ABCO Automation signed a value-added reseller agreement with Visual Components, a company specializing in 3-D manufacturing factory simulation software. With this partnership, ABCO adds Visual Components simulation software to its service offerings.. "As part of our concepting and designing process, we use Visual Components to provide clients a digital 3D model of their potential system," says Jack Walsh, executive vice president, ABCO Automation. "Visual Components is key to helping our clients visualize the design and layout configuration as well as simulate the designs functionality.". The Visual Components software allows user to simulate the design of factory layouts; users get an approximate graphical view of a factory or production line, while the simulation function creates an accurate version of the factory or production line. With the visualization, users can test the simulation and find flaws before finalizing the design. ...
Over successive stages, the visual system develops neurons that respond with view, size and position invariance to objects or faces. A number of computational models have been developed to explain how transform-invariant cells could develop in the visual system. However, a major limitation of computer modelling studies to date has been that the visual stimuli are typically presented one at a time to the network during training. In this paper, we investigate how vision models may self-organize when multiple stimuli are presented together within each visual image during training. We show that as the number of independent stimuli grows large enough, standard competitive neural networks can suddenly switch from learning representations of the multi-stimulus input patterns to representing the individual stimuli. Furthermore, the competitive networks can learn transform (e.g. position or view) invariant representations of the individual stimuli if the network is presented with input patterns containing
Short presentation of a large moving pattern elicits an Ocular Following Response (OFR) that exhibits many of the properties attributed to low-level motion processing such as spatial and temporal integration, contrast gain control and divisive interaction between competing motions. Similar mechanisms have been demonstrated in V1 cortical activity in response to center-surround gratings patterns measured with real-time optical imaging in awake monkeys. More recent experiments of OFR have used disk gratings and bipartite stimuli which are optimized to study the dynamics of center-surround integration. We quantified two main characteristics of the global spatial integration of motion from an intermediate map of possible local translation velocities: (i) a finite optimal stimulus size for driving OFR, surrounded by an antagonistic modulation and (ii) a direction selective suppressive effect of the surround on the contrast gain control of the central stimuli [Barthelemy06,Barthelemy07].In fact, the ...
Integrated imaging and GPS network monitors remote object movement. Browser interface displays objects and detectors. Database stores object position movement. Cameras detect objects and generate image signal. Internet provides selectable connection between system controller and various cameras according to object positions.
Integrated imaging and GPS network monitors remote object movement. Browser interface displays objects and detectors. Database stores object position movement. Cameras detect objects and generate image signal. Internet provides selectable connection between system controller and various cameras according to object positions.
A method of manufacturing a portable computing device, involves the steps of (1) maintaining a table comprising stimulus/response data for possible hardware components that may be interfaced in the computing device; (2) performing one manufacturing step in the manufacture of the portable computing device by interfacing one of the possible hardware components with one other component of the computing device; and (3) performing one other manufacturing step in the manufacture by: (i) applying a stimulus to the interfaced hardware component, and reading a response from the interfaced hardware component in response to the applied stimulus; (ii) identifying the interfaced hardware component from a correlation of the response with the stimulus/response data; and (iii) saving the identification as configuration data in the computing device.
Laurens son, Connor, has been struggling with reading and light sensitivity since pre-school. Lauren had Connor take a test to identify whether he had...
Research in the Serre lab focuses on understanding the brain mechanisms underlying the recognition of objects and complex visual scenes using a combination of behavioral, imaging and physiological techniques.
There is a puzzle in the FAQ: Remove two opposite corners from a chessboard. Can you cover the remaining 62 squares with dominoes? Answer: No. The remaining board has 32 white and 30 black squares, but each domino must cover one black and one white square. The 56 tiles in a set of Triominoes cannot make a convex shape due to parity. Joseph DeVincentis explains why. Sam Loyd invented the 15-14 puzzle. He offered $1000 to the first person to find a sequence of moves which put at the pieces in order. By parity, this problem was unsolvable. To see this, draw a 3x3 grid and place different objects on a1, a2, c1, and c2. Make moves with the following rule: When one object moves, a different object must move to take its place. Moves are thus paired. Now, swap the objects on a1 and a2. You will find this is possible, but only if the objects on c1 and c2 also swap. John Conway made a block packing problem. You must fit three 1x1x3 boxes, thirteen 1x2x4 boxes, one 1x2x2 box, and one 2x2x2 cube into a ...
GO:0007601. The series of events required for an organism to receive a visual stimulus, convert it to a molecular signal, and recognize and characterize the signal. Visual stimuli are detected in the form of photons and are processed to form an image. ...
Assayed all keys except for J23202, but Tecan was being wierd and wouldnt give good numbers even though I changed both the integration time and the gain like 20 times. The following results were taken at a gain of 180 and 200 with the max integration time, and the OnRFP is still only in the 1000s rather than the 10000s. Might want to repeat this assay sometime ...
Gene target information for LOC340089 - POM121 membrane glycoprotein (rat) pseudogene (human). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
Gene target information for Gnptg - N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase, gamma subunit (house mouse). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
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This document provides the function overview, relationships between tables, description of single objects, description of MIB tables, and description of alarm objects.
A seller designs a mechanism to sell a single object to a potential buyer whose private type is his incomplete information about his valuation. The seller can ...
The new SQL Server 2012 Sequence Object can be used to generate unique numbers that can be automatically incremented based on an increment value. Greg Larsen discusses the different features of the sequence object and how you can use it to generate sequence numbers.
Sadly, the Bitcoin system does not allow me to see who is sending me bitcoin donations, so I cannot thank you personally. I must thank you all collectively here. Thank you for your kind support of our work ...
Construct a new path object for use with path based webservice. The path is immediately validated before use, so any subclass constraints that affect this path need to be included in the subtypes hash.. This constructor is not meant to be used directly; rather, obtain Webservice::InterMine:Path objects from their respective Service objects via their ...
