TY - JOUR. T1 - Inositol polyphosphate multikinase mediates extinction of fear memory. AU - Park, Jina. AU - Longo, Francesco. AU - Park, Seung Ju. AU - Lee, Seulgi. AU - Bae, Mihyun. AU - Tyagi, Richa. AU - Han, Jin Hee. AU - Kim, Seyun. AU - Santini, Emanuela. AU - Klann, Eric. AU - Snyder, Solomon H. PY - 2019/2/12. Y1 - 2019/2/12. N2 - Inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK), the key enzyme for the biosynthesis of higher inositol polyphosphates and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate, also acts as a versatile signaling player in regulating tissue growth and metabolism. To elucidate neurobehavioral functions of IPMK, we generated mice in which IPMK was deleted from the excitatory neurons of the postnatal forebrain. These mice showed no deficits in either novel object recognition or spatial memory. IPMK conditional knockout mice formed cued fear memory normally but displayed enhanced fear extinction. Signaling analyses revealed dysregulated expression of neural genes accompanied by ...
Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration is a form of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, characterized by a progressive movement disorder and prominent iron deposition in the globus pallidus. Formerly referred to as Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome, the disorder was renamed pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration after discovery of the causative gene, PANK2. Although the pathological features of clinically characterized Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome have been described, the literature is confounded by the historical use of this term for nearly all conditions with prominent basal ganglia iron accumulation and by the fact that this term encompasses a genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, now referred to as neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. As a result, interpreting reports that precede molecular characterization of specific forms of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation is problematic. In the present studies, we describe neuropathological ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevention of alterations in intestinal permeability is involved in zinc inhibition of acute ethanol-induced liver damage in mice. AU - Lambert, Jason C.. AU - Zhou, Zhanxiang. AU - Wang, Lipeng. AU - Song, Zhenyuan. AU - McClain, Craig J.. AU - Kang, Yujian. PY - 2003/6/1. Y1 - 2003/6/1. N2 - Acute ethanol exposure causes liver injury in experimental animals, and accumulating evidence suggests that a major responsible factor for the pathogenesis is endotoxemia, which results from bacterial endotoxin leakage from the small intestine due to increased intestinal permeability under alcohol challenge. The purpose of this study was to examine whether zinc pretreatment would inhibit acute ethanol-induced liver injury through prevention of intestinal permeability changes. Male 129 SvPCJ mice were treated with three intragastric doses of ZnSO4 at 5 mg of zinc ion per kg each dosing prior to acute ethanol challenge with a single oral dose of 6 g/kg ethanol. The zinc treatment did not ...
Alcohol use disorder Alcohol use disorder dsm 5 Alcohol use disorder icd 10 Alcohol use disorders identification test Alcohol use disorder dsm 5 code Alcohol use disorder definition Alcohol use disorder treatment Alcohol use disorder dsm 5 criteria Alcoho ➥ Alcohol use disorder Alcohol use disorder dsm 5 Alcohol use disorder icd 10 Alcohol use disorders identification test Alcohol use disorder dsm 5 code Alcohol use disorder definition Alcohol use disorder treatment Alcohol use disorder dsm 5 criteria Alcohol use disorder moderate Alcohol use disorder in remission Alcohol use disorder identification test Alcohol use disorder symptoms Alcohol use disorder statistics Alcohol use disorder axis Alcohol use disorder assessment Alcohol use disorder and depression Alcohol use disorder and alcoholism Alcohol use disorder australia Alcohol use disorder and associated disabilities Alcohol use disorder audit Alcohol use disorder ati Alcohol-use disorder as the dsm-5 Alcohol use disorder and alcohol dependence
This research describes the optimization of parameters (including pH, temperature, period of co-cultivation and age of callus) for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of Theobroma cacao L. using staminodes from cocoa buds as explants. The A. tumefaciens strain used was the super avirulent AGLl with the binary vector pGPTV-Kan/Gus. The strain confers aminoglycoside resistance to transformed cells through the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) gene. Callus induction medium contained DKW minerals, glucose, vitamins, 2 mg/L 2,4D and 0.005 mg/L TDZ (0.5nM) pH 5.3. Co-cultivation medium was identical to callus induction medium but contained 0.02mg/L acetosyringone. Experiments were conducted using two clones of cocoa: KKM19 and P22. Staminodes were cultured on callus induction medium in the dark before the transformation process. After 14 days and 21 days on callus induction medium, callus-derived staminodes were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens on semi-solid co-cultivation ...
