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We show that the observed ferromagnetic behavior of ZnO lightly doped with Mn coincides with the presence of MnO nanoparticles, whereas cluster-free Mn doped ZnO behaves paramagnetically. This conclusion is reached by a study of the structural and magnetic properties of powdered samples of (Mn-x, Zn1-x) O with x ,= 0.033 using polarized neutron scattering. Two types of samples were synthesized via, respectively, a solid state method and the decomposition of hydrozincite. Further characterization has been performed using standard X-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. The results show evidence for the formation of MnO nanoparticles in the highest doped samples for both synthesis methods, with a ferromagnetic behavior attributed to uncompensated Mn2+ in the MnO nanoparticles. The lower Mn-doped samples showed no evidence for structural segregation or magnetic correlations and showed only a paramagnetic behaviour. Published by AIP Publishing.. ...

We propose an efficient matrix decomposition Method of Fundamental Solutions algorithm for the solution of certain two-dimensional linear elasticity problems. In particular, we consider the solution o

is a genetic phenomenon that occurs when a normally recessive allele is unmasked and expressed in the phenotype because the dominant allele on the homologous chromosome has been deleted. ...

A method of implementing non-numerical spread sheets for the medical and legal domains using a computer-assisted iterative problem solving technique which starts from initial non-numerical data and develops possible solutions within a framework of an interrelation ship among pre-selected non-numerical data which are divided into a plurality of mutually exclusive categories differentiated according to readiness for decision making, including the steps of: displaying on a video display, a work sheet having a plurality of cells each corresponding to one of said mutually exclusive categories for displaying the non-numerical data; entering initial non-numerical data into respective cells in the work sheet; selecting a query designating at least a first cell in the work sheet with the initial non-numerical data as an input and requesting related non-numerical data for at least one cell of the plurality of cells in the work sheet; identifying non-numerical data for the at least one cell that is related to non

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An Airy beam is a non-diffractive wave which propagates along a ballistic trajectory without any external force. Although it is impossible to implement ideal Airy beams because they carry infinite power, so-called finite Airy beams can be achieved by tailoring infinite side lobes with an aperture function and they have similar propagating characteristics with those of ideal Airy beams. The finite Airy beam can be optically generated by several ways: the optical Fourier transform system with imposing cubic phase to a broad Gaussian beam, nonlinear generation of Airy beams, curved plasma channel generation, and electron beam generation. In this presentation, a holographic generation of the finite Airy beams will be discussed. The finite Airy beams can be generated in virtue of holographic technique by reading a hologram which is recorded by the interference between a finite Airy beam generated by the optical Fourier transform and a reference plane wave. Moreover, this method can exploit the ...

Multiple biotic and abiotic environmental factors may constitute stresses that affect plant growth and yield in crop species. Advances in plant physiology, genetics, and molecular biology have greatly improved our understanding of plant responses to stresses. This book details on technologies that have emerged during the past decade and have been useful in studying the multigenicity of the plant abiotic stress response. Upstream molecular mechanisms are involved in the plant response to abiotic stress, above all in the regulation of timings and amount of specific stress responses. Post-transcriptional mechanisms based on alternative splicing and RNA processing, as well as RNA silencing define the actual transcriptome supporting the stress response. Beyond protein phosphorylation, other post-translational modifications like ubiquitination and sumoylation regulate the activation of pre-existing molecules to ensure a prompt response to stress factors. The text in this book deals with the importance ...

Number sense in animals is the ability of creatures to represent and discriminate quantities of relative sizes by number sense. It has been observed in various species, from fish to primates. Animals are believed to have an approximate number system, the same system for number representation demonstrated by humans, which is more precise for smaller quantities and less so for larger values. An exact representation of numbers higher than 3 has not been attested in wild animals, but can be demonstrated after a period of training in captive animals. In order to distinguish number sense in animals from the symbolic and verbal number system in humans researchers use the term numerosity, rather than number, to refer to the concept that supports approximate estimation but does not support an exact representation of number quality. Number sense in animals includes the recognition and comparison of number quantities. Some numerical operations, such as addition, have been demonstrated in many species, ...

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The singular value decomposition (SVD) is among the most ubiquitous matrix factorizations and is a cornerstone algorithm for data analysis, dimensionality reduction and data compression. However, despite modern computer power, massive data-sets pose a computational challenge for traditional SVD algorithms. We present the R package rsvd, which enables the fast computation of the SVD and related methods, facilitated by randomized algorithms. Specifically, the package provides routines for computing the randomized singular value decomposition, randomized principal component analysis and randomized robust principal component analysis. Randomized algorithms provide an efficient computational framework for reducing the computational demands of traditional (deterministic) matrix factorizations. The key idea is to compute a compressed representation of the data using random sampling. This smaller matrix captures the essential information that can then be used to obtain a low-rank matrix approximation. ...

