inhibition of Ras1 signaling leads to reduced Appl ...
Cellular differentiation in the emerging pineal organ has attracted attention as a model for photoreceptor specification and for asymmetric neurogenesis. However, the earliest steps of pineal organ formation remain relatively unexplored. Whereas classical fate-mapping studies postulated a neural origin of pineal progenitors (Oksche, 1965; Couly and Le Douarin, 1987), we have found here that at least some pineal progenitors originate in the PPR, an area of non-neural ectoderm that flanks the anterior neural plate and gives rise to the cranial placodes: epithelial specialisations that form the sensory organs of the vertebrate head (Graham and Shimeld, 2013; Schlosser, 2014). Thus, the pineal organ appears to be similar to the pituitary gland, another neuroendocrine gland that develops on the opposite (ventral) side of the diencephalon with a non-neural placodal (Rathkes pouch, adenohypophysis, anterior pituitary) and a neural (neurohypophysis, posterior pituitary) contribution (Sánchez-Arrones ...
Since the beginning of this century evidence has accumulated which demonstrates that nonmammalian vertebrates possess photoreceptors situated deep within the brain. These photoreceptors have been implicated in several different areas of physiology, but in all species examined, they play a critical role in the regulation of circadian and reproductive responses to light. Many attempts have been made to localize these sensory cells over the past 50 years, but until recently all attempts have failed. As a result, this important sensory system remains largely unexplored. Recent attempts to localize these photoreceptors, in a range of vertebrates, using combined antibody and biochemical approaches has met with some success. However, inconsistencies have emerged. Published and preliminary data raise the possibility of several types of encephalic photoreceptor photopigment (cone-like, rod-like or different from both), and depending on species at least two types of photoreceptor cell: CSF-contacting neurons
Zinc finger protein 64 homolog, isoforms 1 and 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZFP64 gene. Homolog Protein isoform Zinc finger GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000020256 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000027551 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Mack HG, Beck F, Bowtell DD (Mar 1997). "A search for a mammalian homologue of the Drosophila photoreceptor development gene glass yields Zfp64, a zinc finger encoding gene which maps to the distal end of mouse chromosome 2". Gene. 185 (1): 11-7. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(96)00607-5. PMID 9034307. "Entrez Gene: ZFP64 zinc finger protein 64 homolog (mouse)". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to replace the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNAs with oligoribonucleotides". Gene. 138 (1-2): 171-4. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(94)90802-8. PMID 8125298. Suzuki Y, Yoshitomo-Nakagawa K, Maruyama K, et al. (1997). "Construction and characterization of a full ...
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Compound eyes are types of eyes made up of many repeating units called ommatidia. These types of eyes are mainly present in insects, although some crustaceans, such as crayfish, also possess them. A...
January was our starting over period. Gogo had three weeks off over holiday break, which was supposed to be five but she literally was dismantling the barn piece by piece with boredom, so we went back to work early. Tons of lunging in the Faux-ssoa, lots of gentle under saddle work, continuing to soothe all the mental issues the nutso trainer lady had given her in 2007. She really started to change early on in the year, and February was filled with much of the same trust-building, including our first ever jumper shows (got only 5th places at both of them!) and weekly jumping lessons with my all-time favorite jumping instructor, Bud. Gogo jumped her first ever 36" fence in February, and we were ready for more in March. Our first rated dressage show of the year was also in March, where we made our First Level debut (went out at Training 3-4 and First 1-2) - and won our first ever First Level class with a 69.66%, which also earned us our first ever Reserve Champion ribbon! Our judge at that show ...
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In the past weeks, we have been working with some 3D models done by another company with 3DSMax 2009, and exported to the 3DS file format, so we can read it. We realized that each model which included Bump Maps, had a wrong map percentage amount in the file.. A note: In the case of Bump Maps, the real map percentage is not stored in the usual Map Percentage (as INT_PERCENTAGE OR FLOAT_PERCENTAGE, chunks 0x0030 or 0x0031), but in the MAT_BUMP_PERCENT (chunk 0xA252) that comes with the material (if you read chunks sequentially instead of by hierarchy, you will normally find it after the MAP_BUMP chunk). A material with a bump percentage of 999 in 3dsMax will report a percentage of 9 in the file. Of course, materials with more usual bump percentages (below 100), will report no bump at all (zero) in the file. In fact, if you export a model with a 90% of bump, and import back to 3DSMax, you will see that the bump texture is assigned correctly, but the bump percentage is 0.. I installed today the ...
Red swollen bump - What is it if I have red swollen bumps on my leg? Numerous. There can be a number of causes so you should see your doctor so he can examine you and diagnose the lumps.
Happy Monday everyone! New week = Bigger BUMPS! So lets see your baby bumps! Everyone is looking so amazing! - Page 6
This post is a response by a doctor to a question one of our community members asked. Karina Asks: I have had this bump for 2 days now. It was not as bad. But it hurts to walk. Today i noticed it has gotten bigger. Still less than a inch in length. And i touched it and is squishy like i can pop it. Its painful. I am 21
Yesterday I hit one of those bumps in the road and still kind of feeling it today. You think you been at this for so long, that you some how feel you should have...