In ,i,Vanda,/i, orchids, it is important to produce cultivars with economically important traits such as disease and pest resistances and novel flower colors, which are difficult to achieve by conventional cross breeding methods. To realize these breeding objectives, it is now expected to apply genetic transformation technology to introduce useful foreign genes into ,i,Vanda,/i, orchids. However, there has been almost no information on the genetic transformation of ,i,Vanda,/i,. Transgenic plants were successfully regenerated after co-cultivating protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) with ,i,Agrobacterium tumefaciens,/i, strain EHA101 (pIG121Hm) that harbored genes for β-glucuronidase (,i,gus,/i,), hygromycin phosphotransferase (,i,hpt,/i,) and neomycin phosphotransferase II (,i,nptII,/i,). PLBs of Tokyo Blue maintained in liquid New Dogashima medium (NDM) under dark condition, were subjected to transformation experiments. The PLBs inoculated with ,i,Agrobacterium,/i, produced secondary PLBs 4 weeks ...
Inositol phosphate accumulation and adenylate cyclase activity were investigated in the cortex of young and aged ethanol-treated rats. Three months of ethanol treatment of young rats decreased maximal stimulation of inositol phosphate accumulation by carbachol by 26%, from 494 ± 76% of basal turnover in control animals to 396 ± 54% in ethanol-treated animals (mean ± SD). In aged rats ethanol-related changes were no longer observed but age-related changes were evident. EC50 was significantly higher than in young animals and maximal stimulation was significantly lower. Basal adenylate cyclase activity in cortical membranes of all groups of animals was not different. Forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was not affected by ethanol treatment, but was higher in aged animals. The activity of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase in the presence of carbachol was higher in both young and aged ethanol-treated animals, when compared to young controls. These results suggest that both ethanol ...
casSAR Dugability of A2RD38 | proA | Gamma-glutamyl phosphate reductase - Also known as PROA_STRPG, proA. Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of L-glutamate 5-phosphate into L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde and phosphate. The product spontaneously undergoes cyclization to form 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the congruence of biomarkers, questionnaires, and interviews as instruments to assess adolescent alcohol consumption. Method: The methodology used was a cross-sectional study with a randomized sample. Four different methods were used to estimate high adolescent alcohol consumption. The concordance of the results was investigated. Surveys were performed, and biological specimens were collected at all schools in the county of Västmanland, Sweden, in 2001. Eighty-one boys and 119 girls from a population of 16- and 19-year-old adolescents were randomly selected from quartiles of volunteers representing various degrees of psychosocial risk behaviors. Using a questionnaire (for a 1-hour session) and in-depth interviews, subjects were assessed regarding their alcohol-use habits. Blood and hair samples were analyzed for phosphatidylethanol (PEth) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), respectively. Results: High alcohol consumption was underreported in ...
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reduced risk for cardiovascular disease, whereas high serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level is associated with cardiovascular disease. However, whether light-to-moderate alcohol drinking is still related to reduced risk of cardiovascular disease irrespective of GGT level is uncertain. METHODS We performed a 12.5-year cohort study of 2336 men (excluding exdrinkers) who were free from cardiovascular disease. They were classified into 4 groups according to alcohol consumption: never, and current light, moderate, or heavy drinker. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios of alcohol consumption for incidence of coronary artery disease, total stroke, and ischemic stroke compared with those of never drinkers were assessed with stratification by GGT median (32 IU/L). RESULTS In participants with GGT |32 IU/L, the hazard ratios of all current drinkers for total and ischemic stroke were higher than those of never drinkers.
Table of Contents. Table of Contents 2. List of Tables 5. List of Figures 6. Introduction 7. Global Markets Direct Report Coverage 7. Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) Overview 8. Therapeutics Development 9. Pipeline Products for Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)-Overview 9. Pipeline Products for Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)-Comparative Analysis 10. Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)-Therapeutics under Development by Companies 11. Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)-Therapeutics under Investigation by Universities/Institutes 13. Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)-Pipeline Products Glance 14. Late Stage Products 14. Clinical Stage Products 15. Early Stage Products 16. Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)-Products under Development by Companies 17. Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)-Products under Investigation by Universities/Institutes 18. Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)-Companies Involved in Therapeutics Development ...
casSAR Dugability of A2S874 | argB | Acetylglutamate kinase - Also known as ARGB_BURM9, argB. Catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphorylation of N-acetyl-L-glutamate.
