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TY - JOUR. T1 - Inositol polyphosphate multikinase mediates extinction of fear memory. AU - Park, Jina. AU - Longo, Francesco. AU - Park, Seung Ju. AU - Lee, Seulgi. AU - Bae, Mihyun. AU - Tyagi, Richa. AU - Han, Jin Hee. AU - Kim, Seyun. AU - Santini, Emanuela. AU - Klann, Eric. AU - Snyder, Solomon H. PY - 2019/2/12. Y1 - 2019/2/12. N2 - Inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK), the key enzyme for the biosynthesis of higher inositol polyphosphates and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate, also acts as a versatile signaling player in regulating tissue growth and metabolism. To elucidate neurobehavioral functions of IPMK, we generated mice in which IPMK was deleted from the excitatory neurons of the postnatal forebrain. These mice showed no deficits in either novel object recognition or spatial memory. IPMK conditional knockout mice formed cued fear memory normally but displayed enhanced fear extinction. Signaling analyses revealed dysregulated expression of neural genes accompanied by ...
Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration is a form of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, characterized by a progressive movement disorder and prominent iron deposition in the globus pallidus. Formerly referred to as Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome, the disorder was renamed pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration after discovery of the causative gene, PANK2. Although the pathological features of clinically characterized Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome have been described, the literature is confounded by the historical use of this term for nearly all conditions with prominent basal ganglia iron accumulation and by the fact that this term encompasses a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, now referred to as neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. As a result, interpreting reports that precede molecular characterization of specific forms of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation is problematic. In the present studies, we describe neuropathological ...
This research describes the optimization of parameters (including pH, temperature, period of co-cultivation and age of callus) for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of Theobroma cacao L. using staminodes from cocoa buds as explants. The A. tumefaciens strain used was the super avirulent AGLl with the binary vector pGPTV-Kan/Gus. The strain confers aminoglycoside resistance to transformed cells through the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) gene. Callus induction medium contained DKW minerals, glucose, vitamins, 2 mg/L 2,4D and 0.005 mg/L TDZ (0.5nM) pH 5.3. Co-cultivation medium was identical to callus induction medium but contained 0.02mg/L acetosyringone. Experiments were conducted using two clones of cocoa: KKM19 and P22. Staminodes were cultured on callus induction medium in the dark before the transformation process. After 14 days and 21 days on callus induction medium, callus-derived staminodes were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens on semi-solid co-cultivation ...
In ,i,Vanda,/i, orchids, it is important to produce cultivars with economically important traits such as disease and pest resistances and novel flower colors, which are difficult to achieve by conventional cross breeding methods. To realize these breeding objectives, it is now expected to apply genetic transformation technology to introduce useful foreign genes into ,i,Vanda,/i, orchids. However, there has been almost no information on the genetic transformation of ,i,Vanda,/i,. Transgenic plants were successfully regenerated after co-cultivating protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) with ,i,Agrobacterium tumefaciens,/i, strain EHA101 (pIG121Hm) that harbored genes for β-glucuronidase (,i,gus,/i,), hygromycin phosphotransferase (,i,hpt,/i,) and neomycin phosphotransferase II (,i,nptII,/i,). PLBs of Tokyo Blue maintained in liquid New Dogashima medium (NDM) under dark condition, were subjected to transformation experiments. The PLBs inoculated with ,i,Agrobacterium,/i, produced secondary PLBs 4 weeks ...
casSAR Dugability of A2RD38 | proA | Gamma-glutamyl phosphate reductase - Also known as PROA_STRPG, proA. Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of L-glutamate 5-phosphate into L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde and phosphate. The product spontaneously undergoes cyclization to form 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate.
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This project involved the analysis of genes in Solanaceae species that have previously been shown to be involved in the phosphorylation of starch or its subsequent dephosphorylation. Both these processes are essential for normal starch mobilization. A tomato conditional mutant lacking the starch phosphorylating enzyme glucan water dikinase was analyzed. It is known that starch accumulates transiently in tomato fruit and is degraded throughout the ripening process. The study aimed to determine the effect of inhibited starch degradation on fruit development. Unfortunately no effect on starch mobilisation was found in the fruit of the mutant. Immunoblot analysis revealed expression of Glucan Water Dikinase (GWD) within the fruit of the tomato mutant indicating that the conditionality of the mutation was compromised. The second set of experiments analyzed the roles of Starch Excess4 (SEX4), Like Sex Four-1 and Like Sex Four-2 (LSF1 and LSF2) in starch degradation in potato and ...
