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Jerusalem) - Israel should strengthen an announced reduction of its military use of white phosphorus munitions by banning all use of "air-burst" white phosphorus munitions in populated areas without exception. Human Rights Watch has also urged all countries to make white phosphorus illegal when used as an incendiary weapon.. On May 13, 2013, the Israeli Supreme Court heard a petition by Israeli human rights and other civil society groups seeking a ban on the Israel Defense Forces use of certain white phosphorus munitions in populated areas. At the hearing, the Israeli state attorney proposed "a prohibition on the use of white phosphorus in built-up areas for the time being, with two limited exceptions that were presented before the judges" in a separate ex parte hearing. For undisclosed security reasons, the petitioners and their lawyers were not allowed to review the proposed exceptions.. "Its good the Israeli military has decided at last to reduce its use of white phosphorus munitions, which ...
[150 Pages Report] Check for Discount on 2016 Global and Chinese Phosphorus Oxychloride (CAS 10025-87-3) Industry Market Research Report report by Prof Research. The Global and Chinese Phosphorus Oxychloride Industry, 2011-2021 Market...
Phosphorus Oxychloride(POCL3) 10025-87-3 POCL3,POCl3 was widely used in production of pesticides, pharmaceuticals, dyes, phosphates ester flame retardants and plasticizers for plastics_OKCHEM
Israel pledged to limit the use of munitions containing white phosphorus and make greater efforts to protect civilians during conflicts, in a report this week to the United Nations.. The Israeli military was roundly criticized for firing white phosphorus shells over densely populated areas during the Gaza offensive that began in late 2008.. White phosphorus ignites and burns, creating white smoke when it is exposed to oxygen. Militaries use it as a smoke screen to protect troops during combat.. If it comes in contact with skin, white phosphorus creates an intense and persistent burn.. In making the changes, Israel said it had done nothing wrong.. "The use of smoke-screening munitions containing phosphorus during the Gaza operation … was consistent with Israels obligations under the Law of Armed Conflict," Israel said in the report.. ...
No its not forbidden by the CWC if it is used within the context of a military application which does not require or does not intend to use the toxic properties of white phosphorus. White phosphorus is normally used to produce smoke, to camouflage movement. If that is the purpose for which the white phosphorus is used, then that is considered under the convention legitimate use. If on the other hand the toxic properties of white phosphorus are specifically intended to be used as a weapon, that of course is prohibited, because the way the convention is structured or the way it is in fact applied, any chemicals used against humans or animals that cause harm or death through the toxic properties of the chemical are considered chemical weapons ...
Summary. This report documents Israels extensive use of white phosphorus munitions during its 22-day military operations in Gaza, from December 27, 2008 to January 18, 2009, named Operation Cast Lead. Based on in-depth investigations in Gaza, the report concludes that the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) repeatedly exploded white phosphorus munitions in the air over populated areas, killing and injuring civilians, and damaging civilian structures, including a school, a market, a humanitarian aid warehouse and a hospital.. White phosphorus munitions did not kill the most civilians in Gaza - many more died from missiles, bombs, heavy artillery, tank shells, and small arms fire - but their use in densely populated neighborhoods, including downtown Gaza City, violated international humanitarian law (the laws of war), which requires taking all feasible precautions to avoid civilian harm and prohibits indiscriminate attacks.. The unlawful use of white phosphorus was neither incidental nor accidental. It ...
The interaction of 4, 4-dimethylhomophthalimide with phosphorus oxychloride at 200° was reported by Gabriel Ber. 20 , 1205 (1837) to furnish a product C11H9Cl2N. A structure, corresponding to that of 1-chloro-3-methyl-4-chloromethylisoquinoline, which is arrived at by application of electronic theory is different from the structures tentatively suggested for the C11H9Cl2N product by Gabriel. The object of the present work was to demonstrate the structure of the molecule. [TRUNCATED ...
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Many phosphorus chemicals (bulk and fine) are made from white phosphorus, but indirectly via phosphorus trichloride. Manufacture of PCl3 requires chlorine gas, which is highly toxic and corrosive, possesses high environmental risk and is energy expensive. Halogenation of white phosphorus to PCl3 serves essentially as a means of moderating the reactivity and often no halogen is retained in the resulting products. Therefore, it is highly desirable to search for other means of moderating the reactivity of white phosphorus in order to achieve energy and atom efficient transformations into high value chemicals, without the formation of halide waste. Ideally the new reactivity moderators replacing halogenation will be inexpensive, non-toxic, highly specific and highly efficient (therefore only catalytic amounts will be needed).. ...
