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The most widely used staining procedure in recent electron microscope studies of virus-infected plants has involved the use of uranyl acetate, either during dehydration or as a post-stain, together with lead citrate as a post-stain (Arnott & Smith, 1968; Milne & de Zoeten, 1967). Following the recent demonstration that the appearance of tobacco mosaic virus in thin section could be altered by prolonging the duration of dehydration staining with uranyl acetate (Cocking & Pojnar, 1968a), the use of other heavy-metal stains for dehydration staining, both alone and in combination with uranyl acetate, has been investigated. A double-staining procedure using phosphotungstic acid and uranyl acetate has been developed and the potential of this procedure in electron-microscope studies of virus infection is discussed. Phosphotungstic acid has been known for many years to give high contrast when used as a tissue stain during dehydration (Huxley, 1958).
Page contains details about 12-phosphotungstic acid supported on SiO2 . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Anhydrous and water-assisted proton mobility in phosphotungstic acid. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Polyaniline shows great potential and promises wide application in the biomedical field thanks to its intrinsic conductivity and material properties, which closely resemble natural tissues. Surface properties are crucial, as these predetermine any interaction with biological fluids, proteins and cells. An advantage of polyaniline is the simple modification of its surface, e.g., by using various dopant acids. An investigation was made into the adhesion, proliferation and migration of mouse embryonic fibroblasts on pristine polyaniline films and films doped with sulfamic and phosphotungstic acids. In addition, polyaniline films supplemented with poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic) acid at various ratios were tested. Results showed that the NIH/3T3 cell line was able to adhere, proliferate and migrate on the pristine polyaniline films as well as those films doped with sulfamic and phosphotungstic acids; thus, utilization of said forms in biomedicine appears promising. Nevertheless, ...
To apply the method of quantitative electron microscopy to the measurement of mass in thin sections, the thickness of the section at or very near the structure to be studied must be known. Dowex anion exchange resin AG 1 x 2, stained with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) at pH 6.4, was used as a thickness standard which could be embedded and sectioned. The sectioned PTA-Dowex appeared uniformly stained and exhibited suitable electron opacity. The stoichiometry of the reaction between PTA and the Dowex resin was measured by three independent methods based on gravimetric, colorimetric, and nitrogen determinations whose results showed close agreement. From the PTA uptake, the density of the stained spheres was calculated. Mass of a defined area of PTA-Dowex was measured by quantitative electron microscopy, and from this mass and density, the volume and then the thickness were calculated. The values for thickness were compared to those obtained by interference microscopy on the embedding medium alone in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural basis for inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases by Keggin compounds phosphomolybdate and phosphotungstate. AU - Heo, Yong Seok. AU - Ryu, Jung Min. AU - Park, Sang Myun. AU - Park, Jeon Han. AU - Lee, Hyun Chul. AU - Hwang, Kwang Yeon. AU - Kim, Jongsun. PY - 2002/7/31. Y1 - 2002/7/31. N2 - Protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) constitute a family of receptor-like, and cytoplasmic enzymes, which catalyze the dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine residues in a variety of receptors and signaling molecules. Together with protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), PTPs are critically involved in regulating many cellular signaling processes. In this study, diverse compounds were screened for PTP inhibition and selectively screened for inhibitors with the end product inhibition properties. Among phosphate analogues and their derivatives for PTP inhibition, Keggin compounds phosphomolybdate (PM) and phosphotungstate (PT) strongly inhibited both PTP-1B and SHP-1, with Ki values of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A computerized method of determining the number of synaptic contacts in a volume of cerebral cortex. AU - West, Mark J.. AU - Coleman, Paul. AU - Wyss, Urs R.. PY - 1972/1/1. Y1 - 1972/1/1. N2 - A computerized flying‐spot scanning device has been used to count the number of synaptic contacts in neural tissue stained with ethanolic phosphotungstic acid (E‐PTA). The ability of the computer to idealize the irregular synaptic contacts as solid disks by modifying the information gleaned from scanning the preparation allows the stereological principle of Weibel & Gomez to be used to calculate the number of E‐PTA stained synaptic contacts per unit volume of tissue. This technique represents a significant improvement over the time necessary for making similar quantitative determinations manually. 1972 Blackwell Science Ltd. AB - A computerized flying‐spot scanning device has been used to count the number of synaptic contacts in neural tissue stained with ethanolic phosphotungstic ...