PUBLIC: To set the attribute method name. The method is invoked internally by TopLink to retrieve the value to store in the domain object. The method receives Record as its parameter and optionally Session, and should extract the value from the record to set into the object, but should not set the value on the object, only return it. ...
Stress is a familiar concept that upon analysis becomes a very difficult term to define, for it is necessary to consider the stimulus, the internal reactions to the stimulus, and the responses of...
Antithesis is the opposite of something. There are several different situations in which antithesis is used, including Hegelian...
ABSTRACT. Aging often results in reduced visual acuity from changes in both the eye and neural circuits [1-4]. In normally aging subjects, primary visual cortex has been shown to have reduced responses to visual stimulation [5]. It is not known, however, to what extent aging affects visual field representations and population receptive sizes in human primary visual cortex. Here we use functional MRI (fMRI) and population receptive field (pRF) modeling [6] to measure angular and eccentric retinotopic representations and population receptive fields in primary visual cortex in healthy aging subjects ages 57 - 70 and in healthy young volunteers ages 24 - 36 (n = 9). Retinotopic stimuli consisted of black and white, drifting checkerboards comprising moving bars 11 deg in radius. Primary visual cortex (V1) was clearly identifiable along the calcarine sulcus in all hemispheres. There was a significant decrease in the surface area of V1 from 0 to 3 deg eccentricity in the aging subjects with respect to ...
Aging often results in reduced visual acuity from changes in both the eye and neural circuits [1-4]. In normally aging subjects, primary visual cortex has been shown to have reduced responses to visual stimulation [5]. It is not known, however, to what extent aging affects visual field repre-sentations and population receptive sizes in human primary visual cortex. Here we use func-tional MRI (fMRI) and population receptive field (pRF) modeling [6] to measure angular and ec-centric retinotopic representations and population receptive fields in primary visual cortex in healthy aging subjects ages 57 - 70 and in healthy young volunteers ages 24 - 36 (n = 9). Retinotopic stimuli consisted of black and white, drifting checkerboards comprising moving bars 11 deg in radius. Primary visual cortex (V1) was clearly identifiable along the calcarine sulcus in all hemispheres. There was a significant decrease in the surface area of V1 from 0 to 3 deg eccentricity in the aging subjects with respect to the young
Many pairs of spatial and temporal frequencies in a motion display that result in the same stimulus speed for a moving object can produce different speed percepts (Priebe NJ et al., J Neurosci. 2003, 23(13): 5650-61). We previously reported that judgments of the speed of an object depend on the spatiotemporal frequency of the moving pattern in an inverted-U function, peaking at a specific spatial and temporal frequency combination [http://www.journalofvision.org/4/8/84/]. The location of this peak is largely independent of the size and shape of the object. In the present series of experiments, with the use of high coherence dot motion stimuli, we investigated the dependence of perceived speed on both spatial and temporal frequencies. The perceived speed of the stimulus was estimated using a 2AFC paradigm with interleaved QUEST staircases; subjects were asked to pick the faster of the two spatially separated [6 deg eccentricity] patches of dots moving in opposite directions. We systematically ...
In this study, we show that top-down control mechanisms engaged during visual imagery of simple shapes (letters X and O) can selectively activate position-invariant perceptual codes in visual areas specialised for shape processing, including lateral occipital complex (LOC). First, we used multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to identify visual cortical areas that code for shape within a position-invariant reference frame. Next, we examined the similarity between these high-level visual codes and patterns elicited while participants imagined the corresponding stimulus at central fixation. Our results demonstrate that imagery engages object-centred codes in higher-level visual areas. More generally, our results also demonstrate that top-down control mechanisms are able to generate highly specific patterns of visual activity in the absence of corresponding sensory input. We argue that a general model of top-down control must account for dynamic modulation of functional connectivity between high-level control
The simple-cell receptive field (RF) structure is an attractive and unique feature of the primary visual cortex, which is thought to reflect the circuitry principles governing orientation selectivity. Synaptic inputs underlying spike RFs are key to understanding mechanisms for neuronal processing. The well-known push-pull model, which is proposed to explain the synaptic mechanism under simple-cell RFs, predicts that in simple cells the spatially separated excitation and inhibition does not interact with each other and that simple inhibitory neurons exist in the primary visual cortex (V1). However, previous experimental results suggest that synaptic inhibition plays an important role in shaping RF properties in the visual cortex. The synaptic mechanisms underlying simple-cell RFs remain not well understood, partly due to difficulties in systematically studying functional properties of cortical inhibitory neurons and precisely measuring excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs in vivo.; In the ...
Many current models of working memory (WM) emphasize a close relationship between WM and attention. Recently it was demonstrated that attention can be dynamically and voluntarily oriented to items held in WM, and it was suggested that directed attention can modulate the maintenance of specific WM representations. Here we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the effects of orienting attention to a category of stimuli when participants maintained a variable number of faces and scenes in WM. Retro-cues that indicated the relevant stimulus type for the subsequent WM test modulated maintenance-related activity in extrastriate areas preferentially responsive to face or scene stimuli - fusiform and parahippocampal gyri respectively - in a categorical way. After the retro-cue, the activity level in these areas was larger for the cued category in a load-independent way, suggesting the modulation may also reflect anticipation of the probe stimulus. Activity in associative parietal and
Previous experimental studies have reported that V1 neurons can respond to a region of uniform luminance (Kinoshita & Komatsu, 2001; Friedman et al., 2003; Roe et al., 2005). Some V1 neurons even show responses modulated by the luminance change of surrounding areas, or flankers that are several degrees away from the their CRFs, while the luminance of the area that covers their CRFs stays constant (Rossi et al., 1996; Rossi & Paradiso, 1999). Some of these neurons show responses that are antiphase to the luminance change of flankers, but show responses in-phase to direct luminance change. These responses are consistent with the human perception of brightness. The modulation of these neurons responses to the simultaneous contrast stimuli cut off at 4 Hz, while the modulation of their responses to direct luminance increases with temporal frequency of the luminance change, which is also consistent to the result shown in human psychophysical studies (Valois, Webster, Valois, & Lingelbach, 1986; ...