Phosphagen (guanidino) kinases, including creatine kinase (CK), arginine kinase (AK), taurocyamine kinase (TK), lombricine kinase (LK), glycocyamine kinase (GK), and hypotaurocyamine kinase (HTK), are enzymes that catalyze the reversible transfer of the γ-phosphoryl group of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to naturally occuring guanidino compounds such as creatine, arginine, yelding adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and a phosphorylated guanidine typically referred to as phosphagen (phosphocreatine, phosphoarginine and etc). Members of this enzyme family play a key role in animals as ATP-buffering systems in cells that display high and variable rates of ATP turnover. Phosphagen kinases have been found in all animal species and in some protozoa, such as trypanosomes, choanoflagellates, and the ciliates, Paramecium tetraurelia, Paramecium caudatum, and Tetrahymena. Eukaryotic phosphagen kinases consist of a small, ~100-residue, α-helical N-terminal domain and a larger, 250+-residue, C-terminal α/β ...
Inteins (for INternal proTEINs) are protein insertion sequences that are embedded in host protein sequences. They are post-translationally excised from the host protein by a self-catalytic protein splicing process, in which the intein sequence is precisely excised, and the flanking host protein sequences (N- and C-exteins) are religated to create a functional protein. Intein and protein splicing may be viewed as the protein equivalent of intron and RNA splicing, respectively. Inteins were initially discovered as translated intervening sequences that were present in the host gene but absent in homologous genes. Inteins occur in organisms spanning all three kingdoms of life (eubacteria, archaea and eukaryote). Although many inteins are in host proteins involved in nucleic acid metabolism, several inteins are located in metabolic enzymes, such as phosphoenolpyruvate synthase, anaerobic ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase, UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, ClpP protease/chaperone, vacuolar ATPase proton ...
casSAR Dugability of A2S874 | argB | Acetylglutamate kinase - Also known as ARGB_BURM9, argB. Catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of N-acetyl-L-glutamate.
Mevalonate kinase deficiency is a condition characterized by recurrent episodes of fever, which typically begin during infancy. Each episode of fever lasts about 3 to 6 days, and the frequency of the episodes varies among affected individuals. In childhood the fevers seem to be more frequent, occurring as often as 25 times a year, but as the individual gets older the episodes occur less often.. Mevalonate kinase deficiency has additional signs and symptoms, and the severity depends on the type of the condition. There are two types of mevalonate kinase deficiency: a less severe type called hyperimmunoglobulinemia D syndrome (HIDS) and a more severe type called mevalonic aciduria (MVA).. During episodes of fever, people with HIDS typically have enlargement of the lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), abdominal pain, joint pain, diarrhea, skin rashes, and headache. Occasionally they will have painful sores called aphthous ulcers around their mouth. In females, these may also occur around the vagina. ...
In molecular biology, the amino acid kinase domain is a protein domain. It is found in protein kinases with various specificities, including the aspartate, glutamate and uridylate kinase families. In prokaryotes and plants the synthesis of the essential amino acids lysine and threonine is predominantly regulated by feed-back inhibition of aspartate kinase (AK) and dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHPS). In Escherichia coli, thrA, metLM, and lysC encode aspartokinase isozymes that show feedback inhibition by threonine, methionine, and lysine, respectively. The lysine-sensitive isoenzyme of aspartate kinase from spinach leaves has a subunit composition of 4 large and 4 small subunits. In plants although the control of carbon fixation and nitrogen assimilation has been studied in detail, relatively little is known about the regulation of carbon and nitrogen flow into amino acids. The metabolic regulation of expression of an Arabidopsis thaliana aspartate kinase/homoserine dehydrogenase (AK/HSD) gene, ...
0159] Resistance genes for glyphosate (resistance conferred by mutant 5-enolpyruvl-3 phosphikimate synthase (EPSP) and aroA genes, respectively), and hygromycin B phosphotransferase, and to other phosphono compounds such as glufosinate (phosphinothricin acetyl transferase (PAT) and Streptomyces hygroscopicus phosphinothricin-acetyl transferase (bar) genes) may also be used. See, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 4,940,835 to Shah, et al., which discloses the nucleotide sequence of a form of EPSPS which can confer glyphosate resistance. A DNA molecule encoding a mutant aroA gene can be obtained under ATCC accession number 39256, and the nucleotide sequence of the mutant gene is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,769,061 to Comai. A hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene from E. coli that confers resistance to glyphosate in tobacco callus and plants is described in Penaloza-Vazquez et al. (Plant Cell Reports, 14:482-487, 1995). European patent application No. 0 333 033 to Kumada et al., and U.S. Pat. No. ...