Israel came under considerable criticism in 2009 for its repeated use of white phosphorus against populated areas in the Gaza Strip, despite bans against doing so in international law.. Israel initially denied but later admitted the use after a particularly embarrassing incident in which they attacked a UN headquarters full of civilians in the Gaza Strip with the incendiaries, setting the building on fire and destroying humanitarian aid within.. Israel got the white phosphorus rounds from the United States, which is the only nation in the Northern Hemisphere that even still makes the mostly banned shells.. The Convention on Conventional Weapons only bans the use of white phosphorus in populated areas, and theoretically still allows for its use in vacant areas, which has allowed a handful of militaries to keep them. Unfortunately, this limited ban has often left those militaries using them with impunity during wartime as though it didnt exist at all, as Israel did in Gaza and as the US still ...
Allotropes Of Phosphorus - different allotropic forms of Phosphorus and their properties, namely White Phosphorus, Red Phosphorus and Black Phosphorus and much more @Byjus.
SEM/EDS is useful for detecting the use of red phosphorus in IC molding compounds. At one time (~1990s), red phosphorus was introduced as an environmentally-friendly flame retardant in molding compounds for semiconductor devices.. This turned out to be a mistake. A rash of electrical leakage related failures ensued. There are now reports of red phosphorus use in wire insulation for cabling and power cords, suggesting that the industry may not have learned its lesson.. Check out SEM Lab, Inc. to learn more.. ...
Sorry, im not sure if this is the right section, and if its not please tell me what the correct section is, but I am trying to extract red phosphorus from red phosphorus based flame retardant. Its added to some kind of resin. I wasnt sure if there would be a way to dissolve the resin leaving behind the red phosphorus? ...
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In connection with pretargeting, an amine-derivatized morpholino phosphorodiamidate oligomer (NH(2)-cMORF) was conjugated conventionally with p-isothiocyanate benzyl-DTPA (p-SCN-Bn-DTPA). However, after (111)In radiolabeling, unexpected label instability was observed. To understand this instability, the NH(2)-cMORF and, as control, the native cMORF without the amine were conjugated in the conventional manner. Surprisingly, the (111)In labeling of the native cMORF conjugate was equally effective as that of the NH(2)-cMORF conjugate (|95%) despite the absence of the amine group. Furthermore, heating the radiolabeled NH(2)-cMORF and native cMORF conjugates resulted in a 35% loss and a complete loss of the label, respectively. Since the (111)In labeled DTPA is known to be stable, the instability in both cases must be due to some unstable association of DTPA to the cMORF, presumably unstable association to some endogenous sites in cMORF. Based on this assumption, a postconjugation-prepurification heating
Headline: Bitcoin & Blockchain Searches Exceed Trump! Blockchain Stocks Are Next!. This report studies White Phosphorus in Global market, especially in North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and India, focuses on top manufacturers in global market, with capacity, production, price, revenue and market share for each manufacturer, covering Excel Industries Limited, Taraz, Shymkent, Yunnan Phosphorus Group Co., Ltd. etc.. Browse Full Report @ https://www.marketinsightsreports.com/reports/0211699/global-white-phosphorus-market-research-report-2017. Market Segment by Regions, this report splits Global into several key Regions, with production, consumption, revenue, market share and growth rate of White Phosphorus in these regions, from 2011 to 2021 (forecast), like North America, Europe, China Japan etc.. Buy complete report of 103 pages @ https://www.marketinsightsreports.com/report/purchase/0211699?mode=su. Table of Contents:. ...
Al Jazeeras Sherine Tadros, reporting from Jerusalem, said the Israeli army had initially denied using white phosphorus, a chemical agent that causes severe burns. "During the war, when we first started seeing the white phosphorous, the Israeli army said that everything it was using was in compliance with international law; it would not tell us whether or not it was using it," she said.. Legitimate use. "As the campaign went on, it became very obvious [on television] that it was being used and the Israeli army, as well as government spokesmen, told us that it was being used," our correspondent said.. "The caveat that the Israeli army pressed on was that it was being used within the rules of war; that meant it was not being used amid a civilian population and that it was being used to provide a smokescreen legitimately, as opposed to illegitimately."International law permits the use of white phosphorus as an "obscurant" to cover troop movements and prevent enemies from using certain guided ...
