Purpose: Whereas single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the human visual cortex results in scotoma, dual-pulse TMS results in the transient visual percept of an area of brightness, termed a phosphene. In this study, we presented disk-shaped visual stimuli that overlapped the phosphene in the visual field. Subjects evaluated the brightness of the overlapping region when dim or bright disks were either flashed or steadily shown. Procedure: Dual magnetic pulses were delivered by a Neotonus Neopulse stimulator. The coil position over the left occipital lobe, power, and inter-pulse interval were optimized for phosphene induction. Trials began with a dark background (, 0.1 cd/m^2), then a large homogeneous disk (15 deg in diameter) was either: flashed for 93 ms and followed by TMS (40 ms after flash offset), or shown steadily for 6 s, during which (at the 4th second) TMS was triggered. The disks were set either dimmer or brighter than phosphenes perceived on a dark background. The ...
The Black Angels é uma banda norte americana, do Texas para ser mais preciso. Só de olhar para capa de Phosphene Dream, ao lado, você já sabe. Essa banda é diferente. Não é o Country, estilo que domina a região desde seu surgimento, na décade de 1940.. As influências da banda são nítidas. Bandas de Rock psicodélico de 1967. Entre elas, 13 Floor Elevators e Velvet Underground; tanto que o nome da banda foi retirado de uma canção deste último, a clássica The Black Angel Death Song. O logo da banda também é inspirado no VU. É uma imagem em efeito negativo da atriz alemã ninfomaníaca, Nico, que foi integrante do Velvet Underground e depois aventurou-se numa carreira solo. Phosphene Dream é o primeiro disco da banda sem Jennifer Raines, que tocava máquina de drome e teclados; sendo substiuída pelo multi instrumentista Alex Maas. Essa mudança não afetou o grupo, que teve o seu segundo disco na posição 50º do top 200 da Bilboard. O que é muito, considerando o tipo de ...
Malte Urbschat is a German professional artist. In this piece, he has represented - among other migraine aura symptoms - phosphenes (sensing light when there isn't any light actually entering the eye) and scotomas (flickering light in the field of vision that obscures vision in that area). For...
Purpose: Phosphene perception is a characteristic side effect, occurring in patients treated with ivabradine. This drug is a selective bradycardic agent which reduces the heart rate by blocking HCN4-channels in the sinoatrial node. The induction of phosphenes by ivabradine is ascribed to the blockade of hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels in retinal photoreceptors. In the retina, HCN channels play an important role in efficient encoding of stimuli at high-frequency by shaping the photoreceptor membrane potential. Previous studies showed that blocking HCN channels by genetic knockout or pharmacology results in prolonged hyperpolarization of photoreceptor inner segments. Complementary to these studies, we here examined the effect of pharmacological HCN channel blockade on the encoding of visual signals by retinal ganglion cells (RGCs).. Methods: We recorded spikes from individual ganglion cells of isolated mouse retina mounted on a multielectrode array. Responses ...
Patients were recruited for the study between February and June of 2002. Initial selection was based on the examination of the data in the clinical records of the patients. The potential participants were then solicited for voluntary participation during their office visit. Inclusion criteria were an age of 18 years or older, a positive history for glaucoma or a positive family history of glaucoma. Eyes with a history of previous eye surgery, a documented peripheral visual field defect, a refraction of more than 5 dioptres, and patients who were unable to understand the procedure were excluded from the study.. A total of 45 subjects participated in the study. Of these, 34 returned for a second series of measurements. The study group consisted of 24 men (53.3%) and 21 women (46.7%) with a mean age of 62 years (range 33-91 years).. During the first visit, the measurement was taken from the right eye in 43 subjects and in the left eye in 35 subjects. In 13 patients only one eye was measured because ...