NBIA (neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation) comprises a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative diseases having as a common denominator, iron overload in specific brain areas, mainly basal ganglia and globus pallidus. In the past decade a bunch of disease genes have been identified, but NBIA pathomechanisms are still not completely clear. PKAN (pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration), an autosomal recessive disorder with progressive impairment of movement, vision and cognition, is the most common form of NBIA. It is caused by mutations in the PANK2 (pantothenate kinase 2) gene, coding for a mitochondrial enzyme that phosphorylates vitamin B5 in the first reaction of the CoA (coenzyme A) biosynthetic pathway. A distinct form of NBIA, denominated CoPAN (CoA synthase protein-associated neurodegeneration), is caused by mutations in the CoASY (CoA synthase) gene coding for a bifunctional mitochondrial enzyme, which catalyses the final steps of CoA biosynthesis. These two inborn ...
In the linear pathway (Figure 1A), GLU is converted to acetylglutamate (Ac-GLU) by N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS, encoded by argA) which is inhibited by ARG through negative feedback regulation [36],[39]. Sequential catalytic reactions catalyzed by the next three enzymes, N-acetylglutamate kinase (NAGK, encoded by argB), N-acetylglutamate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (encoded by argC) and N-acetylornithine transaminase (encoded by argD), which are common in the three pathways (Figure 1), yield N-acetylornithine (Ac-ORN) [34]. The next step, which distinguishes the linear pathway from the other two pathways, is deacetylation of Ac-ORN by AOase to yield ORN [40],[41]. The next and final steps are carried out by ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTC or OTCase, encoded by argF), argininosuccinate synthase (encoded by argG) and argininosuccinate lyase (encoded by argH), which finally yield ARG [35]. This pathway has been found in a few species such as Myxococcus xanthus [41] and E. coli [36].. In many ...
Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is a recessively inherited autoinflammatory disorder with a spectrum of manifestations, including the well-defined clinical phenotypes of hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome and mevalonic aciduria. Patients with MKD have recurrent attacks of hyperinflammation associated with fever, abdominal pain, arthralgias, and mucocutaneous lesions, and more severely affected patients also have dysmorphisms and central nervous system anomalies. MKD is caused by mutations in the gene encoding mevalonate kinase, with the degree of residual enzyme activity largely determining disease severity. Mevalonate kinase is essential for the biosynthesis of nonsterol isoprenoids, which mediate protein prenylation. Although the precise pathogenesis of MKD remains unclear, increasing evidence suggests that deficiency in protein prenylation leads to innate immune activation and systemic hyperinflammation. Given the emerging understanding of MKD as an autoinflammatory disorder,
Background & objective: Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB) is an important nosocomial pathogen which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in high-risk populations. Aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs) and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) methylation are two important mechanisms of resistance to aminoglycosides. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of 16S rRNA methylase (armA, rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, and rmtD), and the AME genes [aac(6′)-Ib, aac(3)-I, ant(3′′)-I, aph(3′)-I and aac(6)-Id], among clinical isolates of A. baumannii in Tehran, Iran. Methods: Between November 2015 to July 2016, a total of 110 clinical strains of A. baumannii were isolated from patients in two teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The presence of genes encoding the AMEs and16S rRNA methylases responsible for resis-tance was investigated by
Inverse metabolic engineering (IME) is a combinatorial approach for identifying genotypes associated with a particular phenotype of interest. In this study, gene disruptions that increase the biosynthesis of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) in the photosynthetic bacterium Synechocystis PCC6803 were identified. A Synechocystis mutant library was constructed by homologous recombination between the Synechocystis genome and a mutagenized genomic plasmid library generated through transposon insertion. Using a fluorescence-activated cell sorting-based high throughput screen, high PHB accumulating mutants from the library grown in different nutrient conditions were isolated and characterized. While several mutants isolated from the screen had increased PHB accumulation, transposon insertions in only two ORFs could be linked to increased PHB production. Disruptions of sll0461, coding for gamma-glutamyl phosphate reductase (proA), and sll0565, a hypothetical protein, resulted in increased accumulation in ...
In enzymology, a diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase (EC 2.7.8.2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction CDP-choline + 1,2-diacylglycerol ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CMP + a phosphatidylcholine Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are CDP-choline and 1,2-diacylglycerol, whereas its two products are CMP and phosphatidylcholine. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring non-standard substituted phosphate groups. The systematic name of this enzyme class is CDP choline:1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase. Other names in common use include: 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-m-glycerol:CDPcholine choline phosphotransferase, 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol cholinephosphotransferase, 1-alkyl-2-acetylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase, alkylacylglycerol choline phosphotransferase, alkylacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase, CDP-choline diglyceride phosphotransferase, cholinephosphotransferase, CPT, cytidine diphosphocholine glyceride ...