Spike count correlations (SCCs), covariation of neuronal responses across multiple presentations of the same stimulus, are ubiquitous in sensory cortices and span different modalities (1⇓-3) and processing stages (4⇓⇓-7). In the visual system, SCCs, also termed noise correlations, have traditionally been considered to be independent of the stimulus and hence have been thought to impede stimulus encoding (8). Studies on stimulus-independent aspects of SCCs in the primary visual cortex (V1) sought to capture correlation patterns that were solely accounted for by differences in receptive field structure (9, 10). Initial investigations of dependence of SCCs on low-level stimulus features, such as orientation and contrast, focused on the population mean of SCCs (11⇓-13), but stimulus-dependent changes in the mean are modest in awake animals (9, 14). Only recently has orientation and contrast dependence of the fine structure of SCCs been demonstrated in anesthetized cats and awake mice (15). ...
Orienting spatial attention to locations in the extrapersonal world has been intensively investigated during the past decades. Recently, it was demonstrated that it is also possible to shift attention to locations within mental representations held in working memory. This is an important issue, since the allocation of our attention is not only guided by external stimuli, but also by their internal representations and the expectations we build upon them. The present experiment used behavioural measures and event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether spatial orienting to mental representations can modulate the search and retrieval of information from working memory, and to identify the neural systems involved, respectively. Participants viewed an array of coloured crosses. Seconds after its disappearance, they were cued to locations in the array with valid or neutral cues. Subsequently, they decided whether a probe stimulus was presented in the array. The behavioural results
Perception is shaped by both bottom-up inputs and top-down expectations. Here, we observed a direct neural correlate of this integration of inputs and priors in early visual cortex. Previous studies have shown that sensory representations in early visual cortex can be classified (Haynes and Rees, 2005; Kamitani and Tong, 2005, 2006) and reconstructed (Miyawaki et al., 2008; Brouwer and Heeger, 2009, 2011; Naselaris et al., 2009) on the basis of mesoscale fMRI signals during passive viewing of visual stimuli, and that these representations are also present in absence of sensory stimulation, for example during working memory maintenance (Harrison and Tong, 2009; Riggall and Postle, 2012). Additionally, representations in visual cortex have been shown to reflect arbitrary perceptual decisions about randomly moving dot patterns (Serences and Boynton, 2007b). While these previous studies investigated either bottom-up-induced or top-down-induced sensory representations in isolation, here we show that ...
In an attempt to understand how low-level visual information contributes to object categorisation, previous studies have examined the effects of spatially filtering images on object recognition at different levels of abstraction. Here, the quantitative thresholds for object categorisation at the basic and subordinate levels are determined by using a combination of the method of adjustment and a match-to-sample method. Participants were asked to adjust the cut-off of either a low-pass or high-pass filter applied to a target image until they reached the threshold at which they could match the target image to one of six simultaneously presented category names. This allowed more quantitative analysis of the spatial frequencies necessary for recognition than previous studies. Results indicate that a more central range of low spatial frequencies is necessary for subordinate categorisation than basic, though the difference is small, at about 0.25 octaves. Conversely, there was no effect of categorisation level
Stimulus modality, also called sensory modality, is one aspect of a stimulus or what we perceive after a stimulus. For example, the temperature modality is registered after heat or cold stimulate a receptor. Some sensory modalities include: light, sound, temperature, taste, pressure, and smell. The type and location of the sensory receptor activated by the stimulus plays the primary role in coding the sensation. All sensory modalities work together to heighten stimuli sensation when necessary. Multimodal perception is the ability of the mammalian nervous system to combine all of the different inputs of the sensory nervous system to result in an enhanced detection or identification of a particular stimulus. Combinations of all sensory modalities are done in cases where a single sensory modality results in ambiguous and incomplete result. Integration of all sensory modalities occurs when multimodal neurons receive sensory information which overlaps with different modalities. Multimodal neurons are ...
Visual images of our own and others body parts can be highly similar, but the types of information we wish to extract from them are highly distinct. From our own body we wish to combine visual information with, at least, somatosensory, proprioceptive and motor information in order to guide our interpretation of sensory events and our actions upon the world. For others bodies we only have visual information available, but from that we can derive much useful social information including their age, health, gender, emotional state and intentions. Consequently, a challenge for the brain is to sort visual images of our own bodies, to be integrated with processing from other sensory modalities, from highly similar images of others bodies for social cognition. We explored the possibility that the extrastriate body area (EBA) may help to accomplish this sorting. Previous work had suggested that the EBA is responsive to images of both our own and others body parts but does not distinguish between ...
Author Summary How can humans and animals make complex decisions on time scales as short as 100 ms? The information required for such decisions is coded in neural activity and should be read out on a very brief time scale. Traditional approaches to coding of neural information rely on the number of electrical pulses, or spikes, that neurons fire in a certain time window. Although this type of code is likely to be used by the brain for higher cognitive tasks, it may be too slow for fast decisions. Here, we explore an alternative code which is based on the latency of spikes with respect to a reference signal. By analyzing the simultaneous responses of many cells in monkey visual cortex, we show that information about the orientation of visual stimuli can be extracted reliably from spike latencies on very short time scales.