Treated wastewater effluent could be a viable alternative to potable freshwater for cellulosic ethanol production, according to a study by the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. The study, "Use of Treated Effluent Water in Cellulosic Ethanol Production," was funded in part by the Illinois Sustainable Technology Center.. The use of non-food cellulosic feedstock for ethanol fuel production has a number of advantages, including lowering greenhouse gas emissions and reducing cost pressure on food and feed markets, the study says. Drought-resistant cellulosic feedstock also can be grown on land unsuitable for row crops.. However, cellulosic ethanol plants consume large amounts of water. Dry grind ethanol plants currently use around three to four gallons of water per gallon of ethanol produced, whereas cellulosic ethanol plants are estimated to consume around six to 10 gallons of water per gallon of ethanol produced, the study says.. The study evaluated the effects of two different types of ...
Both transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEI) have proven their efficacy in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): TACE mainly in large lesions or disseminated disease and PEI in solitary lesions smaller than 3 cm. Although
Allen JP, Litten RZ, Anton RF, Cross GM: Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin as a measure of immoderate drinking: Remaining issues. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 18,799-812 (1994). Anton RF, Moak DH: Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin and -glutamyltransferase as markers of heavy alcohol consumption. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 18/3,747-754 (1994). Anton R, Bean P: Two methods for measuring carbohydrate-deficient transferrin in inpatient alcoholics and healthy controls compared. Clin Chem 40/3,364-368 (1994). Arndt T, Gressner AM, Kropf J: Labordiagnostik und Kontrolle des Alkoholabusus. Med Welt 45,247-257 (1994). Behrens U, Worner TM, Braly LF et al: Carbohydrate-deficient Transferrin, a Marker for Chronic Alcohol Consumption in Different Ethnic Populations. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 12,427-432 (1988). Behrens UJ, Worner TM, Lieber CS: Changes in Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin levels after alcohol withdrawal. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 12,539-542 (1988). Bell H, Tallaksen C, Sjahem T, Weberg R et al: Serum ...
Mevalonate kinase deficiency is a condition characterized by recurrent episodes of fever, which typically begin during infancy. Each episode of fever lasts about 3 to 6 days, and the frequency of the episodes varies among affected individuals. In childhood the fevers seem to be more frequent, occurring as often as 25 times a year, but as the individual gets older the episodes occur less often.. Mevalonate kinase deficiency has additional signs and symptoms, and the severity depends on the type of the condition. There are two types of mevalonate kinase deficiency: a less severe type called hyperimmunoglobulinemia D syndrome (HIDS) and a more severe type called mevalonic aciduria (MVA).. During episodes of fever, people with HIDS typically have enlargement of the lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), abdominal pain, joint pain, diarrhea, skin rashes, and headache. Occasionally they will have painful sores called aphthous ulcers around their mouth. In females, these may also occur around the vagina. ...
Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a set of symptoms that can occur following a reduction in alcohol use after a period of excessive use. Symptoms typically include anxiety, shakiness, sweating, vomiting, fast heart rate, and a mild fever. More severe symptoms may include seizures, seeing or hearing things that others do not, and delirium tremens (DTs). Symptoms typically begin around six hours following the last drink, are worst at 24 to 72 hours, and improve by seven days. Alcohol withdrawal may occur in those who are alcohol dependent. This may occur following a planned or unplanned decrease in alcohol intake. The underlying mechanism involves a decreased responsiveness of GABA receptors in the brain. The withdrawal process is typically followed using the Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol Scale, revised (CIWA-Ar). The typical treatment of alcohol withdrawal is with benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide or diazepam. Often the amounts given are based on a persons symptoms. ...
Office of Scientific Affairs (M.J.E.), National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, Maryland; Psychopharmacology Research Unit (S.E.F.), University of London, Guys Hospital, Division of Pharmacology, London, United Kingdom; Dipartimento Di Neuroscienze (G.L.G.), UniversitaDegli Studi Di Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy; Department of Physiology and Pharmacology (K.A.G.), The Bowman Gray School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina; Instituto de Investigaciones Citologicas (C.G.), Valencia, Spain; Department of Pharmacology (P.L.H.), University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, Colorado; Department of Pharmacology (H.K.), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Department of Neuropharmacology (G.F.K.), The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California; Indiana University School of Medicine (T.-K.L.), Indianapolis, Indiana; and Department of Pharmacology (B.T.), University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, Colorado. ...