Coenzyme A is an essential metabolite known for its central role in over one hundred cellular metabolic reactions. In cells, Coenzyme A is synthesized de novo in five enzymatic steps with vitamin B5 as the starting metabolite, phosphorylated by pantothenate kinase. Mutations in the pantothenate kinase 2 gene cause a severe form of neurodegeneration for which no treatment is available. One therapeutic strategy is to generate Coenzyme A precursors downstream of the defective step in the pathway. Here we describe the synthesis, characteristics and in vivo rescue potential of the acetyl-Coenzyme A precursor S-acetyl-4-phosphopantetheine as a possible treatment for neurodegeneration associated with pantothenate kinase deficiency. ...
selenophosphate synthetase: involved in selenium metabolism; gamma-phosphate of ATP is transferred to HSe resulting in formation of monoselenophosphate; amino acid sequence in first source
Looking for online definition of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation in the Medical Dictionary? neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation explanation free. What is neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation? Meaning of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation medical term. What does neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation mean?
CDP-Diacylglycerol-Inositol 3-Phosphatidyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and CMP from CDP-DIACYLGLYCEROL and MYOINOSITOL.
Extracellular fatty acid incorporation into the phospholipids of Staphylococcus aureus occurs via fatty acid phosphorylation. We show that fatty acid kinase (Fak) is composed of two dissociable protein subunits encoded by separate genes. FakA provides the ATP binding domain and interacts with two distinct FakB proteins to produce acyl-phosphate. The FakBs are fatty acid binding proteins that exchange bound fatty acid/acyl-phosphate with fatty acid/acyl-phosphate presented in detergent micelles or liposomes. The ΔfakA and ΔfakB1 ΔfakB2 strains were unable to incorporate extracellular fatty acids into phospholipid. FakB1 selectively bound saturated fatty acids whereas FakB2 preferred unsaturated fatty acids. Affymetrix array showed a global perturbation in the expression of virulence genes in the ΔfakA strain. The severe deficiency in α-hemolysin protein secretion in ΔfakA and ΔfakB1 ΔfakB2 mutants coupled with quantitative mRNA measurements showed that fatty acid kinase activity was ...
Two enzymes in the methionine salvage pathway, 5-methylthioribose kinase (MTR kinase) and 5´-methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase (MTA/SAH nucleosidase) were purified from Klebsiellapneumoniae. Chromatography using a novel 5´-(p-aminophenyl)thioadenosine/5-(p-aminophenyl)thioribose affinity matrix allowed the binding and selective elution of each of the enzymes in pure form. The molecular mass, substrate kinetics and N-terminal amino acid sequences were characterized for each of the enzymes. Purified MTR kinase exhibits an apparent molecular mass of 46-50 kDa by SDS/PAGE and S200HR chromatography, and has a Km for MTR of 12.2 μM. Homogeneous MTA/SAH nucleosidase displays a molecular mass of 26.5 kDa by SDS/PAGE, and a Km for MTA of 8.7 μM. Comparisons of the N-terminal sequences obtained for each of the enzymes with protein-sequence databases failed to reveal any significant sequence similarities to known proteins. However, the amino acid sequence obtained for the ...
Glycerol uptake and glycerol kinase activity were studied in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes in the presence of either 1 nM insulin, 1 nM glucagon, or 100 nM dexamethasone, alone or in combination in
In article ,Pine.SOL.3.96.970711115134.16570A-100000 at ascc.artsci.wustl.edu,, Alex Brands ,abbrands at artsci.wustl.edu, wrote: , I was planning to use kanamycin resistance as a selectable marker in , yeast, and I aquired a construct from another lab that has a kanamycin , resistance cassette. However, my negative control plates revealed that , the parent yeast (w303) was not sensitive to the kanamycin. After talking , to the other lab, I found out that they use something called Geneticin, , (that name is a registered trademark of GIBCO) which is about 20 times , more expensive than kanamycin. , , So, is my kanamycin simply expired, or are yeast not sensitive to , kanamycin? Am I stuck with Geneticin? , , , All help is appreciated very much! , , Alex Brands , Washington University Sorry, youre stuck with the Geneticin (also known as G418). Although the kanamycin resistance factor inactivates both kanamycin and G418, only the latter antibiotic is effective against eukaryotic cells. Steve ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
The 45-days-old seedlings of drought resistant (N-22, CR143-2-2) and susceptible rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes (Panidhan, Pusa-169) were subjected to osmotic stress in PEG-6000 solution of -10 and -16 bar and the relative water content (RWC), proline content, and pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) activity and its P5CS expression were studied. A gradual decrease in RWC was observed in tolerant genotypes, whereas the decrease was drastic in susceptible ones. Proline content and P5CS activity increased both in susceptible and tolerant genotypes; the increase was higher in tolerant genotypes. Higher proline levels in tolerant genotypes were due to increased P5CS activity. The EcoRI, BamHI and XbaI restricted DNA of N-22 and Panidhan genotypes were hybridized with Arabidopsis P5CS sequence and a single band (approx 2.4 kb) was observed, however, P5CS expression was more in N-22, as compared to Panidhan ...