In this experiment we contrast the neural activity associated with reporting a stimulus attribute with the activity that occurs when the same stimulus attribute is used to guide behavior. Reporting the characteristics of a stimulus differs from simply tracking that stimulus since reporting requires that a stimulus is explicitly recognized and associated with an arbitrary response. In one condition the subject used his right finger to follow a square that moved randomly on a screen. In a second condition he had to indicate changes in the direction of the squares movements by touching one of two report buttons with his right finger. Two other conditions were added to control for the differences in the form of movement between the two primary conditions. When the reporting condition was contrasted with the tracking condition (controlling for the differences in the form of movement), areas in the ventral visual system (the left ventral prefrontal cortex and the left inferior temporal cortex) were activated
When objects disappear from view, we can still bring them to mind, at least for brief periods of time, because we can represent those objects in visual short-term memory (VSTM) (Sperling, 1960; Cowan, 2001). A defining characteristic of this representation is that it is topographic, that is, it preserves a spatial organization based on the original visual percept (Vogel and Machizawa, 2004; Astle et al., 2009; Kuo et al., 2009). Recent research has also shown that features or locations of visual items that match those being maintained in conscious VSTM automatically capture our attention (Awh and Jonides, 2001; Olivers et al., 2006; Soto et al., 2008). But do objects leave some trace that can guide spatial attention, even without participants intentionally remembering them? Furthermore, could subliminally presented objects leave a topographically arranged representation that can capture attention? We presented objects either supraliminally or subliminally and then 1 s later re-presented one of those
Neurite arbors of VGluT3-expressing amacrine cells (VG3-ACs) process visual information locally uniformly detecting object motion while varying in contrast preferences; and in spite of extensive overlap between arbors of neighboring cells population activity in the VG3-AC plexus encodes stimulus positions with subcellular precision.
Cueing attention to one part of an object can facilitate discrimination in another part (Experiment 1 [Duncan, J. (1984). Selective attention and the organization of visual information. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 113, 501-517]; [Egly, R., Driver, J., & Rafal, R. D. (1994). Shifting visual attention between objects and locations: evidence from normal and parietal lesion subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 123, 161-177]). We show that this object-based mediation of attention is disrupted when a pointing movement is prepared to the cued part; when a pointing response is prepared to a part of an object, discrimination does not differ between (i) stimuli at locations in the same object but distant to the part where the pointing movement is programmed and (ii) stimuli at locations equidistant from the movement but outside the object (Experiment 2). This remains true even when the pointing movement cannot be performed without first coding the whole
Visual binding is the process by which the brain groups the elements belonging to one object, whilst segregating them from other scene elements. A computationally parsimonious mechanism of visual binding is the binding-by-synchrony (BBS) hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, detectors that respond to elements of a single object fire in synchrony, while detectors that respond to elements of different objects do not. Current psychophysical and physiological evidence are inconclusive about the role of BBS in the visual integration process. Here we provide psychophysical and computational evidence suggesting that the visual system implements a mechanism that synchronizes response onsets to object parts and attenuates or cancels their latency differences. In three experiments, observers had to judge the synchrony of two flickering Gabor patches embedded in a static Gabor contour, passing through fixation. We found that a smooth contour, as compared to a jagged one, impedes judgments of temporal synchrony
Although it is widely assumed that visual cognition relies on predictive inference, the investigation of neurocomputational mechanisms underlying generative vision have thus far been limited to impoverished toy scenarios in which only a single stimulus feature or category is subject to conditional expectations. Here, we built on this work to tackle the more complex but realistic scenario of the visual brain managing concurrent expectations for multiple object features and to shed light on the transformation from expectations concerning individual stimulus features to a unified, object-level expectation. To develop and test formal hypotheses, we harnessed computational modeling in combination with behavioral and neuroimaging data, which allowed us to adjudicate between rival possibilities concerning how different feature expectations (and attention) interact in driving perceptual decisions and neural representations (Table 1). Behavioral data (Fig. 1) and fMRI data (Figs. 4, 6) from two ...
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Hi there, Ive built a horizontally scrollable hbox layout container, docked on top, filled with other sub-containers, which I want to transform into a vbox layout (scrollable vertically, docked to the left) on orientation change. Right now Im doing something like this on resize: var hboxLayout = Ext.getCmp(hboxLayoutID); Ext.getCmp(hboxLayoutParentID).removeAll(false, true);
Amodal categorization is the grouping of common stimuli independent of the modality of sensory input. Primates show behavioural signs of amodal categorization/cross-modal equivalence. When provided with an object to inspect haptically, apes and monkeys were able to generalize what they had learned to the visual modality (Davenport & Rogers 1970; Weiskrantz & Cowey 1975; Elliot 1977). In addition, when monkeys (or humans) were expected to categorize vocalizations, prior presentation of conceptually congruent images led to faster responses (Martin-Malivel & Fagot 2001). This demonstrates an independence of the perceptual attributes of a stimulus to categorization, something that should be incorporated more explicitly in the aforementioned models of object categorization.. We do not yet know the neural basis for amodal processing, and, indeed, there may be biases for some stimulus pairings across modality that are innate or biased early in development, and therefore are not consistent with other ...
Categorization is a process by which the brain assigns meaning to sensory stimuli. Through experience, we learn to group stimuli into categories, such as chair, table and vehicle, which are critical for rapidly and appropriately selecting behavioural responses. Although much is known about the neural representation of simple visual stimulus features (for example, orientation, direction and colour), relatively little is known about how the brain learns and encodes the meaning of stimuli. We trained monkeys to classify 360° of visual motion directions into two discrete categories, and compared neuronal activity in the lateral intraparietal (LIP) and middle temporal (MT) areas, two interconnected brain regions known to be involved in visual motion processing. Here we show that neurons in LIP-an area known to be centrally involved in visuo-spatial attention, motor planning, and decision-making -- robustly reflect the category of motion direction as a result of learning. The activity of LIP ...