Latest reports say Israeli aerial and ground forces are using white phosphorus bombs to pound several residential areas across the besieged Gaza Strip.. The lethal bombs violate all international conventions and are considered as banned weapons in civilian areas.. This comes as a Norwegian doctor in the besieged coastal enclave has recently criticized Israel for using cancer-inducing bombs against Palestinian civilians.. Medics say some Palestinians in the besieged enclave have been wounded by a new type of weapon that even doctors with previous experience in war zones do not recognize.. Israel also used depleted-uranium and white phosphorus shells in the besieged region during their previous assaults.. The latest revelation comes as Israeli tanks and warplanes keep pounding the besieged enclave. Sources say at 39 Palestinians were killed on Monday alone.. Sunday has been the bloodiest day of the two-week conflict. More than 100 Palestinians were killed in the Shejaiya neighborhood near Gaza ...
International Red Phosphorus chemical supplier and distributor by Tradeasia International. Red Phosphorus has wide usages, such as in Medical, Agriculture and more.
As we know, hydroxide (OH‾) is a very poor leaving group. In order for alcohols to participate in substitution and elimination reactions, it is the best to modify the oxygen to give more stable form, thereby stabilize the negative charge generated when the C-O bond breaks. For this purpose, we used protons to give water which is a good leaving group. But it does not always have to be a proton. Instead of this, we can use the reagent phosphorus oxychloride (POCl3), a derivate of phosphoric acid. This is a useful reagent for direct "dehydration" (elimination) of alcohols to alkenes under non-acidic conditions. When POCl3 is added to an alcohol, we form a new O-P bond which is very strong and break a P-Cl bond to form a chlorophosphate ester. To do all this, we need a good base such as pyridine which even uses as the solvent (excess of pyridine). It works for primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols. ...
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Materials and a process for producing the materials are useful in electrophotographic imaging members. The materials are produced through a sol-gel process wherein a hybrid material, which may be obtained through hydrolysis and condensation, includes an inorganic glassy network, a flexible organic subunit and a functional subunit. The latter two subunits may be unitary. The materials can be easily coated for fabricating electrophotographic imaging members and the like.
Salt catalysts containing basic anions and acidic cations for the sol-gel process of titanium alkoxide: controlling the kinetics and dimensionality of the resultant titanium oxide
The element phosphorus is used to make matches. Molecular phosphorus has two common forms. There is white phosphorus which is dangerously combustible and is used to make fireworks and weapons. The more stable red phosphorus is used on the side of any box of safety matches. When you strike the match against the red phosphorus, a small amount of it is changed to white phosphorus to ignite the match. But phosphorus has more important uses than starting fires. Life needs phosphorus. The average human body contains about 26.5 ounces (750 grams) of phosphorus. Most of it is in our bones.. Phosphate is a compound of phosphorus and oxygen. It combines with sugars in living tissue to form the backbone of DNA, which is the blueprint for life found in every living cell. Phosphate is also part of a complex organic chemical called adenosine triphosphate (ATP) found in every living organism. ATP releases energy so that cells can function. Life needs phosphorus and could not exist without it in an abundant ...
JERUSALEM - Human Rights Watch said Sunday that Israels military has fired artillery shells with the Chemical Weapon White Phosphorus into Gaza and Medics in Gaza say the latest casualties include at least 60 people affected by suspected phosphorus shells fired ILLEGALLY near civilian areas with burn victims having skin peeling off their faces and bodies ...
White Phosphorus is industrially by far the most important form of elemental Phosphorus. It is produced by the electrothermal reduction of apatite with coke in thepresence of gravel (silica). The main reactions are represe
Foreign Policy has received photos from a Kurdish source which show children in the border town of Ras al-Ayn with chemical burns on their chests and faces consistent with white phosphorus.. The report says the graphic photos have been confirmed by a senior US administration official.. Bassam Saker, the representative of the so-called Syrian Democratic Council (SDC) to the United States, the co-secretaries of the SDCs health department, Rapareen Hasn and Manal Mhemed, have in a letter to Foreign Policy said that "Turkey uses all kind[s] of weapons including the internationally prohibited ones, and our medical teams are unable to evacuate the civilians.". Saker has confirmed that the prohibited weapons referred to in the letter are white phosphorus-loaded munitions.. Source: PressTV. ...