Retinal degenerative diseases such as Age related macular degeneration (ARMD) and Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are the leading cause of blindness in the United States and other industrialized countries. These diseases lead to a loss of photoreceptors, the neurons primarily responsible for transducing light into an electrochemical signal. Importantly however, retinal neurons downstream of photoreceptors do not degenerate, raising the possibility that artificial stimulation can be used to restore some form of vision.. The viability of this approach has been confirmed by multiple clinical trials, each reporting that light percepts, called phosphenes, are reliably elicited in response to electric stimulation from implanted electrodes. Unfortunately, the usefulness of vision elicited in this manner remains somewhat limited. For example, individual phosphenes do not reliably "assemble" into predictable spatial patterns, limiting the spatial information that can be conveyed to the patient. Even the ...
Gushing Adrenaline In Acid 2015The Rescue 2015G2015Menarca 2016Spasm 2016Virtue2016Malalingua 2014Phosphene2014Martyr2014Mono No Aware2013Prayers For Rain2013The Head Of Marie Antoinette2013The Chemical Peacock2012Walkabout2011Atropine2014Pietas 2014
Over the last 8 years it has been shown that an implantable retinal prosthesis can partially restore visual capabilities to blind humans. With current electrode arrays it is only possible to stimulate groups of cells rather than individual single cells with spatio-temporal precision. While artificial vision from a retinal prosthesis is unable to completely replicate the neural response patterns of normal vision, by stimulating groups of cells with electrodes patients see electrically elicited visual percepts. Thus this work will focus mainly on the form of percepts created with single electrodes in a prosthesis given certain varying stimulation parameters, and the development of a model to predict how stimuli applied produce certain percepts with single and paired prosthesis electrodes. ❧ Ideally we would want this model to resemble a digital display with independent pixels in order to individually control each percept seen by the subject in relation to the stimuli. We find however that the ...
Recent cascaded-integrator models do not fit the sine-wave flicker thresholds as well as we might wish, but neither does the Ferry-Porter law. In fact, the Ferry-Porter function is not physically realizable as a linear model. By modifying it to yield realizable responses like those of the cascaded integrator, we obtain a much simpler model, which appears to be a special case of the photochemical diffusion mechanism proposed by Ives and more recently by Veringa. This model is a good fit, not only to the flicker data, but also to human phase-shift measurements obtained by the phosphene method. We infer that receptor-cell properties probably control the high-frequency linear filtering of flicker waveforms.. © 1969 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
For Harp (3). I Phosphenes II Alembic Fantasy III Corona V Homage a Harpo VI Homeostasis VII Tropes VIII Phlogisticated Homophones IX Sesquialtera Games 22 pages
There are some issues I could see with LGN based recording systems from just looking at it. First, youre limited to the number of electrodes you insert because you have a huge distance to travel. Second, implanting in humans will be a much more risky operation than current cortical techniques. Third, explant and damage to the brain could be significant. Fourth, the electrodes would become more encapsulated (gliosis, etc) due to a larger surface area, which equals greater irritation. Still, interesting to think about. Oh, and most of the projections to the LGN are from V1, so you would have to be pretty keen at sorting out what units are being driven by ...
With a same luminous stimulation, the visual cortex is activated during migraine headaches and after headache relief by sumatriptan but not during attack-free intervals. Thus visual cortex excitability or responsiveness appears to be different during migraine attacks and attack-free intervals.. The absence of cortical activation during the attack-free interval is explained by the characteristics of the luminous stimulation (see Methods11,12). Also, cortical response to uniform luminance stimulus has been carefully studied in different conditions using fMRI. Only peripheral part of area V1 has been reported to be activated due to intraocular scattering of light in luminance flicker situation, but not with constant uniform luminance stimulus.14 In a previous PET study, the same luminous stimulations with higher intensities (600 and 1,800 Cd/m2) did not induce cortical activation in controls, which is in accordance with the habituation phenomenon, but activated visual cortex in migraineurs during ...