One strong claim made by the representational-hierarchical account of cortical function in the ventral visual stream (VVS) is that the VVS is a functional continuum: The basic computations carried out in service of a given cognitive function, such as recognition memory or visual discrimination, might be the same at all points along the VVS. Here, we use a single-layer computational model with a fixed learning mechanism and set of parameters to simulate a variety of cognitive phenomena from different parts of the functional continuum of the VVS: recognition memory, categorization of perceptually related stimuli, perceptual learning of highly similar stimuli, and development of retinotopy and orientation selectivity. The simulation results indicate-consistent with the representational-hierarchical view-that the simple existence of different levels of representational complexity in different parts of the VVS is sufficient to drive the emergence of distinct regions that appear to be specialized for ...
Simple features, such as particular edges of the image in a specific orientation, are extracted at the first cortical processing stage, called the primary visual cortex, or V1. Then subsequent cortical processing stages, V2, V4, etc., extract progressively more complex features, culminating in the inferotemporal cortex where that essential "viewpoint invariant object identification" is thought to occur. But, most of the connections in the human brain do not project up the cortical hierarchy, as might be expected from gross neuroanatomy, but rather connect neurons located at the same hierarchical level, called lateral connections, and also project down the cortical hierarchy to lower processing levels ...
...Vicious winner-take-all competition in nature is an essential pillar ... I think its really unnecessary Miller said. Whats extremely unfo...Because Miller is a leading textbook author and a frequent contributor...Millers basic approach is to help students trace the development of a...,Teaching,science,to,the,religious?,Focus,on,how,theories,develop,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
The body is designed in a way wherein the different sense organs work with the brain for the interpretation of the different senses so that we can exhibit the appropriate responses, both behavioral and motor. However, there are instances when the responses are not proper because of misinterpretation of the senses. This condition is called sensory processing disorder.. Sensory processing disorder (SPD) was formerly known as sensory integration dysfunction was first described by A. Jean Ayres, a neuroscientist who said that this disorder is similar to a traffic jam that occurs in the neurons, wherein some parts of the brain are prevented from receiving the correct information so that sensory information are interpreted correctly. For someone who has SPD, what happens is that sensory information is perceived differently from that which is normal to other people. This will then result in behavior or responses that are unusual, which makes it hard to accomplish some tasks.. The exact causes of ...
Stock photo Web sites (or any other Web sites that allow downloading high-quality pictures) list thousands of photos that include a single object on a white background. These can be pretty much anything-fruits, vegetables, hands, legs, lamps, tools, cookies, trees, cars, etc. Usually these photos are intended for image editing needs such as complex compositions, ads, and any other pictures that may include either a single object or more than one. But before using such objects in your composition, you want to remove that annoying white background. In this tutorial we will look at the quickest way to remove unwanted background of any color.. Please note that by "the quickest way" we really mean the quickest, not the most precise way (which is the theme for the next Pixelmator tutorial) of removing unwanted backgrounds. This technique might not work with complex backgrounds or blurry objects.. Anyway, lets get started.. Step 1. Open an image with the object for which you would like to remove the ...
A perceptual set, also called perceptual expectancy or just set is a predisposition to perceive things in a certain way.[71] It is an example of how perception can be shaped by "top-down" processes such as drives and expectations.[72] Perceptual sets occur in all the different senses.[42] They can be long term, such as a special sensitivity to hearing ones own name in a crowded room, or short term, as in the ease with which hungry people notice the smell of food.[73] A simple demonstration of the effect involved very brief presentations of non-words such as "sael". Subjects who were told to expect words about animals read it as "seal", but others who were expecting boat-related words read it as "sail".[73] Sets can be created by motivation and so can result in people interpreting ambiguous figures so that they see what they want to see.[72] For instance, how someone perceives what unfolds during a sports game can be biased if they strongly support one of the teams.[74] In one experiment, ...
A perceptual set, also called perceptual expectancy or just set is a predisposition to perceive things in a certain way.[73] It is an example of how perception can be shaped by "top-down" processes such as drives and expectations.[74] Perceptual sets occur in all the different senses.[45] They can be long term, such as a special sensitivity to hearing ones own name in a crowded room, or short term, as in the ease with which hungry people notice the smell of food.[75] A simple demonstration of the effect involved very brief presentations of non-words such as "sael". Subjects who were told to expect words about animals read it as "seal", but others who were expecting boat-related words read it as "sail".[75]. Sets can be created by motivation and so can result in people interpreting ambiguous figures so that they see what they want to see.[74] For instance, how someone perceives what unfolds during a sports game can be biased if they strongly support one of the teams.[76] In one experiment, ...
A perceptual set, also called perceptual expectancy or just set is a predisposition to perceive things in a certain way.[90] It is an example of how perception can be shaped by "top-down" processes such as drives and expectations.[91] Perceptual sets occur in all the different senses.[56] They can be long term, such as a special sensitivity to hearing ones own name in a crowded room, or short term, as in the ease with which hungry people notice the smell of food.[92] A simple demonstration of the effect involved very brief presentations of non-words such as "sael". Subjects who were told to expect words about animals read it as "seal", but others who were expecting boat-related words read it as "sail".[92]. Sets can be created by motivation and so can result in people interpreting ambiguous figures so that they see what they want to see.[91] For instance, how someone perceives what unfolds during a sports game can be biased if they strongly support one of the teams.[93] In one experiment, ...
Are motion paths available in Animator? On the product page the Bee is flying and its movement seem to made with the aid of motion paths.
Join Walt Ritscher for an in-depth discussion in this video Handling orientation changes, part of Building Windows Store Apps Essential Training
Indeed, both humans and monkeys make two to three fast eye movements every second in this manner, with each eye-movement lasting less than one-tenth of a second. Because the eye acts like a camera, each eye-movement results in a different view of the scene falling onto the retina.. However, despite these fast changes in viewpoint (which can also result from head movements), humans and monkeys do not see a scene that jumps around: Instead, they are able to "stitch together" the information obtained during each fixation to perceive a stable visual scene. They are also able to keep track of where relevant objects are in the scene even with these frequent changes in viewpoint. This is a very challenging task. Visual neurons respond more to relevant objects than to irrelevant ones. This increased response to relevant stimuli "marks" relevant stimuli.. Since each visual neuron in the brain only responds when a specific part of the retina is stimulated, each change in viewpoint with an eye-movement ...