Its part of our conventional weapons inventory. We use it like we use any other conventional weapon, said Bryan Whitman, a Pentagon spokesman. *****. We dont target civilian populations. We go to great lengths to do everything possible to prevent civilian casualties, and collateral damage to property, he said. *****. Incandescent particles of white phosphorus can cause deep, painful chemical burns, said GlobalSecurity.Org, a Washington group that gathers information on military subjects. A report on the battle of Fallujah published in April in the army journal Field Artillery said white phosphorous proved to be an effective and versatile munition in Fallujah.. We used it for screening missions at two breeches and, later in the fight, as a potent psychological weapon against the insurgents in trench lines and spider holes when we could not get effects on them with HE (high explosives), said the report. We fired shake and bake missions at the insurgents, using WP to flush them out and ...
White phosphorus has a limited distribution in the environment because it only occurs where it has been directly used by humans. It is not transported aerially for any distance and, due to its density, has a limited ability to disperse through water. Therefore, it is not a contaminant of broad-scale concern. However, where it does occur, it can cause substantial mortality or critically injure populations of waterfowl. This chronic harm includes impaired liver and kidney functioning, decreased respiratory efficiency, increased susceptibility to predation, loss of body mass, general weakening and malaise, and curtailment of reproductive functioning. Lethal effects occur around 3---4 mg/kg or approximately 3-6 ingested particles; sublethal effects can occur with ingestion of as little as a single particle. The impact of P4 on waterfowl populations nesting around ERF has never been estimated. Even if direct mortality on ERF could be estimated accurately in ducks, the delayed toxicity of...
And yet at the same time, such quibbling is spectacularly beside the point. The reason we ban chemical weapons such as mustard gas is because they are indiscriminate and cause terrible injuries [GRAPHIC]. Thats the same reason we object to white phosphorus: it makes absolutely no distinction between combatants and civilians, affects a wide area, and causes terrible injuries [GRAPHIC]. It is not something that should even be considered for direct military use, let alone in a civilian area such as a city. But then, "indiscriminate" pretty much sums up the whole attitude of US forces in Iraq since the beginning, and if its more convenient for them to melt the skin off the people theyre supposed to be saving, thats exactly what theyll do. (BTW, if youre looking at the pictures linked above, do not click "successiva" too often unless you have a very strong stomach. Melted dead people crawling with maggots may cause you to lose your lunch). ...
The development of a solid sorbent sampling method for use at the OSHA standard of 0.1mg per cubic meter for white phosphorus (7723140) vapor is described. Previous methods of using a Smith- Greenberg impinger as a device for sampling the breathing zones of individuals at a worksite proved inconvenient because of spillage and evaporation. The new method involves the collection of trace amounts of
Video shows White Phosphorus mortar rounds, set to proximity (air) burst, raining down on ISIS positions in the last Daesh-held neighborhood of Mosul.
A 100 kg (220 lbs) white phosphorus bomb detonated on Sept 23 2016 causing a huge forest fire that consumed 56 hectares (120 km²) in Wittstock, Germany.
Amnesty Internationals report on Cast Lead accuses Israel of illegally using White Phosphorus in Gaza. Israel has responded to the accusation.
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Beverley OConnor speaks to Belkis Wille from Human Rights Watch about the use of white phosphorus by US-led coalition forces fighting the Islamic State group.
Following the now confirmed bombing of a Russian passenger plane by ISIS, Russia has taken the gloves off. A video has surfaced showing white phosphorus
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Phosphinates or hypophosphites are a class of phosphorus compounds conceptually based on the structure of hypophosphorous acid. IUPAC prefers the term phosphinate in all cases, however in practice hypophosphite is usually used to describe inorganic species (e.g. sodium hypophosphite), while phosphinate typically refers to organophosphorus species. The hypophosphite ion is H 2PO− 2. The salts are prepared by heating white phosphorus in warm aqueous alkali e.g. Ca(OH)2: P4 + 2 Ca(OH)2 + 4 H2O → 2 Ca(H2PO2)2 + 2 H2 Hypophosphites are reducing agents: H 2PO− 2 + 3OH− → HPO2− 3 + 2H2O + 2e− Hypophosphites are used in electroless nickel plating as the reducing agent to deposit for example Ni metal from Ni salts. The hypophosphite ion is thermodynamically unstable, and disproportionates on heating to phosphine gas and phosphate salts: 2 H 2PO− 2 → PH3 + HPO2− 4 Organophosphinates are organophosphorus compounds with the formula OP(OR)R2. They can be synthetized by the ...
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