Mycoplasma penetrans is a species of Gram-positive bacteria. It is pathogenic, though many infected show no symptoms. It is a sexually transmitted disease though an infant may be infected during birth. It has an elongated shape and its cells possess two internal compartments, one packed with granules, the other filled with coarse granules (consistent with ribosomal structures). The organism has properties of adherence, hemadsorption and cytadsorption and invades different types of mammalian cells. The type strain is strain GTU-54-6A1 (= ATCC 55252).This particular species is a sexually transmitted disease and one cause of pelvic inflammatory disease. Gallego, Pablo; Planell, Raquel; Benach, Jordi; Querol, Enrique; Perez-Pons, Joseph A.; Reverter, David (October 17, 2012). "Structural Characterization of the Enzymes Composing the Arginine Deiminase Pathway in Mycoplasma penetrans". PLOS ONE. 7 (10): Article No.: e47886. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0047886. PMC 3474736 . PMID 23082227. Retrieved 11 ...
Deoxyribonucleoside kinases catalyze the phosphorylation of deoxyribonucleosides to the corresponding deoxyribonucleoside monophosphates (dNMPs). They are the key enzymes in the salvage of deoxyribonucleosides originating from extra‐ or intracellular breakdown of DNA. Subsequently, dNMPs are phosphorylated into diphosphates (dNDPs) and triphosphates (dNTPs), which are the precursors of DNA. Deoxyribonucleoside kinases play a key role in the chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer and viral diseases, as they catalyze the first, and often rate‐limiting step of nucleoside analog activation by phosphorylation (Arnér and Eriksson, 1995). Native and genetically engineered deoxyribonucleoside kinases from different organisms are also attractive candidates for use in cancer gene therapy as suicide enzymes (Christians et al., 1999; Kokoris et al., 1999; Knecht et al., 2000a; Zheng et al., 2000). The basic concept here is to transduce cancer or virus‐infected cells with a gene encoding a ...
Activation and aggregation of blood platelets is crucial for hemostasis and thrombosis. In the vascular system adenine nucleotides are important signaling molecules playing a key role in hemostasis. ADP was the first low molecular weight agent recognized to cause blood platelets activation and aggregation. NTPDases and adenylate kinase (AK) are the main enzymes involved in metabolism of extracellular adenine nucleotides. The majority of studies concentrated on the role of NTPDase1 (apyrase) in the inhibition of platelets aggregation. Up to now, there are still insufficient data concerning the role of AK in this process. We found that adenylate kinase activity in the serum of patients with myocardial infarction is significantly increased when compared to the healthy volunteers. The elevated activity of AK is connected to appearance of another isoform of that enzyme, expressed in patients with myocardial infarction. The influence of AK on the pig blood platelets aggregation induced by 20 μM ADP or 7.5
Pancreatic cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the world with a 5-year survival rate of less than 6%. Currently, there is no successful therapeutic strategy for advanced pancreatic cancer, and new effective strategies are urgently needed. Recently, an arginine deprivation agent, arginine deiminase, was found to inhibit the growth of some tumor cells (i.e., hepatocellular carcinoma, melanoma, and lung cancer) deficient in argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS), an enzyme used to synthesize arginine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of arginine deiminase in combination with gemcitabine, the first line chemotherapeutic drug for patients with pancreatic cancer, and to identify the mechanisms associated with its anticancer effects. In this study, we first analyzed the expression levels of ASS in pancreatic cancer cell lines and tumor tissues using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. We further tested the effects of the combination regimen of arginine deiminase