Hatada, Y. (2009) Modulation of temporal and spatial frequency perception is correlated in craniotopic coordinates. Society for neuroscience Abstract.. Hatada, Y. (2009) Time perception is modulated by spatial adaptation to prism glasses. Workshop of Computational principles of sensorimotor learning. Kloster Irsee, Germany. Hatada, Y. (2008) Perceived visual spatial frequency is modulated with perceived eye orientation. International symposium on the neural basis of decision making . Groesbeek, Netherlands. Hatada, Y. (2008) Interactive coding between audition and vision in perception of temporal frequency and spatial frequency in craniotopic coordinates. BCBT meeeting. Spain. Hatada, Y. (2007) Visual spatial lateral displacement by prism adaptation distorted perception of temporal frequency in vision and audition, at "purely" perceptual level. Society for neuroscience Abstract 303.16. Hatada, Y. (2007) A coding model from the experimental results on inseparability in craniotopic visual ...
The paper describes a test of brain fingerprinting, a technology based on EEG that is purported to be able to detect the existence of prior knowledge or memory in the brain. The P300 occurs when the tested subject is presented with a rarely occurring stimulus that is significant in context (for example, in the context of a crime) When an irrelevant stimulus is presented, a P300 is not expected to occur The P300 is widely known in the scientific community, and is also known as an oddball-evoked P300 While researching the P300, Dr. Farwell created a more detailed test that not only includes the P300, but also observes the stimulus response up to 1400 ms after the stimulus. He calls this brain response a MERMER, memory and encoding related multifaceted electroencephalographic response. The P300, an electrically positive component, is maximal at the midline parietal area of the head and has a peak latency of approximately 300 to 800 ms. The MERMER includes the P300 and also includes an electrically ...
The notion that visual attention can operate over visual objects in addition to spatial locations has recently received much empirical support, but there has been relatively little empirical consideration of what can count as an `object in the ®rst place. We have investi- gated this question in the context of the multiple object tracking paradigm, in which subjects must track a number of independently and unpredictably moving identical items in a ®eld of identical distractors. What types of feature clusters can (...) be tracked in this manner? In other words, what counts as an `object in this task? We investigated this question with a technique we call target merging: we alter tracking displays so that distinct target and distractor loca- tions appear perceptually to be parts of the same object by merging pairs of items (one target with one distractor) in various ways ± for example, by connecting item locations with a simple line segment, by drawing the convex hull of the two items, and so ...
Spatial characteristics of the Mise en scéne in Peter Zumthor`s Architecture - Peter Zumthor;Mise en $sc{\acute{e}}ne$;Atmospheres;Intertextuality;Synesthesia;
One of the reasons that reports of such contextual influences on object-specific neural responses have been lacking in the literature so far is that researchers have tended to simplify images by presenting objects in isolation. Using such images precludes consideration of contextual influences," Cox said. The findings not only add to scientists understanding of the brain and vision, but also "open up some very interesting issues from the perspective of developmental neuroscience," Sinha said. For example, how does the brain acquire the ability to use contextual cues? Are we born with this ability, or is it learned over time? Sinha is exploring these questions through Project Prakash, a scientific and humanitarian effort to look at how individuals who are born blind but later gain some vision perceive objects and faces. (See MIT Tech Talk, Aug. 25, 2003 ...
Children have long been warned that self-stimulation could make them go blind. Now it appears there may be some truth in the old wives' tale.
Exactly. Now, part of this rise is due to good government (as they like to say) in Canada, but much of it is surely due to bad government here in the US. And Id like to thank both President Bush and Congress for both doing their part to debase our currency. I blogged about the difference between Canadian budget surpluses and US budget deficits back in 2003, and the simple fact is that, given massive, year-after-year deficits with no end in sight, the world is going to place less of a premium on the US dollar.. With the dollars at parity, now its Canadian shoppers who are coming to the US for bargains. Oh, how times have changed.. ...
The brain is part of the nervous system of complex animals. The nervous system arose and developed in the early multicellular animals as a means of coordinating the various parts of the organism. Within the nervous system, the brain evolved as a coordinating center. Messages come into the brain over nerve fibers. In the brain, the messages are evaluated and response directives are sent out over other nerve fibers. Thus, the body is made to respond to stimuli. In the body are various tissues which are sensitive to particular stimuli; that is, each kind of sensitive tissue is capable of being stimulated by only one kind of irritation. The retina of the eye is sensitive to certain frequencies of radiant energy. Certain tissues in the ear are sensitive to certain frequencies of vibration in the atmosphere. Certain tissues in the tongue and nose are sensitive to certain chemical substances. Certain parts of the skin are sensitive to contact with other objects. Many places in the body are ...
McAfee SECURE Certification helps your customers feel safe - no matter how large or small your website is. Meaning youll get more engagement, and more conversions.
Join Lee Lanier for an in-depth discussion in this video Creating the motion path reference, part of VFX Techniques: Space Scene 01 Maya Animation and Dynamic Simulation
Previous research has found practice improves your ability at distinguishing visual images that vary along one dimension, and that this learning is specific to the visual images you train on and quite durable. A new study extends the finding to more natural stimuli that vary on multiple dimensions.. In the small study, 9 participants learned to identify faces and 6 participants learned to identify "textures" (noise patterns) over the course of two hour-long sessions of 840 trials (consecutive days). Faces were cropped to show only internal features and only shown briefly, so this was not a particularly easy task. Participants were then tested over a year later (range: 10-18 months; average 13 and 15 months, respectively).. On the test, participants were shown both images from training and new images that closely resembled them. While accuracy rates were high for the original images, they plummeted for the very similar new images, indicating that despite the length of time since they had seen the ...