0159] Resistance genes for glyphosate (resistance conferred by mutant 5-enolpyruvl-3 phosphikimate synthase (EPSP) and aroA genes, respectively), and hygromycin B phosphotransferase, and to other phosphono compounds such as glufosinate (phosphinothricin acetyl transferase (PAT) and Streptomyces hygroscopicus phosphinothricin-acetyl transferase (bar) genes) may also be used. See, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 4,940,835 to Shah, et al., which discloses the nucleotide sequence of a form of EPSPS which can confer glyphosate resistance. A DNA molecule encoding a mutant aroA gene can be obtained under ATCC accession number 39256, and the nucleotide sequence of the mutant gene is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,769,061 to Comai. A hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene from E. coli that confers resistance to glyphosate in tobacco callus and plants is described in Penaloza-Vazquez et al. (Plant Cell Reports, 14:482-487, 1995). European patent application No. 0 333 033 to Kumada et al., and U.S. Pat. No. ...
NBIA (neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation) comprises a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative diseases having as a common denominator, iron overload in specific brain areas, mainly basal ganglia and globus pallidus. In the past decade a bunch of disease genes have been identified, but NBIA pathomechanisms are still not completely clear. PKAN (pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration), an autosomal recessive disorder with progressive impairment of movement, vision and cognition, is the most common form of NBIA. It is caused by mutations in the PANK2 (pantothenate kinase 2) gene, coding for a mitochondrial enzyme that phosphorylates vitamin B5 in the first reaction of the CoA (coenzyme A) biosynthetic pathway. A distinct form of NBIA, denominated CoPAN (CoA synthase protein-associated neurodegeneration), is caused by mutations in the CoASY (CoA synthase) gene coding for a bifunctional mitochondrial enzyme, which catalyses the final steps of CoA biosynthesis. These two inborn ...
The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)-part of the National Institutes of Health, the Nations medical research agency-has a large research program on fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) that sponsors projects on preventing prenatal alcohol exposure, treating women with alcohol use disorder, improving the diagnosis of FASD, establishing more precise
Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is a recessively inherited autoinflammatory disorder with a spectrum of manifestations, including the well-defined clinical phenotypes of hyperimmunoglobulinemia D and periodic fever syndrome and mevalonic aciduria. Patients with MKD have recurrent attacks of hyperinflammation associated with fever, abdominal pain, arthralgias, and mucocutaneous lesions, and more severely affected patients also have dysmorphisms and central nervous system anomalies. MKD is caused by mutations in the gene encoding mevalonate kinase, with the degree of residual enzyme activity largely determining disease severity. Mevalonate kinase is essential for the biosynthesis of nonsterol isoprenoids, which mediate protein prenylation. Although the precise pathogenesis of MKD remains unclear, increasing evidence suggests that deficiency in protein prenylation leads to innate immune activation and systemic hyperinflammation. Given the emerging understanding of MKD as an autoinflammatory disorder,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ethanol alters the osteogenic differentiation of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells. AU - Hipp, Jennifer A.. AU - Hipp, Jason D.. AU - Atala, Anthony. AU - Soker, Shay. PY - 2010/10/1. Y1 - 2010/10/1. N2 - Background: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a set of developmental defects caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. Clinical manifestations of FASD are highly variable and include mental retardation and developmental defects of the heart, kidney, muscle, skeleton, and craniofacial structures. Specific effects of ethanol on fetal cells include induction of apoptosis as well as inhibition of proliferation, differentiation, and migration. This complex set of responses suggests that a bioinformatics approach could clarify some of the pathways involved in these responses. Methods: In this study, the responses of fetal stem cells derived from the amniotic fluid (AFSCs) to treatment with ethanol have been examined. Large-scale transcriptome analysis of ethanol-treated AFSCs ...
To the Editor:. The use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers is the currently recommended procedure for the control of infection in health care settings. The American College of Obstetricians advises that "women should avoid alcohol entirely while pregnant or trying to conceive." Is the use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers by pregnant health care workers a risk to their unborn fetuses?. A review of the literature revealed that few studies have been done to measure blood alcohol concentrations after the use of these alcohol-based hand sanitizers. Miller et al1 had 5 volunteers (all men) apply hand sanitizer (62% ethanol) 50 times over a 4-hour period, and found all blood alcohol concentrations to be below 5 mg/dL.. Kramer et al2 had 12 volunteers (six men and six women) use three different hand sanitizers (95%, 85%, and 55% ethanol) for a Basic Hand Hygiene application regimen. The volunteers applied 4 mL of hand sanitizer for 30 seconds each time, 20 times over the course of 30 minutes, with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of 21st birthday brief interventions on college student celebratory drinking. T2 - A systematic review and meta-analysis. AU - Steinka-Fry, Katarzyna T.. AU - Tanner-Smith, Emily E.. AU - Grant, Sean. PY - 2015/11/1. Y1 - 2015/11/1. N2 - Introduction: College students 21st birthday celebrations often involve consumption of extreme amounts of alcohol as well as alcohol-related risks. This systematic review aims to determine whether birthday-focused, individually-targeted, no-contact (email or letter-based) brief alcohol interventions (BAIs) reduce college students 21st birthday celebratory drinking. Methods: A systematic search identified 9 randomized evaluations with 10 interventions to reduce 21st birthday drinking. Quantity of alcohol consumed and estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC) were measured. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to summarize the effects of the interventions. Results: There was no evidence that birthday-focused BAIs reduce quantities of ...