Supramolecular interactions between nitrogenated groups in hybrid ormosils bearing phosphotungstate nanocatalyst were used to tune the photocatalytical activity of these class-II hybrid materials obta
Physiological investigations have shown that the synaptic input to the sensory neuron of the stretch receptor in the abdominal muscles of the crayfish is purely inhibitory. This neuron was chosen, therefore, as a site in which to study the fine structure of inhibitory synaptic endings. It was hoped that this fine structure might (a) provide a morphological prototype for the study of more complex synaptic systems and (b) reflect the inhibitory mechanisms. Stretch receptors were fixed in situ in buffered OsO4, dehydrated, and embedded in Araldite. Both cross and longitudinal sections were examined after staining with phosphotungstic acid. The inhibitory endings were easily identified by their great similarity to previously described excitatory endings. Small circular profiles (synaptic vesicles) about 460 A in diameter and an accumulation of mitochondria were consistently observed within the presynaptic endings. An increased osmiophilia of pre- and postsynaptic membranes, where they were in ...
OBJECTIVE: Mouse articular cartilage (AC) is mostly assessed by histopathology and its mechanics is poorly characterised. In this study: (1) we developed non-destructive imaging for quantitative assessment of AC morphology and (2) evaluated the mechanical implications of AC structural changes. METHODS: Knee joints obtained from naïve mice and from mice with osteoarthritis (OA) induced by destabilization of medial meniscus (DMM) for 4 and 12 weeks, were imaged by phosphotungstic acid (PTA) contrast enhanced micro-computed tomography (PTA-CT) and scored by conventional histopathology. Our software (Matlab) automatically segmented tibial AC, drew two regions centred on each tibial condyle and evaluated the volumes included. A finite element (FE) model of the whole mouse joint was implemented to evaluate AC mechanics. RESULTS: Our method achieved rapid, automated analysis of mouse AC (structural parameters in |10 h from knee dissection) and was able to localise AC loss in the central region of the medial
The ultrastructure of the fat body cells (trophocytes) of the last larval instar of Pachycondyla (= Neoponera) villosa is presented. The cytoplasm is restricted to the cell periphery and to the smaller strips among the vacuoles, protein granules, lipid droplets, and around the nucleus. Cytochemically, the presence of basic amino acids in the protein granules and in the nuclei was observed by using the ethanolic phosphotungstic acid technique (EPTA). The lipid droplets stained for unsaturated lipids. This result was further confirmed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, where the unsaturated fatty acids were identified as oleic and linoleic acids together with saturated fatty acids such as palmitic and stearic acid. Carbohydrates (glycogen) were also detected in the fat body. The glycogen is present as β particles distributed among the lipid droplets and sometimes attached to them.
Papanicolaou stain (also Papanicolaous stain and Pap stain) is a multichromatic staining cytological technique developed by George Papanikolaou, the father of cytopathology. Pap staining is used to differentiate cells in smear preparations of various bodily secretions; the specimens can be gynecological smears (Pap smears), sputum, brushings, washings, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, abdominal fluid, pleural fluid, synovial fluid, seminal fluid, fine needle aspiration material, tumor touch samples, or other materials containing cells. Pap staining is a very reliable technique. As such, it is used for cervical cancer screening in gynecology. The entire procedure is known as Pap smear. The classic form of Pap stain involves five dyes in three solutions: A nuclear stain, haematoxylin, is used to stain cell nuclei. The unmordanted haematein may be responsible for the yellow color imparted to glycogen. First OG-6 counterstain (-6 denotes the used concentration of phosphotungstic acid; other variants are ...
Mostafa et al. [13] constructed a new composite and classical potentiometric sensor for the determination of PIO, in which the authors used polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane sensors. These membrane sensors incorporate ion association complexes of PIO cation and sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) or phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) or phosphotungstic acid (PTA) as electroactive materials. Direct determination showed an average recovery of 98.5%, 99.0% and 98.4% correspondingly. These sensors were applied for direct determination of PIO in some pharmaceutical preparations and have been used as indicator electrodes for potentiometric titration. In another study El-Ghobashy et al. [14] applied the above proposed principle i.e. membrane selective electrodes for the determination of PIO. The proposed method showed a linear response over the concentration range 3.16×10−5−1×10−2 M for PIO. The authors have applied this method for the determination of PIO in tablets and plasma. Potentiometric sensor for ...