So in other words, thoughts are constructed through a complex process of multiple forms of stimuli affecting electrochemical transmissions throughout the nervous system which in turn establish neural circuitry patterns within the neuron structures of the brain, and these patterns formulate conscious and conceptually coherent thoughts. As you can see, there is literally an infinite amount of potential neural circuitry patterns, all depending on the particular stimuli presently occuring insofar as the previous conditioning/structure of the neural circuitry. So when two people think alike, first off it is never identically alike, and second this is mostly due to similar social/cultural conditioning, not because there are "thought entities floating around on different frequencies" gibberish, lol. All this frequency talk is New Agers short hand for this complex process, but it is really misleading because it insinuates all sorts of misconceptions ...
New for 3ds Max 2018 in this tutorial learn how to use Motion Paths and Bezier handles to control your animation without reverting back to the Curve Editor
Dynamic stimulus where two occluding bars move in opposite direction.Tracking of L-junctions (green) leads to correct motion estimates of the two bars while tra
Verbal representations of space are related to the space they describe by a sign relation comprising three components. The first is the sign vehicle consisting of the sequence of words which describe the spatial environment. The second is the object of reference, the spatial environment as such, and the third is the mental representation of the spatial perception.Within this triad, space is never an unsemiotically given piece of reality. Space is always a semiotic phenomenon insofar as its structure depends on the process of human perception. Even as a referential object, space is not an independently given phenomenon of the "real" world itself but depends on the cognitive capacity and structure of the perceiving mind. ...
The action potenial can only occur if the threshild value has been exceeded. It hasd to be rather strong to trigger the openming of the NA channels.. If the threshod is not exceed the "ALL OR NOTHIUNG LAW" will occur. The action potenial is always the same strength. The intensity of a particular stimulus is distinguished by the frequency of teh action poptenial it initiates, & not the strength of them.. Greater no of receptors that pick up the stimulus, greater the strength of the stimulus.. Hyperpolarisation: overshoot which occurs because teh outward flow of K reaches equilibrium before the restring potenial.. Refactory period: for a millisecond repolarisation teh restijng potenial has not been restored. therefore impossible for another action potenial to occur. absolute refactory period. Important role: ensures that each wave of action potenials travels as a discrete impulse and travels in one direction only.. Relative refactory period: an action potenial can be initiated but only if the ...
During search for multiple targets, individuals can efficiently prepare to select multiple target objects simultaneously, but the actual selection of those objects from the sensory input is limited.
Signal:noise for FFluc and Lux increases with integration time, and decreases for Gluc.Luminescence was measured using six different integration times and four
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Any decision that involves using a limited resource like time or money will naturally result in a winner-take-all situation. These situations in which small differences in performance lead to outsized rewards are known as Winner-Take-All Effects You only need to be a little bit better than the competition to secure all of the reward. ...
Self doubt and uncertainty is all conjured in your prefrontal cortex by your consciousness, this is why animals purely act on stimulus response from the central nervous system.Your reactions are only reptilian in nature, so dont be so hard on yourself, stimuli from the medulla oblongata and cerebellum control your fig
A system and method for storing conceptual information. The system stores concepts as a single object. The object includes all information relating to the concept. Therefore, the object is a self-defining object. A request for any information included in the concept may retrieve the entire object. The object may store the information as a hierarchy. The hierarchy may be navigated in a plurality of directions. The concept may be a color.
Fluorescent controls are useful for visual indication of delivery, and when combined with functional knockdown assessment, provide a useful tool for optimization.. siGLO Positive controls will effectively silence the indicated gene, and result in punctate cytoplasmic fluorescence. All are labeled with DY-547 (Cy3 analog). siGLO RISC-Free Control is a DY-547-labeled negative control that can also be co-transfected with functional siRNAs.. siGLO Transfection Indicators are unique non-RISC engaging molecules that localize to the nucleus, providing a distinct visual indication of transfection success. They are available with either DY-547 (Red) or 6-FAM (Green).. ...
one important concept is the idea of selective attention, the CNS (i.e., cognitive) process whereby higher order brain regions can alter the sensitivity of sensory processing, in order to preferentially extract information from one sensory system over another, or to pay attention to one component of a complex stimulus over another ...
Use BIOPAC data acquisition systems for human and animal EEG recordings. The systems are suitable for single-channel and multi-channel EEG recordings. The software provides real-time filters for identifying alpha, beta, theta, delta, and gamma wave activity. A variety of stimulus response protocols are possible when using the averaging and stimulator accessories.
Fig. 3. DNN modeling of ventral-stream representational dynamics. (A) The RDM movies of all 3 ventral-stream regions were used as time-varying deep learning objectives targeting separate DNN layers, together with a time-decaying category objective at the readout. Each artificial network thereby attempts to simultaneously capture the representational dynamics of all ventral-stream areas. Stimulus display (Top Left) adapted with permission from ref. 20. (B) Development of the average pattern distance across time. MEG data are shown together with the results of ramping feedforward, and recurrent DNNs. (C) Average frame-by-frame RDM correlation between model and brain. Correlations estimated on separate data from individual participants, shown as gray dots. Data are normalized by the predictive performance of the MEG RDM movies used for training (normalization factor shown for each region at the level of 1.0). For all ROIs (black, V1-V3; blue, V4t/LO; red, IT/PHC), recurrent networks significantly ...
asymptote depends on texlive-base-bin; however: Indeed. Please edit the equivs input file, and add asymptote to the long list. Then run the equivs command again, and install the package. After that you can remove asymptote, too. , So obviously its asymptote thats creating the problem. Now, I It is not a problem, it is supposed to be so. , never asked for asymptote to be installed (just texmaker) and its , only listed as a recommended package for texmaker, so Im not sure Yes, by *default* recommended packages will be installed. That has been the case in Debian (and thus Ubuntu) since many many years (20+?) , that would elevate recommends to depends? If I remove it, I can No, see above. But there is one to not install recommends by default. , Further, I notice that texlive-base-bin is not listed in the equivs , file. I would guess, then, that there is a problem with chaining Which version of asymptote do you have installed? In *my* version (2.38-1) there is *no* depends on ...