Objective measures that demonstrate activation of the retina, primary visual cortex, and possibly higher cortical association areas are necessary to illustrate the functionality of retinal prosthesis in sight-impaired subjects who have been implanted with such a device. Neural remodeling that occurs in outer retinal degenerative diseases can have an impact on the usefulness of retinal prostheses.; In this project we use quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) method coupled with metabolic radiotracer 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to evaluate brain activation under light stimulation and transcorneal electrical stimulation (TcES) conditions in normal sighted controls and subjects with retinal degeneration (RD). Both light stimulation and TcES resulted in activation of primary (BA 17) and secondary visual cortex (BA 18 and 19) in RD subjects. Transcorneal electrical stimulation using ERG-Jet corneal electrode resulted in similar subjective phosphene sensation in the right peripheral visual ...
Purpose: Eye movements can affect where a phosphene is perceived by patients with advanced retinitis pigmentosa (RP) who are implanted with a retinal prosthesis and equipped with an external camera (Fujikado, IOVS 2011). Because blind patients cannot fixate a target for calibration, we examined whether we can calibrate the eye position using the eye movements accompanied by reaching movement in subjects with simulated blindness.. Methods: The eye movements of ten normal subjects with right eye-dominance (4 men, 6 women; age, 22 to 50 years) were recorded with an eye tracker (Glass-type, Tobii®). Initially, the eye movements were calibrated using targets of known distances. Then, the eye movements were recorded with the subjects told to follow the index finger which pointed to the markers attached to an acrylic board located 40 cm in front of subjects (sighted condition). Nine markers were arranged in a lattice configuration with a 9.2 cm separation on the board. Then, the eyes were occluded by ...
There are other important issues that should be taken into account and case studies of surgical sight restoration following long-term visual deprivation provide relevant insights (Fine, Wade et al. 2003; Gregory 2003). For example, following ocular surgical procedures aimed at regaining some degree of functional vision, patients blinded for many years experience profound difficulty in various visual tasks, particularly those requiring the identification and recognition of objects. Interestingly, if patients are allowed to explore the same object through touch, they can recognize it immediately as to register their newly acquired visual percepts with their existing senses. These findings demonstrate that even when vision reaches the brain physiologically, visual perception remains nonetheless impaired. Thus, the simple restoration of a lost sensory input may not itself suffice in reconstituting the sense it normally provides. Active visual rehabilitation may be necessary to maximize the ...
We stimulated the exposed rat heart by a low frequency and high energy magnetic. By analyze the data of this experiment, it shows that the beat of the rat heart would make change after magnetic stimulated. The rat heartbeat
Background Gamma (γ) oscillations (30-50 Hz) have been shown to be excessive in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) during working memory (WM). WM is a cognitive process that involves the online maintenance and manipulation of information that is mediated largely by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) represents a non-invasive method to stimulate the cortex that has been shown to enhance cognition and γ oscillatory activity during WM. Methodology and Principal Findings We examined the effect of 20 Hz rTMS over the DLPFC on γ oscillatory activity elicited during the N-back task in 24 patients with SCZ compared to 22 healthy subjects. Prior to rTMS, patients with SCZ elicited excessive γ oscillatory activity compared to healthy subjects across WM load. Active rTMS resulted in the reduction of frontal γ oscillatory activity in patients with SCZ, while potentiating activity in healthy subjects in the 3-back, the most difficult condition.
The "Intelligent Retinal Implant System" (IRISTM) has been developed with the aim of providing modest visual perception to blind patients suffering from retinal degeneration e.g. retinitis pigmentosa. This epi-retinal prosthesis consists of an implantable part and two external parts. The implantable part is called the Retina Stimulator and is provided with energy wirelessly. The external components are the Visual Interface (VI) and the Pocket Processor (PP). The VI resembles a pair of sunglasses. A tiny camera is integrated within the Visual Interface to capture images from the patients surrounding and convert the image information into electronic signals. These signals are sent via a thin cable to the walkman sized Pocket Processor.. The PP processes the data and converts them into stimulation commands using very adaptable algorithms. The processed signals are then sent back via cable to the Visual Interface, where the signals are sent wirelessly to the implanted retina stimulator. The Retina ...