Mostafa et al. [13] constructed a new composite and classical potentiometric sensor for the determination of PIO, in which the authors used polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane sensors. These membrane sensors incorporate ion association complexes of PIO cation and sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) or phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) or phosphotungstic acid (PTA) as electroactive materials. Direct determination showed an average recovery of 98.5%, 99.0% and 98.4% correspondingly. These sensors were applied for direct determination of PIO in some pharmaceutical preparations and have been used as indicator electrodes for potentiometric titration. In another study El-Ghobashy et al. [14] applied the above proposed principle i.e. membrane selective electrodes for the determination of PIO. The proposed method showed a linear response over the concentration range 3.16×10−5−1×10−2 M for PIO. The authors have applied this method for the determination of PIO in tablets and plasma. Potentiometric sensor for ...
The small size of the adult and developing mouse heart poses a great challenge for imaging in preclinical research. The aim of the study was to establish a phosphotungstic acid (PTA) ex-vivo staining approach that efficiently enhances the x-ray attenuation of soft-tissue to allow high resolution 3D visualization of mouse hearts by synchrotron radiation based μCT (SRμCT) and classical μCT. We demonstrate that SRμCT of PTA stained mouse hearts ex-vivo allows imaging of the cardiac atrium, ventricles, myocardium especially its fibre structure and vessel walls in great detail and furthermore enables the depiction of growth and anatomical changes during distinct developmental stages of hearts in mouse embryos ...
1. The liver of the dog in which necrosis has been produced by injection of hæmatoxic immune sera is characterized in the less marked forms by a storing up of nitrogen in the persisting living cells, while in the diffuse forms the total nitrogen content is but slightly above the normal. This last is to be explained by the great diminution in persisting liver substance which limits the power of nitrogen accumulation.. 2. In all forms of necrosis there occurs an absolute increase of nitrogen precipitable by phosphotungstic acid (hexon bases) but the percentage increase, in relation to total nitrogen, diminishes in those forms (focal) in which the products of autolysis may be readily carried off by the blood stream and greatly increases in the diffuse form with large areas in which the circulation is seriously impaired.. 3. Although the absolute amount of nitrogen representing arginin and histidin varies, a relative increase is evident when this fraction is compared with the total ...
DEANE, Margaret N.; GREGORY, Michael; MARS, Maurice y BESTER, Linda. Creation of a contusion injury in rabbit skeletal muscle using a drop-mass technique. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. [online]. 2013, vol.84, n.1, pp.1-6. ISSN 2224-9435.. This study reports our experience in developing a simple, minor injury. After reviewing the literature, a drop-mass method was selected where a 201 g, elongated oval-shaped weight was dropped up to 15 times through a 1 m tube onto the left vastus lateralis of New Zealand white rabbits. To determine the extent of injury and degree of healing, biopsies were obtained six days after injury from the healing vastus lateralis of each animal. The tissue was fixed in formal saline, embedded in wax, cut and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin (PTAH) and examined by light microscopy (LM). The optimal injury was created after seven drops, where quite severe, mild and moderately severe trauma was caused to muscle in the juxta-bone, ...
The effect of negative stain, freeze-fracture, and thin-sectioning procedures on the size of several oncornaviruses has been determined. After negative staining, the average outer dimensions measured over several experiments for the C-type avian viruses, avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV) and Rous sarcoma virus, Prague strain, were about 1370 and 1340 Å, respectively. These values were substantially smaller than the outer dimensions of the C-type murine viruses, Friend leukemia virus (FLV), namely, 1470 Å, and Moloney leukemia virus, namely, 1460 Å. The avian viruses were similar in size to the B-type murine virus, mouse mammary tumor virus, which measured about 1290 Å. All experimental values were obtained after glutaraldehyde (1.5%) fixation and uranyl acetate (2%, pH 4.2) staining. Other negative stains, such as sodium phosphotungstate (1%, pH 6.6), lead to disruption of the outer envelope and a concomitant diminution in size. Freeze-fractured preparations of AMV showed particles with or ...
pxpst2 at vms.cis.pitt.edu (THE GREEK) wrote: ,I am interested in getting some references to some precipitation methods ,other than TCA. The method must be suitable for low protein ,concentrations. ,Please reply by email and thanks in advance , , Peter Pediaditakis pxpst2 at vms.cis.pitt.edu try the phenol : ether method ... analytical biochemistry 226;382-383 (1995) hope this helps ...
Proteins were injected under a 10% PtdIns(4,5)P2 lipid monolayer, incubated at room temperature, stained by uranyl acetate and visualized by EM. (see schematic technique or detailed protocol ...