Background & objective: Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB) is an important nosocomial pathogen which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in high-risk populations. Aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs) and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) methylation are two important mechanisms of resistance to aminoglycosides. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of 16S rRNA methylase (armA, rmtA, rmtB, rmtC, and rmtD), and the AME genes [aac(6′)-Ib, aac(3)-I, ant(3′′)-I, aph(3′)-I and aac(6)-Id], among clinical isolates of A. baumannii in Tehran, Iran. Methods: Between November 2015 to July 2016, a total of 110 clinical strains of A. baumannii were isolated from patients in two teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. The presence of genes encoding the AMEs and16S rRNA methylases responsible for resis-tance was investigated by
Tennessee imposes three distinct taxes on alcoholic beverages manufactured or distributed in the state. Alcoholic beverages subject to these taxes include distilled spirits, wine, and high alcohol content beer, which is beer with an alcohol content of more than 8% by weight.. Brand Registration. Every alcoholic beverage brand distributed in Tennessee must be registered with the Department. Manufacturers or importers must annually register each brand of alcoholic beverage they sell in Tennessee and pay a brand registration tax.. Alcoholic Beverage Gallonage Tax. Tennessee levies a tax on every gallon of alcoholic beverages sold or distributed in the state. Generally, this tax is paid by wholesaler distributors. Depending on the manner of distribution, manufacturers, common carriers, direct shippers, and wineries may be responsible for collecting this tax.. Alcoholic Beverage Wholesale Tax. Tennessee also imposes a wholesale tax on each case of alcoholic beverages sold at wholesale in the state. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Delivering alcohol screening and alcohol brief interventions within general dental practice. T2 - British Dental Journal. AU - McAuley,A.. AU - Goodall,C. A.. AU - Ogden,G. R.. AU - Shepherd,Simon. AU - Cruikshank,K.. PY - 2011/5/13. Y1 - 2011/5/13. N2 - Alcohol consumption and affordability in the UK has increased over the last 50 years and is associated with a range of adverse oral health outcomes, the most serious of which, oral cancer, is also increasing in incidence. Despite this, routine screening and intervention relating to alcohol consumption within general dental practice remains uncommon. This review of the literature describes the background and outlines the evidence base for undertaking alcohol screening and delivering brief interventions in general dental practice. Consideration will be given to the rationale for, and range of issues related to, introducing this into general dental practice.. AB - Alcohol consumption and affordability in the UK has increased over ...
In enzymology, a diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase (EC 2.7.8.2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction CDP-choline + 1,2-diacylglycerol ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CMP + a phosphatidylcholine Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are CDP-choline and 1,2-diacylglycerol, whereas its two products are CMP and phosphatidylcholine. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring non-standard substituted phosphate groups. The systematic name of this enzyme class is CDP choline:1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase. Other names in common use include: 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-m-glycerol:CDPcholine choline phosphotransferase, 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol cholinephosphotransferase, 1-alkyl-2-acetylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase, alkylacylglycerol choline phosphotransferase, alkylacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase, CDP-choline diglyceride phosphotransferase, cholinephosphotransferase, CPT, cytidine diphosphocholine glyceride ...
Coenzyme A is an essential metabolite known for its central role in over one hundred cellular metabolic reactions. In cells, Coenzyme A is synthesized de novo in five enzymatic steps with vitamin B5 as the starting metabolite, phosphorylated by pantothenate kinase. Mutations in the pantothenate kinase 2 gene cause a severe form of neurodegeneration for which no treatment is available. One therapeutic strategy is to generate Coenzyme A precursors downstream of the defective step in the pathway. Here we describe the synthesis, characteristics and in vivo rescue potential of the acetyl-Coenzyme A precursor S-acetyl-4-phosphopantetheine as a possible treatment for neurodegeneration associated with pantothenate kinase deficiency. ...