Connectorized cochlear implant systems and methods | Implantable medical devices with separate fixation mechanism | Collapsible valve with internal dimples | Catheter with flat beam providing nonsymmetrical curve bi-directional deflection | Deflectable catheter constructed to inhibit component migration |
Previous investigators have reported an increase in numbers of amacrine synapses in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the rat retina following light deprivation, and an increase in amacrine along with a decrease in bipolar synapses following light damage. Since there are several points of disagreement between the published reports on this subject we undertook a more detailed study of the effects of light deprivation and light damage on the retina. Four groups of eight male albino rat pups (14 days old) were raised for eight weeks under different conditions: (1) unsutured, bright light reared (UB); (2) bilaterally lid-sutured, bright light reared (SB); (3) unsutured, low light reared (UL); and (4) bilaterally lid-sutured, dark reared (SD). The intensity of the light given the UL group was equated with that striking the corneas of the SB group. Light microscopy showed that the retinas of the SB as well as the UB groups had almost complete degeneration of the outer retinal layers, indicating that ...
The purpose of this study is to learn if measures of brain activity are different in children and adolescents with depression who are in different stages of treatment. This is important because it may identify a biological marker for depression that could one day be used to identify depressed children who would benefit from certain treatments (medications for example), or to monitor how well treatments are working. Brain activity measures(known as cortical excitability and inhibition) will be collected by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). TMS is a noninvasive (no surgery or implants) brain stimulation technology which can make parts of the brain work without putting any wires or chemicals into the body. Measurements will take place over one 3-hour visit. This study does not provide any form of treatment.. *There is an optional portion of the study that uses a brain scan to gather measures of brain structure and brain chemicals. The brain scan is called magnetic resonance and spectroscopy ...
Diagnosis Code 368.32 information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, ICD-10 conversion and references to the diseases index.
We live in a society based on vision. Visual information is used for orienting in our environment, identifying objects in our surroundings, alerting us to important events which require our attention, engaging in social interactions, and many more functions that are necessary to efficiently function in everyday life. Thus, the loss of vision decreases the quality of life and poses a severe challenge to efficient functioning for millions of individuals worldwide.. Despite some medical progress, the restoration of visual information to the blind still faces multiple technical and scientific difficulties. "Bionic eyes" or visual prostheses are being developed mostly for specific blindness etiologies and target only a subpopulation of the visually impaired. Even these devices have yet to reach the stage where the technology can provide high-resolution, detailed visual information.. More importantly, these approaches take for granted the ability of the human brain, following long-term or even ...
Rather than feeding visual signals directly into the brain, they processed them using a code that the researchers had developed by watching how a healthy retina responds to stimuli. Once the mice had received the encoded input, the mice were able to track moving stripes, something that they couldnt do before. Then, an untranslate code was used to figure out what the brain was supposed to be seeing. This image was clearer and more recognizable than a previous, non-encoded image.. This encoding had been debated among scientists working on these kinds of visual prostheses. Some think that the brain could adapt in time to an unprocessed signal. For now, its not possible to determine how effective this technique will be in human patients, but this will be revealed when the system is tested in human trials. The encoding is simple enough to be done by one microchip, which would be paired with a small camera mounted on a pair of glasses. The camera would record a signal, which would be then encoded ...
Background: chronic tinnitus is a disabling, almost untreatable, condition usually accompanied by psychiatric distress. In patients with complex neuropsychiatric diseases as chronic pain, with whom tinnitus shares pathophysiological similarities, placebo effects may be pronounced. Moreover, it may be difficult to distinguish actual rTMS-induced clinical benefits beyond placebo effects in neuropsychiatric patients. Methods: 16 patients with chronic tinnitus underwent a randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo controlled trial of 1 Hz rTMS (120% of motor threshold; 1200 stimuli/day for 5 days) of the left temporoparietal region. Patients were screened for psychiatric comorbidity; additionally, anxiety and depression were monitored throughout the study. Moreover, an original placebo rTMS procedure produced the same activation of ipsilateral face muscles (a condition which may per se change tinnitus subjective rating) of the real rTMS. Results: responders were 8 out of 14. Two patients dropped ...