TABLE-US-00003 TABLE 3 PFAM Results for Amino Acid Sequences Amino Acid SEQ ID Range NO: ORF Domain Start, Stop Family PFAM Accession No. E-value 3 877 PTS_IIA 16, 111 PTS system, Lactose/Cellobiose specific IIA PF02255 8.20E-40 subunit 5 609 PTS_EIIA_1 30, 134 phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar PF00358 6.00E-55 phosphotransferase system, EIIA 1 7 1479 PRD 76, 171; PRD domain PF00874 9.90E-52 181, 282 7 1479 CAT_RBD 6, 67 CAT RNA binding domain PF03123 1.10E-16 9 1574 Glyco_hydro_1 4, 471 Glycosyl hydrolase family 1 PF00232 2.90E-133 11 1707 PTS_EIIA_1 491, 595 phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar PF00358 6.10E-53 phosphotransferase system, EIIA 1 11 1707 PTS_EIIC 105, 387 Phosphotransferase system, EIIC PF02378 3.10E-33 11 1707 PTS_EIIB 7, 41 phosphotransferase system, EIIB PF00367 8.50E-19 13 725 PTS_EIIA_1 528, 632 phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar PF00358 4.10E-60 phosphotransferase system, EIIA 1 13 725 PTS_EIIC 122, 419 Phosphotransferase system, EIIC PF02378 3.80E-35 13 725 PTS_EIIB 21, ...
The phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a major mechanism used by bacteria for uptake of carbohydrates, particularly hexoses, hexitols, and disaccharides, where the source of energy is from PEP. The PTS consists of two general components, enzyme I (EI) and histidine phosphocarrier protein (HPr), and of membrane-bound sugar specific permeases (enzymes II). Each enzyme II (EII) complex consists of one or two hydrophobic integral membrane domains (domains C and D) and two hydrophilic domains (domains A and B). EII complexes may exist as distinct proteins or as a single multidomain protein. The PTS catalyzes the uptake of carbohydrates and their conversion into their respective phosphoesters during transport. There are four successive phosphoryl transfers in the PTS. Initial autophosphorylation of EI, using PEP as a substrate, is followed by transfer of the phosphoryl group from EI to HPr. EIIA catalyzes the self-phosphoryl transfer from HPr after which the ...
The cassava was modified for resistance to Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) by introducing an RNA interference cassette that targets African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) replication associated disease AC1. The production of hairpin RNA by the host cells trigger an RNAi response that is expected to target viral transcripts and prevent viral replication and thus further infection. Due to conservation between AC1 sequences in ACMV and East african cassava mosaic virus, the modified cassava is expected to resistant to both viruses, which are the causal agents of CMD. A selectable marker, Escherichia coli hygromycin B phosphotransferase, was additionally included for hygromycin selection during transformation ...
The phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) is a major mechanism used by bacteria for uptake of carbohydrates, particularly hexoses, hexitols, and disaccharides, where the source of energy is from PEP. The PTS consists of two general components, enzyme I (EI) and histidine phosphocarrier protein (HPr), and of membrane-bound sugar specific permeases (enzymes II). Each enzyme II (EII) complex consists of one or two hydrophobic integral membrane domains (domains C and D) and two hydrophilic domains (domains A and B). EII complexes may exist as distinct proteins or as a single multidomain protein. The PTS catalyzes the uptake of carbohydrates and their conversion into their respective phosphoesters during transport. There are four successive phosphoryl transfers in the PTS. Initial autophosphorylation of EI, using PEP as a substrate, is followed by transfer of the phosphoryl group from EI to HPr. EIIA catalyzes the self-phosphoryl transfer from HPr after which the ...
Considerable differences in steady-state hexokinase specific activity were found in 16 N.C.I.B. strains of Klebsiella aerogenes grown in identical conditions in glucose-limited chemostats. Strains of N.C.I.B. 8258 had no detectable activity, but its glucose-phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase specific activity and that of the other strains were closely similar, and it is concluded that this phosphotransferase activity regulates the overall utilization of glucose, in which hexokinase plays no essential role. The hexokinase activity was subject to regulation by the availability of phosphorus, but this did not affect the glucose phosphotransferase activity. tlactose-grown organisms (including strain N.C.I.B. 8258) had no glucose phosphotransferase activity, but more than adequate hexokinase activity to phosphorylate the intracellularly liberated glucose. ...