selenophosphate synthetase: involved in selenium metabolism; gamma-phosphate of ATP is transferred to HSe resulting in formation of monoselenophosphate; amino acid sequence in first source
Isopropyl alcohol is miscible in water, ethanol, ether, and chloroform. It will dissolve ethyl cellulose, polyvinyl butyral, many oils, alkaloids, gums and natural resins.[8] Unlike ethanol or methanol, isopropyl alcohol is not miscible with salt solutions and can be separated from aqueous solutions by adding a salt such as sodium chloride. The process is colloquially called salting out, and causes concentrated isopropyl alcohol to separate into a distinct layer.[9] Isopropyl alcohol forms an azeotrope with water, which gives a boiling point of 80.37 °C (176.67 °F) and a composition of 87.7 wt% (91 vol%) isopropyl alcohol. Water-isopropyl alcohol mixtures have depressed melting points.[9] It has a slightly bitter taste, and is not safe to drink.[9][10] Isopropyl alcohol becomes increasingly viscous with decreasing temperature and will freeze at −89 °C (−128 °F). Isopropyl alcohol has a maximum absorbance at 205 nm in an ultraviolet-visible spectrum.[11][12] ...
Looking for online definition of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation in the Medical Dictionary? neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation explanation free. What is neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation? Meaning of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation medical term. What does neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation mean?
CDP-Diacylglycerol-Inositol 3-Phosphatidyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and CMP from CDP-DIACYLGLYCEROL and MYOINOSITOL.
Page 4 Ξ Alcoholic cirrhosis pathophysiology ppt ➥ Alcoholic neuropathy pathophysiology ➥ Pancreatitis alcoholism pathophysiology ➥ Alcoholism pathophysiology ppt Pancreatitis alcoholism pathophysiology Alcoholism anemia pathophysiology Geriatric alcoholism pathophysiology and dental implications Alcoholism hypertension pathophysiology Alcoholism pathophysiology Alcoholic cirrhosis pathophysiology Alcoholic cardiomyopathy pathophysiology Alcoholic cirrhosis pathophysiology pdf Alcoholic cirrhosis pathophysiology ppt Alcoholic cardiomyopathy pathophysiological insights Chronic alcoholism pathophysiology Alcohol use disorder pathophysiology Alcoholic encephalopathy pathophysiology Pathophysiology alcoholic fatty liver Pathophysiology for alcoholism Alcoholic gastritis pathophysiology Alcoholic hepatitis pathophysiology Alcoholic ketoacidosis pathophysiology Pathophysiology alcoholic liver disease Pathophysiology alcoholic liver cirrhosis Alcoholic liver pathophysiology Alcoholic myopathy
Two enzymes in the methionine salvage pathway, 5-methylthioribose kinase (MTR kinase) and 5´-methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase (MTA/SAH nucleosidase) were purified from Klebsiellapneumoniae. Chromatography using a novel 5´-(p-aminophenyl)thioadenosine/5-(p-aminophenyl)thioribose affinity matrix allowed the binding and selective elution of each of the enzymes in pure form. The molecular mass, substrate kinetics and N-terminal amino acid sequences were characterized for each of the enzymes. Purified MTR kinase exhibits an apparent molecular mass of 46-50 kDa by SDS/PAGE and S200HR chromatography, and has a Km for MTR of 12.2 μM. Homogeneous MTA/SAH nucleosidase displays a molecular mass of 26.5 kDa by SDS/PAGE, and a Km for MTA of 8.7 μM. Comparisons of the N-terminal sequences obtained for each of the enzymes with protein-sequence databases failed to reveal any significant sequence similarities to known proteins. However, the amino acid sequence obtained for the ...
Glycerol uptake and glycerol kinase activity were studied in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes in the presence of either 1 nM insulin, 1 nM glucagon, or 100 nM dexamethasone, alone or in combination in
In article ,Pine.SOL.3.96.970711115134.16570A-100000 at ascc.artsci.wustl.edu,, Alex Brands ,abbrands at artsci.wustl.edu, wrote: , I was planning to use kanamycin resistance as a selectable marker in , yeast, and I aquired a construct from another lab that has a kanamycin , resistance cassette. However, my negative control plates revealed that , the parent yeast (w303) was not sensitive to the kanamycin. After talking , to the other lab, I found out that they use something called Geneticin, , (that name is a registered trademark of GIBCO) which is about 20 times , more expensive than kanamycin. , , So, is my kanamycin simply expired, or are yeast not sensitive to , kanamycin? Am I stuck with Geneticin? , , , All help is appreciated very much! , , Alex Brands , Washington University Sorry, youre stuck with the Geneticin (also known as G418). Although the kanamycin resistance factor inactivates both kanamycin and G418, only the latter antibiotic is effective against eukaryotic cells. Steve ...