Shop Flagellar hook protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Flagellar hook protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
TEM micrographs of HeLa cells that were incubated for 60 h at 37°C in CoMoCAT DM-SWNTs. All slices were treated with uranyl acetate to stain membranes and lead
The Geneaid™ DNA Isolation Kit (Blood) offers a simple and gentle reagent DNA precipitation method for isolating high molecular weight genomic, mitochondrial or viral DNA suitable for archiving or sensitive downstream applications.
Hi Sigrid, if you just want to concentrate the protein in the solution you could also try it by using a SpeedVac. This works without precipitation, though. janosch s.hannier at abdn.ac.uk schrieb: , I would like to concentrate a sample of proteins with less than 1 ug (aout 900ng) in 1ml. What is the best precipitation method to use for a maximum recovery? I have heard about deoxycholate/TCA but it seems that recovery is 50% , which is not very good. Any advice? , , Many thanks, , , Sigrid , , http://biowww.net/mynews/tree.php?group_name=bionet_molbio_proteins&begin=0 -------------- next part -------------- A non-text attachment was scrubbed... Name: janosch.groening.vcf Type: text/x-vcard Size: 265 bytes Desc: Visitenkarte für janosch groening Url : http://iubio.bio.indiana.edu/bionet/mm/proteins/attachments/20021122/dcda3d9d/janosch.groening.bin ...
Alternative rapid isolation techniques of exosomes from concentrated media. (a) Size distribution and EM images of particles isolated from precipitation methods
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The identification and characterization of prion strains is increasingly important for the diagnosis and biological definition of these infectious pathogens. Although well-established in scrapie and, more recently, in BSE, comparatively little is known about the possibility of prion strains in chronic wasting disease (CWD), a disease affecting free ranging and captive cervids, primarily in North America. We have identified prion protein variants in the white-tailed deer population and demonstrated that Prnp genotype affects the susceptibility/disease progression of white-tailed deer to CWD agent. The existence of cervid prion protein variants raises the likelihood of distinct CWD strains. Small rodent models are a useful means of identifying prion strains. We intracerebrally inoculated hamsters with brain homogenates and phosphotungstate concentrated preparations from CWD positive hunter-harvested (Wisconsin CWD endemic area) and experimentally infected deer of known Prnp genotypes. These ...
Unit membrane definition is - the limiting membrane of cells and various organelles viewed formerly as a 3-layered structure with an inner lipid layer and two outer protein layers and currently as a fluid phospholipid bilayer with intercalating proteins.
USA patent No. 3897358; V. S. Glazachev, E. S. Lukin, et al., Tr. D. I. Mendeleev Inst. Chem. Technol., Moscow, No. 92, 61 (1976).Google Scholar ...
Bekijk Stockfoto van Dividing Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Bacteria Tem Negative Stain. Ga voor hoogwaardige fotos met een hoge resolutie naar Getty Images.
View Notes - 3Tues_Negative stains from BIO 205 at Miramar College. Nigrosin dye Staining tray Sterile toothpicks Protocol: 1. Place one drop of nigrosin onto the center of a clean slide. 2. Using
Scale deposition is inhibited with a new scale inhibitor precipitation squeeze method wherein inhibitor solution is injected at a higher first pH into a subsurface brine producing formation. Thereafter, the solution is subjected to a fluid or substance which lowers the higher first pH of the scale inhibitor solution to a lower second pH, thereby causing precipitation of scale inhibitor in the formation. The scale inhibitor is characterized by the fact that the scale inhibitor exhibits a significant solubility decrease between the higher first pH and the lower second pH. The method of this invention, therefore, is based on decreasing the pH the scale inhibitor solution to deposit the scale inhibitor and does not use prior art divalent cation precipitation methods to precipitate inhibitors. This invention lessens the chances of formation damage or plugging. The preferred scale inhibitors are the amine phosphonates of a given general structure. The most preferred scale inhibitors are ethylenediaminetetra
Uranyl ions have long been used as inhibitors of mono-accharide uptake by yeast. It is shown here that not only the rate of uptake but also the final distribution level is... ...