Ribulose-5-phosphate kinase from maize (Zea mays) can exist in either a reduced, active form or an oxidized, inactive form. Reduced ribulose-5-phosphate kinase is rapidly and irreversibly inactivated by the dichlorotriazine dye Reactive Red 1 (Procion Red MX-2B), but the irreversible inactivation of the oxidized form of ribulose-5-phosphate kinase occurs at only 0.05% of this rate. The rate of inactivation of the reduced enzyme by Reactive Red 1 (apparent bimolecular rate constant 10(4)M-1 X s-1 at pH 7.4 and 25 degrees C) is several orders of magnitude greater than previous estimates of the rates of dye-mediated inactivation of other enzymes. The dye-dependent inactivation of the reduced enzyme is inhibited by Hg2+ or p-mercuribenzoate (thiol reagents that reversibly inhibit ribulose-5-phosphate kinase activity), or by ATP and ADP, the nucleotide substrates of the enzyme. Hydrolysed Reactive Red 1, which does not inactivate the enzyme, is a reversible inhibitor of ribulose-5-phosphate kinase. ...
Ondre Pipkins is back at practice. Roy Roundtree is getting close to joining him.. Thats positive news for the Michigan football team on the injury front. Coach Brady Hoke said Tuesday that Pipkins, a freshman defensive lineman who suffered a neck injury during Fridays practice and was taken to the hospital for evaluation, has fully recovered.. Pipkins returned to practice Monday, and is wearing full pads. He has no limitations.. Hoke said the injury occurred during a one-on-one drill under his supervision. "I was there and we didnt think it was going to be real bad, but youre not sure," Hoke said. "It was my drill. Just a one-on-one.. "Our medical staff here did a phenomenal job of taking the right precautions and all that. Hes back in full pads, practicing, doing everything.". Roundtree had arthroscopic knee surgery Aug. 10 and isnt due back until next week. Hoke, though, said hes already running in pads and getting "close" to making a full return to practice.. "Hes progressing very ...
The expression of plant shikimate kinase (SK; EC 2.7.1.71), an intermediate step in the shikimate pathway to aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, is induced under specific conditions of environmental stress and developmental requirements in an isoform-specific manner. Despite their important physiological role, experimental structures of plant SKs have not been determined and the biochemical nature of plant SK regulation is unknown. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes two SKs, AtSK1 and AtSK2. We demonstrate that AtSK2 is highly unstable and becomes inactivated at 37 degrees C whereas the heat-induced isoform, AtSK1, is thermostable and fully active under identical conditions at this temperature. We determined the crystal structure of AtSK2, the first SK structure from the plant kingdom, and conducted biophysical characterizations of both AtSK1 and AtSK2 towards understanding this mechanism of thermal regulation. The crystal structure of AtSK2 is generally conserved with bacterial SKs with the ...
Schizochytrium is a genus of unicellular eukaryotes in the family Thraustochytriaceae, which are found in coastal marine habitats. They are assigned to the Stramenopiles (heterokonts), a group which also contains kelp and various microalgae. Several stages occur in its lifecycle. The feeding form has a stiff, rounded body with cellular extensions used in feeding. Cells can transform into mobile flagellated cells with stiff tripartite hairs typical of the Stramenopiles. Cells can also grow and divide to form a cluster of cells which may become a sorus that produces biflagellated zoospores. Certain species produce large amounts of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and are grown commercially for production of this oil for animal feeds, biomass, biofuels and direct human consumption in supplements and additives. In 2016, juvenile Nile tilapia were given a feed containing dried Schizochytrium in place of fish oil. When compared to a control group raised on regular feed, they exhibited higher weight gain and ...
Agonist binding to guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors in membranes of myeloid differentiated human leukemia (HL-60) cells is inhibited by guanine nucleotides, most potently by the GTP analog guanosine 5-(gamma-thio)triphosphate (GTP gamma S). In order to study whether GTP gamma S formed locally from adenosine 5-(gamma-thio)triphosphate (ATP gamma S) and GDP by nucleoside diphosphokinase has any advantage over exogenously added GTP gamma S in binding to and activating G proteins, regulation of complement component 5a (C5a) binding to its receptors, as well as formation of GTP gamma S, was studied in membranes of HL-60 cells. GTP gamma S added to HL-60 membranes potently inhibited binding of 125I-C5a (IC50 about 3 nM), an effect not influenced by addition of either GDP or ATP gamma S. When HL-60 membranes were incubated with the combination of ATP gamma S and GDP, a marked potentiation (up to 300-fold) of the inhibition caused by either GDP or ATP gamma S alone was ...