Deoxyribonucleoside kinases catalyze the phosphorylation of deoxyribonucleosides to the corresponding deoxyribonucleoside monophosphates (dNMPs). They are the key enzymes in the salvage of deoxyribonucleosides originating from extra‐ or intracellular breakdown of DNA. Subsequently, dNMPs are phosphorylated into diphosphates (dNDPs) and triphosphates (dNTPs), which are the precursors of DNA. Deoxyribonucleoside kinases play a key role in the chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer and viral diseases, as they catalyze the first, and often rate‐limiting step of nucleoside analog activation by phosphorylation (Arnér and Eriksson, 1995). Native and genetically engineered deoxyribonucleoside kinases from different organisms are also attractive candidates for use in cancer gene therapy as suicide enzymes (Christians et al., 1999; Kokoris et al., 1999; Knecht et al., 2000a; Zheng et al., 2000). The basic concept here is to transduce cancer or virus‐infected cells with a gene encoding a ...
Activation and aggregation of blood platelets is crucial for hemostasis and thrombosis. In the vascular system adenine nucleotides are important signaling molecules playing a key role in hemostasis. ADP was the first low molecular weight agent recognized to cause blood platelets activation and aggregation. NTPDases and adenylate kinase (AK) are the main enzymes involved in metabolism of extracellular adenine nucleotides. The majority of studies concentrated on the role of NTPDase1 (apyrase) in the inhibition of platelets aggregation. Up to now, there are still insufficient data concerning the role of AK in this process. We found that adenylate kinase activity in the serum of patients with myocardial infarction is significantly increased when compared to the healthy volunteers. The elevated activity of AK is connected to appearance of another isoform of that enzyme, expressed in patients with myocardial infarction. The influence of AK on the pig blood platelets aggregation induced by 20 μM ADP or 7.5
The cassava was modified for resistance to Cassava mosaic disease (CMD) by introducing an RNA interference cassette that targets African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) replication associated disease AC1. The production of hairpin RNA by the host cells trigger an RNAi response that is expected to target viral transcripts and prevent viral replication and thus further infection. Due to conservation between AC1 sequences in ACMV and East african cassava mosaic virus, the modified cassava is expected to resistant to both viruses, which are the causal agents of CMD. A selectable marker, Escherichia coli hygromycin B phosphotransferase, was additionally included for hygromycin selection during transformation ...
Ribulose-5-phosphate kinase from maize (Zea mays) can exist in either a reduced, active form or an oxidized, inactive form. Reduced ribulose-5-phosphate kinase is rapidly and irreversibly inactivated by the dichlorotriazine dye Reactive Red 1 (Procion Red MX-2B), but the irreversible inactivation of the oxidized form of ribulose-5-phosphate kinase occurs at only 0.05% of this rate. The rate of inactivation of the reduced enzyme by Reactive Red 1 (apparent bimolecular rate constant 10(4)M-1 X s-1 at pH 7.4 and 25 degrees C) is several orders of magnitude greater than previous estimates of the rates of dye-mediated inactivation of other enzymes. The dye-dependent inactivation of the reduced enzyme is inhibited by Hg2+ or p-mercuribenzoate (thiol reagents that reversibly inhibit ribulose-5-phosphate kinase activity), or by ATP and ADP, the nucleotide substrates of the enzyme. Hydrolysed Reactive Red 1, which does not inactivate the enzyme, is a reversible inhibitor of ribulose-5-phosphate kinase. ...
Ondre Pipkins is back at practice. Roy Roundtree is getting close to joining him.. Thats positive news for the Michigan football team on the injury front. Coach Brady Hoke said Tuesday that Pipkins, a freshman defensive lineman who suffered a neck injury during Fridays practice and was taken to the hospital for evaluation, has fully recovered.. Pipkins returned to practice Monday, and is wearing full pads. He has no limitations.. Hoke said the injury occurred during a one-on-one drill under his supervision. "I was there and we didnt think it was going to be real bad, but youre not sure," Hoke said. "It was my drill. Just a one-on-one.. "Our medical staff here did a phenomenal job of taking the right precautions and all that. Hes back in full pads, practicing, doing everything.". Roundtree had arthroscopic knee surgery Aug. 10 and isnt due back until next week. Hoke, though, said hes already running in pads and getting "close" to making a full return to practice.. "Hes progressing very ...