Bacteriophages are viruses that infect specific bacterial hosts in order to grow and replicate. Because bacteriophages are miniscule in size, it is not possible to obtain images of the structural features using light microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a useful technique to view images with higher resolution and magnification using electrons to illuminate the subject. This technique allows for clear visualization of bacteriophage structural features, including the head, capsid, and tail. Bacteriophages isolated from infections of the bacterial host Rhodobacter capsulatus, which include RcTitan, RcOceanus, RcSpartan, RcRhea, RcSaxon, and RcCronus, were examined. In order to obtain contrast, new lysates of each phage were placed on a formvar coated 200-mesh grid and stained with uranyl acetate. The negative stain from uranyl acetate allowed for high contrast, as the background is stained, while the phage is not and thus visible. Bacteriophage morphology, such as head sizes and tail
Equation 1). where Fs, Fb, Fc, and Fc0 represent the fluorescent intensities of the bleach ROI, background, control ROI before photobleaching, and control ROI after photobleaching, respectively. F was expressed as the percentage of initial intensity. The data (n ≥ 20 cells from 4 independent experiments) were averaged (mean values ± SEM) and, by nonlinear regression, fitted to the 1-phase exponential equation Y = Y0 + (plateau - Y0) × (1 - exp(-K × x)), where Y0 is the Y value when X (time) is 0. The plateau is the Y value at infinite times, and K is the rate constant expressed in the reciprocal of seconds. The mobile fraction was given by the plateau, and the recovery half-time was computed as T1/2 = ln(2)/K.. Golgi cisternal stack quantification. Electron microscopy was performed as previously described (59, 60). Sections of 60 nm were mounted on Formvar-coated nickel grids and double contrasted with 2% uranyl acetate for 5 minutes and 3% lead citrate for 5 minutes. Grids were imaged ...
How many fragments in plasmid DNA prep? - posted in Molecular Biology: How many bands would you get if you run an agarose gel with a prep product from a transformation experiment? Ive used the ethanol precipitation method to derive my plasmid. Heard that DNA comes in three forms - supercoiled, circular and linear. Can someone enlighten me on this? Cheers!
The Crisis of Civilization is a documentary feature film investigating how global crises like ecological disaster, financial meltdown, dwindling oil...
TY - JOUR. T1 - New uranyl open framework and sheet compounds formed via in-situ protonation of piperazine by phosphorous acid. AU - Villa, Eric. AU - Cross, Justin N.. AU - Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.. PY - 2018/11/1. Y1 - 2018/11/1. N2 - Two new uranyl compounds were hydrothermally synthesized employing piperazine as an organic templating agent. The piperazine was protonated in-situ by phosphorous acid, forming the piperazinium dication featured in these compounds. The two new structures presented here are a uranyl phosphite 2D sheet and a 3D uranyl mixed phosphite-phosphate network with cation occupied channels. Both included strong hydrogen bonding from the piperazinium cation to the uranyl phosphite or mixed phosphite-phosphate network. These two structures can be reliably formed through careful control of pH of the starting solution and the reaction duration. The piperazinium uranyl phosphite compound was the latest in a family of uranyl phosphites, and demonstrates the structural ...
Structural variability in amine template uranyl sulfate frameworks is observed with two- and three-dimensional structures containing channels of dimensions 7.4 Å× 5.1 Å, 36 Å× 5.8 Å, and 10 Å× 10 Å.
... Editors: Alvarenga, Marlies E., Byrne, Don Springer | Psychology | July 8, 2016 | ISBN-10: 9812872051 | 1156 pages | pdf | 13.54 m
View Stock Photo of Smallpox Virus Single Virion As Seen By Negative Stain Electron Microscopy. Find premium, high-resolution photos at Getty Images.
A closed structure, found only in eukaryotic cells, that is completely surrounded by unit membrane and contains liquid material. Cells contain one or several vacuoles, that may have different functions from each other. Vacuoles have a diverse array o
AKT (a serine/threonine protein kinase) has become a popular target for drug discovery campaigns, due to the fact that AKT inhibitors may help to treat a number of cancers. In this application note BioTek demonstrates an automated homogeneous assay to probe AKT phosphorylation at its serine 473 residue using endogenous levels of kinase expression within human primary HUVEC cells.
BioAssay record AID 211293 submitted by ChEMBL: Tested for inhibitory activity against Topoisomerase II isolated from HeLa cells by using SDS-K+ precipitation method.
Mn2+-doped ZnS nanoparticles were prepared by chemical arrested precipitation method. The samples were heated at 300, 500, 700 and 900°C. The average particle size was determined from the X-ray line broadening. Samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR and UV. The composition was verified by EDAX spectrum. The hexagonal structure of the sample was identified. The size of the particles increased as the annealing temperature was increased. The crystallite size varied from 5 nm to 34 nm as the calcination temperature increased. At around $700^{\circ}$C, ZnS is converted into ZnO phase due to oxidation. The emission peak of the sample is observed at 300 nm resulting in blue emission. The solid state theory based on the delocalized electron and hole within the confined volume can explain the blue-shifted optical absorption spectra. UV-VIS spectro-photometric measurement shows an indirect allowed band gap of 3.65 eV.. ...