you need : 2 kg of oats, 400 g of aloe leaves, 400 ml of brandy, 400 g of honey.. Preparation : oats pour 5 liters of water, add 200 g of aloe leaves, honey and cognac, put 3 hours in the oven and simmer at a temperature of 200 ° C.Then strain, wring out the mixture, add the rest of aloe, honey and cognac, and again put in the oven until boiling.Immediately remove, cool and squeeze.Keep refrigerated.. you need : 3 liters of milk, 1 cup of honey, 100 g of Elecampane root, 100 g of honey.. Preparation : skvasit milk, drain the whey.Root chop, pour serum, put in a hot oven for 4 hours.Thumbs, drain and squeeze.Keep refrigerated.. Application : taken after a light meal 3 times a day for the first 1/2 cup broth and 1-2 tbsp.spoon broth second course from 2 weeks to 2 months depending on the state of health.. In such treatment, it is desirable to drink mineral water "Borjomi" and phytin take 1 tablet 3 times a day after meals and at night for 2 phosphene tablets.. ...
Clinical Trials - clinicaltrials.gov This study will examine the effects of high frequency, repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on decision-making and ...
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
Slotema et al Should We Expand the Toolbox of Psychiatric Treatment Methods to Include Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rtms)? A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of rtms in Psychiatric Disorders
Methods and devices for verifying that proper visual stimulation is applied to the visual prostheses are described. In one of the methods, a retinal stimulation system implanted on a subject is simulated externally. An external testing device is also discussed.
vii Consroe P and Wolkin Does Hemp Oil Have Cannabinoids A.. Ive done the rounds been politically active since the late 90s. Ive run for office at the local and state level; I lost but I had fun doin it. Whats the most touching story youve heard from someone youve encountered in your work? A good friend of mine recently passed on. He had cancer and was successfully treating it with Cannabis oil and a healthy diet.. Is this allowed? Is light deprivation considered indoor production? OLCC canopy sizes only refer to mature marijuana plants what about immature marijuana plants? How many immature plants can I have? If a processor wants to grow for its own use does it need a producer license? Do I need to have a wholesale license in addition to my producer license to sell to retailers? If Im interested in running a recreational marijuana nursery what type of license do I need? A: A producer license is required to cultivate marijuana. I want to grow indoor part of the year and outdoor part of ...
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The objective of the study was to determine whether physical exercise combined with epidural spinal cord magnetic stimulation could improve recovery after injury of the spinal cord. Spinal cord lesioning in mice resulted in reduced locomotor function
There are many forms of treatment for depression.But doctors are now using a non-invasive method for patients who are considered medication-resistant. Its called Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.
Achieve TMS provides provides an overview of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, TMS Studies, for the treatment of depression. Learn more here.
Agnew, B. J., J. G. Duman, et al. (1999). "Cytological transformations associated with parietal cell stimulation: critical steps in the activation cascade." J Cell Sci 112(Pt 16): 2639-2646.. Bak, M., J. P. Girvin, et al. (1990). "Visual sensations produced by intracortical microstimulation of the human occipital cortex." Med Biol Eng Comput 28(257-259).. Balkany, T. J., A. V. Hodges, et al. (2005). "Cochlear implant soft failures consensus development conference statement." Otol Neurotol 26(4): 815-818.. Barbeau, H., D. A. McCrea, et al. (1999). "Tapping into spinal circuits to restore motor function." Brain Res Brain Res Rev 30(1): 27-51.. Bavelier, D. and H. J. Neville (2002). "Cross-modal plasticity: where and how?" Nat Rev Neurosci 3(6): 443-452.. Bernabeu, A., A. Alfaro, et al. (2009). "Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) reveals the presence of elevated myo-inositol in the occipital cortex of blind subjects." Neuroimage 47(4): 1172-1176.. Bialek, W., F. Rieke, et al. (1991). ...
We applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the unilateral hemisphere of rat brain, by placing a 25-mm figure-8...
Pain clinical trial. Clinical trial for Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation as a Treatment for Pain in Parkinsons Disease.
At the ASRS 31st Annual Meeting, Mark S. Humayun, MD, PhD, presented updated safety and performance results of the Argus® II Retinal Prosthesis System clinical trial and gave an overview of the commercial experience in Europe.. As of December 1, 2012, 30 subjects have been implanted at centers in the main study. This is the largest study of a visual prosthesis to date, with more than 125 cumulative patient-years of follow-up.. Results show the Argus II prosthesis provides visual function to patients with end-stage retinitis pigmentosa. Research has demonstrated visual acuity as high as 1.0 logMAR (20/200) and color perception. A total of 54 clinical trial subjects and commercial patients worldwide have received the Argus II implant.. The Argus II Retinal Prosthesis System has been commercially available in Europe since 2011 and received US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in February 2013. As of October 1, 2013, the Argus II system has been approved for Medicare coverage. Software ...
Transcranial magnetic stimulation therapy is a new treatment for depression in patients who have not benefitted from prior antidepressant medication.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation therapy is a new treatment for depression in patients who have not benefited from prior antidepressant medication.
One other interesting project, in the early stages of development, involves research based at Boston College and the University of Massachusetts Medical School, that is attempting to create nano-structured retinal implants. The visual prosthesis is based on a novel, nanostructured, biocompatible energy conversion device whose dimensions enable the density of implanted stimulating electrodes to exceed 100 million/cm2. This constitutes by far the highest pixelation for a retinal implant, tens of thousands of times higher than any competing device, comparable even to the rods and cones in the retina that the implant will replace. Moreover, the novel "nanocoax" architecture of the neuroprosthesis enables unprecedented light-to-energy conversion efficiency. It also establishes a new paradigm for retinal implant technology: ambient light operation, without the need for implanted batteries or wires ...
TMS has been suggested as clinical tool for the neurorehabilitation of many conditions including depression, hallucination, pain, tinnitus, Parkinsons disease, and stroke, and possibly for neural enhancement in improving focus and concentration. NeuroStar, a TMS device used in the treatment of depression, was cleared by the FDA in 2008 ...
One recent development in the field of synaesthesia includes the amendment to Cytowics original criteria which stated that precepts are always spatially extended into the outside world. Over the past few years, researches have come to distinguish two broad forms of synaesthesia which render the spatial expansion principle correct for only one of the two forms. Today, synaesthetes are recognized as either lower synaesthetes termed projectors or higher synaesthetes termed associators . The terms higher and lower refer to the level of processing at which the sense-perceptions are crossed while the terms projector and associator refer to where the percept is sensed i.e. out in the world versus in the minds eye. Dixon et al.[10] came up with a method for differentiating between these two types of synaesthetes which does not depend on purely descriptive measures. They used third-person objective testing in addition to self-report in order to develop standardized performance measures for ...
In Chapter 1, "The Old Man of La Chapelle: The Patriarch of Paleo," author Lydia Pyne explains the publics evolving conception of the first complete Neanderthal skeleton found and described by scientists.. 1 Comment. ...
Synesthesia is the crossing of two neural pathways which causes one sense to be activated unconsciously when another was consciously activate. The Greek meanings of the word are Syn (union) and…
Definition of Gartners tonometer with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Today I would like to talk to you about mental resonance. And I would like to talk to you about the connections between thought-objects. But first I wou...
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Video articles in JoVE about transcranial magnetic stimulation include Utilizing Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Study the Human Neuromuscular System, How to Use the H1 Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Coil for Conditions Other than Depression, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Investigating Causal Brain-behavioral Relationships and their Time Course, Neuronavigation-guided Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Aphasia, Effects of Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on the Primary Motor Cortex by Online Combined Approach with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to the Unilateral Hemisphere of Rat Brain, Utilizing Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Improve Language Function in Stroke Patients with Chronic Non-fluent Aphasia, Online Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Protocol for Measuring Cortical Physiology Associated with Response Inhibition, Extracting Visual Evoked Potentials from EEG Data