The expression of plant shikimate kinase (SK; EC 2.7.1.71), an intermediate step in the shikimate pathway to aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, is induced under specific conditions of environmental stress and developmental requirements in an isoform-specific manner. Despite their important physiological role, experimental structures of plant SKs have not been determined and the biochemical nature of plant SK regulation is unknown. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes two SKs, AtSK1 and AtSK2. We demonstrate that AtSK2 is highly unstable and becomes inactivated at 37 degrees C whereas the heat-induced isoform, AtSK1, is thermostable and fully active under identical conditions at this temperature. We determined the crystal structure of AtSK2, the first SK structure from the plant kingdom, and conducted biophysical characterizations of both AtSK1 and AtSK2 towards understanding this mechanism of thermal regulation. The crystal structure of AtSK2 is generally conserved with bacterial SKs with the ...
Schizochytrium is a genus of unicellular eukaryotes in the family Thraustochytriaceae, which are found in coastal marine habitats. They are assigned to the Stramenopiles (heterokonts), a group which also contains kelp and various microalgae. Several stages occur in its lifecycle. The feeding form has a stiff, rounded body with cellular extensions used in feeding. Cells can transform into mobile flagellated cells with stiff tripartite hairs typical of the Stramenopiles. Cells can also grow and divide to form a cluster of cells which may become a sorus that produces biflagellated zoospores. Certain species produce large amounts of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and are grown commercially for production of this oil for animal feeds, biomass, biofuels and direct human consumption in supplements and additives. In 2016, juvenile Nile tilapia were given a feed containing dried Schizochytrium in place of fish oil. When compared to a control group raised on regular feed, they exhibited higher weight gain and ...
Agonist binding to guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors in membranes of myeloid differentiated human leukemia (HL-60) cells is inhibited by guanine nucleotides, most potently by the GTP analog guanosine 5-(gamma-thio)triphosphate (GTP gamma S). In order to study whether GTP gamma S formed locally from adenosine 5-(gamma-thio)triphosphate (ATP gamma S) and GDP by nucleoside diphosphokinase has any advantage over exogenously added GTP gamma S in binding to and activating G proteins, regulation of complement component 5a (C5a) binding to its receptors, as well as formation of GTP gamma S, was studied in membranes of HL-60 cells. GTP gamma S added to HL-60 membranes potently inhibited binding of 125I-C5a (IC50 about 3 nM), an effect not influenced by addition of either GDP or ATP gamma S. When HL-60 membranes were incubated with the combination of ATP gamma S and GDP, a marked potentiation (up to 300-fold) of the inhibition caused by either GDP or ATP gamma S alone was ...
Monoclonal antibody against kanamycin was ready, and competitive direct ELISA and immunochromatographic assay were developed using the antibody to detect kanamycin in animal plasma and milk. kanamycin residues in veterinary medicine. Screened positives can be confirmed using a more sensitive laboratory method such as competitive direct ELISA. Therefore, the assays developed in this study could be used to complement each other as well as other laboratory findings. Moreover, instead of slaughtering the animals to obtain test samples, these methods could be applied to determine kanamycin concentration in the plasma of live animals. spp., and spp. [16], and is known to perturb protein synthesis in Gram-negative bacteria by binding to the 30 S subunit of ribosomal RNA, which causes misreading of the genetic code and inhibits translation [6,15]. Kanamycin is a mixture of 3 isomers: kanamycin A, kanamycin B, and kanamycin C. Since the kanamycin components differ markedly in their toxicity, commercial ...
Citation: Malnoy, M., Boresjza-Wysocka, E., Norelli, J.L., Flaishman, M., Gidoni, D., Aldwinckle, H.S. 2010. Genetic transformation of apple (Malus x domestica) without use of a selectable marker gene. Tree Genetics and Genomes. 6:423-433. Interpretive Summary: Antibiotic and herbicide resistance genes are widely used as selectable markers to facilitate the efficient transformation of crop plants. Due to the negative public connotations associated with the use of selectable markers, a completely marker-free transformation technology would be desirable for the commercialization of genetically transformed plants. With this goal in mind, a technique was developed to genetically transform apple without the use of selectable marker genes. The technique takes advantage of the apples capacity for high efficiency transformation and allows for the generation of marker-free transgenic plants without the need for repeated transformation or sexual crossing. When two different marker-gene free vectors ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Journal.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
There is a hygromycin marker on the pGIPZ, pTRIPZ, and pLemiR vectors. It was present on the parent plasmid that they were constructed from but its function has never been tested in house. The hygromycin in the TRIPZ vector was specifically inactivated so it will not work. In theory you could use the hygromycin marker for selection of cells transfected with the pGIPZ or pLemiR plasmid but the hygromycin takes longer to have the desired effect than puromycin. You would not be able to use hygromycin for selection of transduced cells because only what is between the LTRs of the vectors would be packaged and the hygromycin marker lies outside of the LTRs ...