Recently, the target object can be represented as sparse coefficient vector in visual tracking. Due to this reason, exploitation of the compressibility in the transform domain by using L1 minimization is needed. Further, L1 minimization is proposed to handle the occlusion problem in visual tracking, since tracking failures mostly are caused by occlusion. Furthermore, there is a weighted parameter in L1 minimization that influences the result of this minimization. In this paper, this parameter is analyzed for occlusion problem in visual tracking. Several coefficients that derived from median value of the target object, mean value of the arget object, the standard deviation of the target object are, 0, 0.1, and 0.01 are used as weighted parameter of L1 minimization. Based on the experimental results, the value which is equal to 0.1 is suggested as weighted parameter of L1 minimization, due to achieved the best result of success rate and precision performance parameter. Both of these performance ...
Specifying a single object gives a sequential analysis of variance table for that fit. That is, the reductions in the residual sum of squares as each term of the formula is added in turn are given in as the rows of a table, plus the residual sum of squares. The table will contain F statistics (and P values) comparing the mean square for the row to the residual mean square. If more than one object is specified, the table has a row for the residual degrees of freedom and sum of squares for each model. For all but the first model, the change in degrees of freedom and sum of squares is also given. (This only make statistical sense if the models are nested.) It is conventional to list the models from smallest to largest, but this is up to the user. Optionally the table can include test statistics. Normally the F statistic is most appropriate, which compares the mean square for a row to the residual sum of squares for the largest model considered. If ...
During this webinar we will present how to identify the right probe for your target from catalog probes, discuss our probe design technology and nomenclature. In addition we will also learn from our Design Scientist about the target information required for designing a custom probe suitable for your research needs. It is intended to be an introduction and does not require previous training ...
As for the TK thing, its obviously Yoda holding back(even in the movie hes just playing defensive). You can argue Dooku managed to deflect a single object thrown at him by Yoda, but then Luke deflected objects thrown at him by Vader in ESB and SotME, so I fail to see why that implies parity ...
Something similar happened to me at Wal-Mart with an MP3 player. I had bought it, took it out to the car and opened it up and to my surprise right out of the box there is a huge crack in the screen. I turn it on and all I get is a grey screen with the black inky stuff. I threw everything back in the box and went back inside to exchange if for another and I argued with the woman at the Customer service desk, her superviser, the assistant manager and the store manager. by the time I was talking to the store manager I was extremely pissed off and the manager clearly saw that. I was still refused an exchange. Drove to the other Wal-Mart in the city on the other end of town and walked up to the customer service desk and explained that I wanted to exchange it, this time she skipped her supervisor and assistant manager and went straight to the store manager, he came out and told me that he just received a call from the other wal-mart (get this, the two store managers are brothers) and was told not to ...
Title: IMMUNOLOGICAL SELF-TOLERANCE MAINTAINED BY ACTIVATED T-CELLS EXPRESSING IL-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA-CHAINS (CD25) - BREAKDOWN OF A SINGLE MECHANISM OF SELF-TOLERANCE CAUSES VARIOUS AUTOIMMUNE- ...
R. Sahu, U. Bhat, N. M. Batra, H. Sharona, B. Vishal, S. Sarkar, S. Assa Aravindh, S. C. Peter, I. S. Roqan, P. M. F. J. Costa and R. Datta, Nature of low dimensional structural modulations and relative phase stability in RexMo(W)1-xS2 transition metal dichalcogenide alloys, J. Appl. Phys. (2017). In Press ...
R. Sahu, U. Bhat, N. M. Batra, H. Sharona, B. Vishal, S. Sarkar, S. Assa Aravindh, S. C. Peter, I. S. Roqan, P. M. F. J. Costa and R. Datta, Nature of low dimensional structural modulations and relative phase stability in RexMo(W)1-xS2 transition metal dichalcogenide alloys, J. Appl. Phys. (2017). In Press ...
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The top federal official for health IT is reserving judgment on whether all entities engaged in sharing health information ought to comply with FISMA
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Rik Henson.. Abstract not available. This talk is part of the Chaucer Club series.. ...
this is brief presentation , I had present it in my workfield..hope u get benefit and I will be happy to get new information about my topic,,,,
Catie Travers, Community Liaison will be accompanied by clinicians from the Adolescent and the Adult Programs. They will provide a brief presentation and will be available to answer any questions you might have about treatment and programming at High Focus ...
Typefaces have predetermined spacing between words that is dictated by the point size and width of a typestyle, the darkness or density of the typeface, and the openness or tightness of the letterspacing. For text set ragged right (unjustified), word spacing may be fixed and unchanging. However, for text that is set flush left and flush right (justified), the spacing may need to be more flexible. For justified text, an average word space of a fourth of an em is ideal, with a minimum and maximum range of a fifth of an em to half an em. |
Typefaces have predetermined spacing between words that is dictated by the point size and width of a typestyle, the darkness or density of the typeface, and the openness or tightness of the letterspacing. For text set ragged right (unjustified), word spacing may be fixed and unchanging. However, for text that is set flush left and flush right (justified), the spacing may need to be more flexible. For justified text, an average word space of a fourth of an em is ideal, with a minimum and maximum range of a fifth of an em to half an em. |
Problem/Motivation Configuration object wonderful.settings should be able to be like: node: article: status: TRUE wonderful: FALSE page: status: FALSE wonderful: FALSE user: user: status: TRUE wonderful: TRUE and schema: wonderful.settings: type: sequence label: Entity type sequence: - type: sequence label: Bundle sequence: - type: mapping label: Wondeful settings mapping: status: