TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of the dipolar form of phloretin on potassium conductance in squid giant axons. AU - Strichartz, G. R.. AU - Oxford, G. S.. AU - Ramon, F.. PY - 1980/1/1. Y1 - 1980/1/1. N2 - The effects of phloretin on membrane ionic conductances have been studied in the giant axon of the squid, Loligo pealei. Phloretin reversibly suppresses the potassium and sodium conductances and modifies their dependence on membrane potential (Em). Its effects on the potassium conductance (GK) are much greater than on the sodium conductance; no effects on sodium inactivation are observed. Internal perfusion of phloretin produces both greater shifts in GK(Em) and greater reductions maximum GK than does external perfusion; the effect of simultaneous internal and external perfusion is little greater than that of internal perfusion alone. Lowering the internal pH, which favors the presence of the neutral species of weakly acidic phloretin (pKa 7.4), potentiates the actions of internally perfused ...
Chemotherapy is one of the most important options for NSCLC and this therapeutic process is also a heavy burden for patients. Agents derived from various plants have been considered as potential alternative or auxiliary cure for cancer patients because research has shown that these therapeutic agents had no side effects, or at least the side effects were much more moderate compared with that of clinical first line chemotherapeutics. The anticancer effects of phloretin have been confirmed in various cancers (15-17), while its anti-cancer effects and underlying mechanisms on NSCLC is still uncertain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticancer effects of phloretin on NSCLC cell lines and the results revealed that phloretin could exert anticancer effects on NSCLC cell lines and it also enhanced the anticancer effects of cisplatin.. In order to elucidate the effects of phloretin on cell vitality, MTT assay and flow cytometry were, respectively, carried out. MTT results showed that ...
Phloretin hydrolase from Eubacterium ramulus(Phy) catalyzes the hydrolysis of the dihydrochalcone phloretin to phloroglucinol and phloretic acid, performing a formal retro- Friedel-Crafts acylation...
Other applications. At last, the key constraints having an impact on market growth and reducing the popularity of specific product segments during the forecast period are also listed in this report.The potential growth opportunities and their influence on the Global Phloretin Market is analysed in the report.. What Information does this report contain?. , What was the historic Phloretin market data from 2012 to 2016?. , What is the Phloretin industry growth forecast from 2016 to 2022?. , Which companies lead the Phloretin industry, how are they positioned in the market in terms of sustainability, competency, production capacity and strategic outlook?. , What are the technology & innovation trends, how will they evolve by 2022?. , Which are the leading market products, applications & regions and how will they perform by 2022?. , A detailed analysis of regulatory trends, drivers, industry pitfalls, challenges and growth opportunities for participants. ...
We used transtrophectodermal 3-O- methyl glucose flux studies and also polyclonal antibodies raised against either the human erythrocyte glucose transport protein or an artificial peptide homologous to the rat brain glucose transporter C-terminus to characterize and localize the glucose transporter system in the rabbit embryon.
Rabbit Polyclonal to XRCC5 PvDBP and PvEBPII with procedures of concurrent and cumulative exposure. (XLSX) pntd.0006987.s006.xlsx (13K) GUID:?B2A75E52-634A-4601-82A2-49C1FE5F338C S2 Desk: Association between antibodies and prevalence of infection diagnosed by PCR. (XLSX) pntd.0006987.s007.xlsx (12K) GUID:?AAEA3D76-B735-450B-814C-518FAD757EF4 S3 Desk: Association between antibodies and threat of clinical malaria. (XLSX) pntd.0006987.s008.xlsx (13K) GUID:?725F1482-A346-4BC6-9589-C2F9E9073363 S4 Desk: The association of mix of antibody responses and threat of malaria. (XLSX) pntd.0006987.s009.xlsx (11K) GUID:?44816FF9-CA15-448B-A7B6-1D487B4E8AF5 S5 Desk: Association between antibodies and threat of clinical malaria. (XLSX) pntd.0006987.s010.xlsx (12K) GUID:?AC4E3ED6-13A5-4BBB-978B-DFC57EBA3AC5 Phloretin cost Data Availability StatementData offered Phloretin cost by https://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.n14p52b Abstract History The Duffy Binding Protein (PvDBP) is an integral focus on of naturally acquired ...
In general as far as I know customers who bought Collagen Booster Intense Repair Serum + C + Phloretin or other products in the Internet also were interested in reviews, cheap & lowest prices in outlets and stores, shipping, gift ideas, city deals, sales, coupons online, new, holiday & daily deals, bargain, best buy products including special offers on Collagen Booster Intense Repair Serum + C + Phloretin, best deals, discount coupons, top & hot deals, great offers, last minute deals and so on ...
SkinCeuticals Phloretin CF Gel when used during the daytime, provides protection against free radicals in the environment and improves the appearance of discoloration, fine lines and wrinkles, and skin tone.
... to prevent free radicals and promote a more youthful, firm, and radiant appearance.
In general as far as I know customers who bought Vitamin C Daytime Repair Serum --Best Vitamin C Serum for Your Skin with 20% Ester C + E + Ferulic + Phloretin... or other products in the Internet also were interested in reviews, cheap & lowest prices in outlets and stores, shipping, gift ideas, city deals, sales, coupons online, new, holiday & daily deals, bargain, best buy products including special offers on Vitamin C Daytime Repair Serum --Best Vitamin C Serum for Your Skin with 20% Ester C + E + Ferulic + Phloretin..., best deals, discount coupons, top & hot deals, great offers, last minute deals and so on ...
A daytime vitamin c antioxidant face serum designed to reduce the appearance of discolouration and pigmentation while also delivering advanced environmental protection, evening skin tone and diminishing the appearance of fine lines Appropriate for normal, oily, and combination skin types. 30 mL / 1 fl oz. Product Descr
For a beauty blogger, I am pretty lazy when it comes to skincare - I have low commitment and reject anything that gives me an allergic reaction quite quickly
Prolonged hyperglycemia activates the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). Major dicarbonyl compounds such as methylglyoxal or glyoxal are found to be the main precursors of AGEs and N(e)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) found to be predominantly higher in the diabetic population. We hypothesized that phloretin from apple and [6]-gingerol from ginger inhibit formation of AGEs and suppress the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) via nuclear factor erythroid-2- related-factor-2 (Nrf2)-dependent pathway. Phloretin and [6]-gingerol were supplemented at two different doses to C57BL/6 mice on high fat diet or standard diet for a period of 17 weeks. Phloretin or [6]- gingerol supplementation significantly reduced plasma glucose, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, AGEs and insulin levels. Phloretin and [6]-gingerol also decreased the levels of AGEs and CML levels, via Nrf2 pathway, enhancing GSH/GSSG ratio, heme oxygenase-1 and glyoxalase 1 in liver tissue. ...
Researchers have developed a gene therapy method using an implanted gene network encapsulated in algal gelatin that is activated topically by the apple metabolite phloretin.
Have you ever heard of antioxidants? Chances are you have heard about antioxidants you can eat. But, did you know there are antioxidants for your skin? The most beneficial antioxidants for your skin are CE ferulic and phloretin. You will be amazed to learn what these two antioxidants can do for your skin.. What is CE ferulic? CE Ferulic contains a combination of 15% vitamin C, 1% vitamin E and 0.5% ferulic acid. This incredible antioxidant protects your skin from free radicals that cause aging.. What are Phloretin antioxidants? This powerful antioxidant combination provides environmental protection for your skin. Phloretin CF contains 10% vitamin C and 0.5% ferulic acid.. Why are antioxidants good for your skin? Antioxidants are known for their ability to improve the appearance of the skin and reduce the signs of aging. Antioxidants protect skin from harmful free radicals.. Where to find antioxidants for your skin? The dermatologist office is the best place for antioxidant treatments. You need ...
ˆSpend at least £150 and receive your choice of either 1 x 15ml Phloretin CF or 1 x 15ml C E Ferulic worth at least £67.50. All offers valid until 02/12/2019, subject to availability. Value of gifts based on a ml by ml comparison against the full-sized Hydrating B5 30ml £65, H.A. Intensifier 30ml £85, C E Ferulic 30ml £135, Phloretin CF 30ml £150 respectively. UK only. Valid online at www.skinceuticals.co.uk. Incomplete, illegal, misdirected or late redemptions will not be valid. Promoter is not responsible for redemptions lost, damaged or delayed due to technical or connectivity or other problems. Subject to availability, whilst stocks last.. *UK residents [18]+ Apply promo code at checkout for discount to be applied. 10% off any purchase from the SkinCeuticals range. Cannot be exchanged for cash. Cannot be used in conjunction in with any other code. Coupon received on first sign up only. Valid for one use per customer. Full T&Cs. Promoter: Skinceuticals.. ...
Mathematical modeling techniques have been useful in providing insights into biological systems, including the kidney. This article considers some of the mathematical models that concern urea transport in the kidney. Modeling simulations have been conducted to investigate, in the context of urea cycling and urine concentration, the effects of hypothetical active urea secretion into pars recta. Simulation results suggest that active urea secretion induces a "urea-selective" improvement in urine concentrating ability. Mathematical models have also been built to study the implications of the highly structured organization of tubules and vessels in the renal medulla on urea sequestration and cycling. The goal of this article is to show how physiological problems can be formulated and studied mathematically, and how such models may provide insights into renal functions ...
Interactions of phloretin and quercetin with lipid bilayers studied by a simplified method of second harmonics of the membrane current ...
Contains 2% Phloretin, 10% L-ascorbic and 0.5% ferulic acid Youll want this one if you have oily, problematic or normal skin - and are concerned with hyperpigmentation and age spots, uneven skin tone, loss of laxity or mottled skin appearance. Of course buying it is all well and good but its...
Enteroaggressive E. coli fimbriae-dependent colonization has been found to occur in the mucosa of both small and large bowels, triggering colitis. While this hasnt been demonstrated yet in IBD specifically, researchers tested the possibility of whether a link could exist between E. coli O157:H7 biofilm formation and IBD by testing in vitro whether Phloretin could reduce IBD symptoms in a rat disease model for colitis. In rats treated with TNBS, typical physiological symptoms of IBD were eliciited, including a significant loss of body weight contrasted by a large increase in colon tissue weights. Additionally, a large number of inflammatory cells originating from monocytes appeared to have migrated to the colon as expected in an inflammatory response. ...
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Autor: Gosch, Christian et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2010; Titel: Cloning and heterologous expression of glycosyltransferases from Malus x domestica and Pyrus communis, which convert phloretin to phloretin 2'-O-glucoside (phloridzin)
The effects of the cholesterol analog 5α-cholestan-3β-ol-6-one (6-ketocholestanol) on bilayer structure, bilayer cohesive properties, and interbilayer repulsive pressures have been studied by a combination of X-ray diffraction, pipette aspiration, and dipole potential experiments. It is found that 6-ketocholestanol, which has a similar structure to cholesterol except with a keto moiety at the 6 position of the B ring, has quite different effects than cholesterol on bilayer organization and cohesive properties. Unlike cholesterol, 6-ketocholestanol does not appreciably modify the thickness of liquid-crystalline egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) bilayers, and causes a much smaller increase in bilayer compressibility modulus than does cholesterol. These data imply that 6-ketocholestanol has both its hydroxyl and keto moieties situated near the water-hydrocarbon interface, thus making its orientation in the bilayer different from cholesterols Keywords: ...
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trans-Calcipotriol-bis-TBDMS-ether - CAS-RN:[112849-27-1] - (1R,3aS,7aR,E)-4-((E)-2-((5R)-3,5-bis(tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)-2-methylenecyclohexylidene)ethylidene)-1-((2R,5R,E)-5-cyclopropylh ex-3-en-2-yl)-7a-methyl-octahydro-1H-indene
Ethylidene norbornene (ENB) is colorless and transparent liquid with a strong odor of camphor class, there is greater volatility. Ethylidene norbornene includes Cis ethylidene norbornene and trans ethylidene norbornene on the base of classification, which represent 53% and 42% of global Ethylidene norbornene market. EPDM and Building Materials are the main application of ethylidene norbornene product and Asia is the largest ethylidene norbornene market on production and consumption.. Global ethylidene norbornene market is projected to reach $ 484 Million by 2018, with a GAGR of 3.8% from 2014, and Asia will have a big dynamic momentum on the market growth. The major players in the global ethylidene norbornene market are JX Group, San-Petrochemicals, Sumitomo Chemical, DOW, Ineos Oxide etc.. Read Full Report: http://www.gosreports.com/global-ethylidene-norbornene-market-research-report-2016/. Joanna , Executive - International Business and partner ...
The effects of the Na+ gradient and pH on phosphate uptake were studied in brush-border membrane vesicles isolated from rat kidney cortex. The initial rates of Na(+)-dependent phosphate uptake were measured at pH 6.5, 7.5 and 8.5 in the presence of sodium gluconate. At a constant total phosphate concentration, the transport values at pH 7.5 and 8.5 were similar, but at pH 6.5 the influx was 31% of that at pH 7.5. However, when the concentration of bivalent phosphate was kept constant at all three pH values, the effect of pH was less pronounced; at pH 6.5, phosphate influx was 73% of that measured at pH 7.5. The Na(+)-dependent phosphate uptake was also influenced by a transmembrane pH difference; an outwardly directed H+ gradient stimulated the uptake by 48%, whereas an inwardly directed H+ gradient inhibited the uptake by 15%. Phosphate on the trans (intravesicular) side stimulated the Na(+)-gradient-dependent phosphate transport by 59%, 93% and 49%, and the Na(+)-gradient-independent phosphate ...
Based on summation of Coulombic interactions, a model is developed for finite-length dipole potentials of mean force in a salt-free dielectric continuum. Point-dipole and finite-length dipole potentials of mean force are compared for protein-protein interactions using parameters for bovine alpha-chymotrypsin. The two approximations made in the commonly used analytical point-dipole potentials of mean force are not valid at distances near contact.
Page contains details about 1-propyl-2-[2-(3,3-trimethyl-1,3-dihydro-indol-1-ylidene)-ethylidene]-3-dicyanovinyl-indan-1-one film on ITO substrate . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
2-{(E)-[1-(2-Carboxyanilino)ethylidene]amino}benzoic acid | C16H14N2O4 | CID 12387890 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Materials.d-[1-14C]Mannitol (57.0 mCi/mmol) was purchased from Amersham Biosciences Inc. (Piscataway, NJ). EC, ECG, EGCG, (+)-catechin (Fig. 1), colchicine, meta-phosphoric acid, and BSO, phloridzin, glucose, phloretin, glycyl-sarcosine, sodium azide, 2-de-oxy-d-glucose, nigericin, FCCP, and benzoic acid were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO). MK-571 was a gift from Dr. A. W. Ford-Hutchinson (Merck-Frosst Centre for Therapeutic Research, Pointe Claire-Dorval, QC, Canada), and PSC833 (valspodar), was a gift from Novartis (Basel, Switzerland). EAG5, MRP2-specific antibody, was provided by Dr. Keppler (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg, Germany). Glutathione assay kit was from Calbiochem (La Jolla, CA). Trifluoroacetic acid was of spectrophotometric grade from Aldrich Chemical Co. (Milwaukee, WI), fetal bovine serum from Atlanta Biologicals (Norcross, GA), and Hanks balanced salt solution (HBSS) and other cell culture medium components were obtained from Cellgro Mediatech, ...
Cholesterol is abundant in the plasma membranes of animal cells and is known to regulate a variety of membrane properties. Despite decades of research, the transmembrane distribution of cholesterol is still a matter of debate. Here we consider this outstanding issue through atomistic simulations of asymmetric lipid membranes, whose composition is largely consistent with eukaryotic plasma membranes. We show that the membrane dipole potential changes in a cholesterol-dependent manner. Remarkably, moving cholesterol from the extracellular to the cytosolic leaflet increases the dipole potential on the cytosolic side, and vice versa. Biologically this implies that by altering the dipole potential, cholesterol can provide a driving force for cholesterol molecules to favor the cytosolic leaflet, in order to compensate for the intramembrane field that arises from the resting potential ...
You are viewing an interactive 3D depiction of the molecule [azaniumylidene-[(2E)-2-[1-[4-[(7-nitro-5H-indol-1-ium-5-ide-2-carbonyl)amino]phenyl]ethylidene]hydrazino]methyl]azanide (C18H18N7O3) from the PQR.
Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: 8-{(2E)-2-[1-(4-Chlorophenyl)ethylidene]hydrazino}-3-methyl-7-(3-methylbutyl)-3,7-dihydro-1H-pur.
Irreversible inhibition, 99.8% of control values for chloride transport in human red blood cells, was obtained by well-established methods of maximum covalent binding of 4,4-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid (DIDS). The kinetics of the residual chloride transport (0.2%, 106 pmol.cm-2 x s-1) at 38 degrees C, pH 7.2) was studied by means of 36Cl- efflux. The outside apparent affinity, expressed by Ko1/2,c, was 34 mM, as determined by substituting external KCl by sucrose. The residual flux was reversibly inhibited by a reexposure to DIDS, and by 4,4-dinitrostilbene-2,2-disulfonate (DNDS), phloretin, salicylate, and alpha-bromo-4-hydroxy-3,5-dinitroacetophenone (Killer III) (Borders, C. L., Jr., D. M. Perez, M. W. Lafferty, A. J. Kondow, J. Brahm, M. B. Fenderson, G. L. Breisford, and V. B. Pett. 1989. Bioorganic Chemistry. 17:96-107), to approximately 0.001% of control cells, which is a flux as low as in lipid bilayers. The reversible DIDS inhibition of the residual chloride flux ...
The present work reports a smart design of a chemodosimeter, namely 4-(6,11-dihydro-6,11-dioxo-1H-anthra[1,2-d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl-4-nitrobenzenesulfonate (AH), which recognises F− specifically through a naked eye colour change from light yellow to light orange and remarkable ratiometric fluorescence from g
Alkylidene definition is - a bivalent aliphatic radical (such as ethylidene) derived from an alkane by removal of two hydrogen atoms from the same carbon atom.
The aim of the study was to assess if mechanisms of glucose trafficking by red blood cells (RBCs) relates to species specific extracellular glucose levels. Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus), and short-horned sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) had plasma glucose levels of 4 mmol l-1, 4.1 mmol l-1, 1.95 mmol l-1, and 0.73 mmol l-1, respectively. Glucose uptake by isolated RBCs was measured by the initial incorporation of [6-14C]-glucose and steady state glucose metabolism was determined by the production of 3H2O from [2-3H]-glucose. Saturation kinetics of glucose uptake and inhibition of both glucose uptake and metabolism by cytochalasin B and phloretin revealed that Atlantic cod, cunner, and sculpin RBCs all had a facilitated transport component to glucose trafficking. RBCs from Atlantic salmon showed a linear relationship between glucose uptake and extracellular glucose level but exhibited clear inhibition of glucose metabolism by ...
Members of this protein family are ABC transporter permease proteins associated with urea transport and metabolism. This protein is found in a conserved five-gene transport operon typically found adjacent to urease genes. It was shown in Cyanobacteria that disruption leads to the loss of high-affinity urea transport activity ...
5S,5aR,8aR,9R)-9-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-8-oxo-5,5a,6,8,8a,9-hexahydrofuro[3',4':6,7]naphtho[2,3-d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl 4,6-O-[(1R)-ethylidene]-beta-D- ...
A ouabain-sensitive, Mg2+-dependent, Na+, K+-stimulated adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase) isolated from canine mesenteric arteries was activated by the following vasodilators: hydralazine, diazoxide, PGE1, PGE2, PGA2, and minoxidil. Epinephrine, norepinephrine, and isoproterenol also stimulated the ATPase, but PGF2α was ineffective. Since these vasodilators activate the adenylate cyclase of vascular smooth muscle, the effects of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and theophylline on the Na+, K+-ATPase were studied; both substances caused a concentration-dependent increase in enzymatic activity. Propranolol blocked the catecholamine-induced stimulation of Na+, K+-ATPase, and polyphloretin phosphate antagonized the effects of the prostaglandins. It is concluded that vasodilatation in response to these substances is associated with the stimulation of the Na+, K+-ATPase of vascular smooth muscle probably mediated through cyclic AMP.. ...
The transport properties of brush-border membrane vesicles isolated by a calcium-precipitation method from the renal cortex of normal and parathyrin (parathyroid hormone)-treated rats were studied by a rapid-filtration technique. Parathyrin elicited a dose-dependent decrease in the Na+-dependent phosphate uptake by the brush-border membrane vesicles, but the uptake of D-glucose, Na+ and mannitol was not affected. A maximum inhibition of 30% was observed after the application of 30 U.S.P. units intramuscularly 1 h before the animals were killed. Intravenous infusion of dibutyryl cyclic AMP (0.5-1.5 MG) also decreased the phosphate uptake by the brush-border vesicles. Both dibutyryl cyclic AMP and parathyrin were ineffective when added in vitro to brush-border membrane vesicles isolated from normal rats. These data suggest that parathyrin exerts its action on the phosphate reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule by affecting the Na+/phosphate co-transport system in the brush-border membrane. The ...
In the adult brain, monocarboxylates, including lactate, pyruvate, and β-hydroxybutyrate, can be used to produce high-energy phosphates (14,15,18-20) and protect against neuronal damage after hypoxic or ischemic insult (21,22). In the immature brain, monocarboxylates can be used to fuel synaptic transmission during periods of glucose deprivation (23). Therefore, we investigated whether monocarboxylates can be used to sustain synaptic activity in response to repeated hypoglycemia (Fig. 4B), using monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) inhibitors 4-CIN, IBMX, and phloretin (21). 4-CIN prevents monocarboxylate utilization by inhibiting the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier as well as by inhibiting the plasma membrane MCT. First, we tested the effect of 200 μmol/l 4-CIN on 10 mmol/l glucose-supported PS (Fig. 4A). Whereas 0.1% DMSO used for dissolving of 4-CIN did not affect PS amplitude (Fig. 4A, column 1), application of 200 μmol/l 4-CIN suppressed PS amplitude by 43.0 ± 6.8% (column 2) (P , 0.01). In ...
ISHIKAWA Nobuhisa , OGURI Tetsuya , ISOBE Takeshi , FUJITAKA Kazunori , KOHNO Nobuoki Japanese journal of cancer research : gann 92(8), 874-879, 2001-08-31 医中誌Web 参考文献32件 ...
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PI3-kinase signal transduction in diabetes and cancer; molecular mechanisms of cancer cell metastasis and radiation/chemotherapy resistance; tumor suppressor genes with emphasis on NHERF scaffold proteins; transgenic mouse models Current studies in our lab focus on: -Identification of molecular signals targeting the activity and surface expression of insulin-sensitive glucose transport proteins (phosphorylation, ubiquitination, endosomal recycling) -Functional characterization and localization of facilitative glucose transporter GLUT12 in tumor cells -Role of nutrient (glucose) uptake in decreased sensitivity to radiation and chemotherapy: contribution of glucose transporters to radiation survival, glucose transporter expression levels as a predictive marker of radioresistance -Significance of NHERF/Akt/SGK interaction in cancer cell growth and metastasis -Generation of transgenic mouse ...
We demonstrated the specificity of the GLUT4 antagonist, indinavir, in cultured cells and observed that inhibition of GLUT4 in endothelium-denuded mouse aortas reduced basal glucose uptake by approximately half, supporting the conclusion that GLUT4 is a major glucose transporter that participates in basal, as well as in insulin-stimulated, glucose uptake in VSMCs in vivo. We also found that GLUT4 and other glucose transporters specifically and differentially contribute to VSMC contraction. Moreover, this differential contribution to contraction varies depending on the contractile agonist. We also observed that GLUT4 expression in vessels from hypertensive animals was diminished, and that indinavir caused a less profound attenuation of maximal 5-HT-mediated contraction in these vessels. We have found that chronic knockout of the GLUT4 gene results in augmented arterial reactivity to the same agonists that elicited attenuated reactivity in response to indinavir. Similar increases in reactivity ...
Termination of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling via the extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaR) was visualized in single CaR-expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells using ratiometric fluorescence resonance energy transfer-dependent cAMP sensors based on protein kinase A and Epac. Stimulation of CaR rapidly reversed or prevented agonist-stimulated elevation of cAMP through a dual mechanism involving pertussis toxin-sensitive Galpha(i) and the CaR-stimulated increase in intracellular [Ca2+]. In parallel measurements with fura-2, CaR activation elicited robust Ca2+ oscillations that increased in frequency in the presence of cAMP, eventually fusing into a sustained plateau. Considering the Ca2+ sensitivity of cAMP accumulation in these cells, lack of oscillations in [cAMP] during the initial phases of CaR stimulation was puzzling. Additional experiments showed that low-frequency, long-duration Ca2+ oscillations generated a dynamic staircase pattern in [cAMP], whereas higher
The aim in developing this approach to the study of implantation has been to establish a method which will permit the investigation of the process extracorporeally, thus providing conditions that are more readily controllable than those obtainable in an experimental animal. Shaffers method of organ culture has been adapted to the needs of the present investigation and it has been found that somewhat more than half of the rabbit blastocysts, explanted on strips of endometrium and incubated on them as combined explants, became implanted within 48 to 72 h. ...