Monoclonal antibody against kanamycin was ready, and competitive direct ELISA and immunochromatographic assay were developed using the antibody to detect kanamycin in animal plasma and milk. kanamycin residues in veterinary medicine. Screened positives can be confirmed using a more sensitive laboratory method such as competitive direct ELISA. Therefore, the assays developed in this study could be used to complement each other as well as other laboratory findings. Moreover, instead of slaughtering the animals to obtain test samples, these methods could be applied to determine kanamycin concentration in the plasma of live animals. spp., and spp. [16], and is known to perturb protein synthesis in Gram-negative bacteria by binding to the 30 S subunit of ribosomal RNA, which causes misreading of the genetic code and inhibits translation [6,15]. Kanamycin is a mixture of 3 isomers: kanamycin A, kanamycin B, and kanamycin C. Since the kanamycin components differ markedly in their toxicity, commercial ...
Citation: Malnoy, M., Boresjza-Wysocka, E., Norelli, J.L., Flaishman, M., Gidoni, D., Aldwinckle, H.S. 2010. Genetic transformation of apple (Malus x domestica) without use of a selectable marker gene. Tree Genetics and Genomes. 6:423-433. Interpretive Summary: Antibiotic and herbicide resistance genes are widely used as selectable markers to facilitate the efficient transformation of crop plants. Due to the negative public connotations associated with the use of selectable markers, a completely marker-free transformation technology would be desirable for the commercialization of genetically transformed plants. With this goal in mind, a technique was developed to genetically transform apple without the use of selectable marker genes. The technique takes advantage of the apples capacity for high efficiency transformation and allows for the generation of marker-free transgenic plants without the need for repeated transformation or sexual crossing. When two different marker-gene free vectors ...
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Defects in phosphotransferase chemotaxis in cya and cpd mutants previously cited as evidence of a cyclic GMP or cyclic AMP intermediate in signal transduction were not reproduced in a study of chemotaxis in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. In cya mutants, which lack adenylate cyclase, the addition of cyclic AMP was required for synthesis of proteins that were necessary for phosphotransferase transport and chemotaxis. However, the induced cells retained normal phosphotransferase chemotaxis after cyclic AMP was removed. Phosphotransferase chemotaxis was normal in a cpd mutant of S. typhimurium that has elevated levels of cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP. S. typhimurium crr mutants are deficient in enzyme III glucose, which is a component of the glucose transport system, and a regulator of adenylate cyclase. After preincubation with cyclic AMP, the crr mutants were deficient in enzyme II glucose-mediated transport and chemotaxis, but other chemotactic responses were normal. It is concluded ...
There is a hygromycin marker on the pGIPZ, pTRIPZ, and pLemiR vectors. It was present on the parent plasmid that they were constructed from but its function has never been tested in house. The hygromycin in the TRIPZ vector was specifically inactivated so it will not work. In theory you could use the hygromycin marker for selection of cells transfected with the pGIPZ or pLemiR plasmid but the hygromycin takes longer to have the desired effect than puromycin. You would not be able to use hygromycin for selection of transduced cells because only what is between the LTRs of the vectors would be packaged and the hygromycin marker lies outside of the LTRs ...
Admin: "Call me a truther/conspiracy theorist whatever but I do believe the political interests are higher than truth finding.". Name calling and fear of name calling should not be allowed to inhibit this work. The search for the truth is already crippled by the lack of hard evidence. The search is already distracted by nebulous official reports and highly questionable photos, videos and social media. If you add to that a reluctance to examine the political context then you are examining less than all of the evidence that is available.. Moreover, the political context is far more concrete than pictures of smoke and videos of moving vehicles with wheels that do not spin. You are right that political interests are higher than truth finding. Ill put a sharper point on it: political interests have blocked truth finding, and they have done so from the beginning.. Admin: "I believe the reputation of Ukraine has to be protected at all costs.". The leaders of Ukraine do everything they can to remain ...
Losing weight can be as easy or as difficult as you want it to be. Literally, it is up to you to determine your own success!. There you go! Think about that and discuss. Ok, times up, here is my take on it. (You can go back to discussing later.). You set yourself back every time you have that "treat" or little bite of this or that, which for some reason you feel you, "Need"…ackh!. Whatever your reason for wanting to lose weight, I congratulate you for taking the steps to be healthy. I applaud you for making the decision.. Research shows that protein is a key factor in weight loss success. The way that it does this is through the thermic effect that it has on your body.. The definition of the thermic effect of food is the increase in energy expenditure (calories burned) above your resting metabolic rate due to the cost of digesting your food for storage and use.. In easier terms, every time you consume food your body burns calories to digest that food. Think about that one…you use energy ...