Many widely used models in unsupervised learning can be viewed as matrix decompositions, where the input matrix is expressed as sums and products of matrices drawn from a few simple priors. We present a unifying framework for matrix decompositions in terms of a context-free grammar which generates a wide variety of structures through the compositional application of a few simple rules. We use our grammar to generically and efficiently infer latent components and estimate predictive likelihood for nearly 1000 structures using a small toolbox of reusable algorithms. Using best-first search over our grammar, we can automatically choose the decomposition structure from raw data by evaluating only a tiny fraction of all models. This gives a recipe for selecting model structure in unsupervised learning situations. The proposed method almost always finds the right structure for synthetic data and backs off gracefully to simpler models under heavy noise. It learns plausible structures for datasets as ...

A method of generating a tomography image includes performing a depth scan on one spot on a surface of a subject using modulated light received from a spatial light modulator, obtaining depth scan data for each of a plurality of patterns of the spatial light modulator by repeating the depth scan on the spot for each of the plurality of patterns, forming a matrix R representing a vector space based on a correlation of signal values of the depth scan data for each of the plurality of patterns, performing a matrix decomposition on the matrix R, dividing the vector space into a noise subspace and a signal subspace based on a matrix obtained by the matrix decomposition, constructing a vector space based on either one or both of components of the signal subspace and components of the noise subspace, and generating a tomography image based on the reconstructed vector space ...

Because of their predictive power, various healthcare systems are attempting to use available data mining techniques to discover hidden relationships as well as trends in huge data available within the clinical database and convert it to valuable information that can be used by physicians and other clinical decision markers. In general, data mining techniques can learn from what was happened in past examples and model oftentimes non-linear relationships between independent and dependent variables. The resulting model provides formalized knowledge and prediction of outcome. For example, Shekar et al. used data mining based decision tree algorithm to discover the most common refractive error in both male and female [1]. Palaniappan et al. presented a prototype that combines the strengths of both an online analytical processing (OLAP) and data mining techniques for clinical decision support systems (DSS) [2]. Jonathan et al. used data mining techniques to explore the factors contributing to cost of ...

Regardless of the optimization method used, model parameter optimization requires a measure for the "goodness" of model neuron or network activity, i.e. for how well the model produces the desired electrical activity pattern. As an alternative to maximizing the goodness of a model, parameter optimization methods can also minimize the difference between the models activity and the biological target activity as measured by a "distance" or "error" function. Because both strategies are in use, this article does not distinguish between maximizing a goodness measure or minimizing an error measure and uses the two optimization strategies interchangeably. The choice of goodness or error measure depends on the purpose of the model neuron or network and can have significant influence on the results and success of model parameter optimization. Examples of goodness or error measures are: ...

Definition of ocular physiological phenomena in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of ocular physiological phenomena. What does ocular physiological phenomena mean? Information and translations of ocular physiological phenomena in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.

An n-valued switch with n≧2, with an input enabled to receive a signal in one of n states, an output enabled to provide a signal in one of at least 2 states, under control of a control signal having one of at least 2 states is disclosed. Signals are instances of a physical phenomenon, an instance representing a state. N-valued inverters are also disclosed. Different types of signals are disclosed, including optical signals with different wavelengths, electrical signals with different frequencies and signals represented by a presence of a material. A kit including an n-valued switch is also disclosed.

Trait-based approaches have led to significant advances in plant ecology, but are currently biased toward above-ground traits. It is becoming clear that a stronger emphasis on below-ground traits is needed to better predict future changes in plant biodiversity and their consequences for ecosystem functioning. Here I propose six below-ground frontiers in trait-based plant ecology, with an emphasis on traits governing soil nutrient acquisition : redefining fine roots ; quantifying root trait dimensionality ; integrating mycorrhizas ; broadening the suite of root traits ; determining linkages between root traits and abiotic and biotic factors ; and understanding ecosystem-level consequences of root traits. Focusing research efforts along these frontiers should help to fulfil the promise of trait-based ecology : enhanced predictive capacity across ecological scales.. View online ...

We are conducting a study called "Smart searching for the Physiome Project" aiming to add to the Physiome Model Repository (PMR) a "Google search" style interface for information, models, and knowledge retrieval. The interface will be simple yet powerful, so it will be useful and can be easily used by advanced and less experienced users alike.. Therefore, we need your participation by answering questions along with your activity in the PMR which are intended to gather data regarding the PMR on your:. ...

When children are acquiring the symbolic system for representing numbers and learning about math in school, theyre tapping into this primitive number sense," said Elizabeth Brannon, Ph.D., a professor of psychology and neuroscience, who led the study. "Its the conceptual building block upon which mathematical ability is built.". Brannon explained that babies come into the world with a rudimentary understanding referred to as a primitive number sense. When looking at two collections of objects, primitive number sense allows them to identify which set is numerically larger even without verbal counting or using Arabic numerals. For example, a person instinctively knows a group of 15 strawberries is more than six oranges, just by glancing. Understanding how infants and young children conceptualize and understand number can lead to the development of new mathematics education strategies, said Brannons colleague, Duke psychology and neuroscience graduate student Ariel Starr. In particular, this ...

The last few decades have seen the rise of molecular microbial techniques that allow determining the abundance of microbial players in their natural habitats, their coincidence and their relationships with environmental conditions. These techniques have also provided critical insights in the phylogeny and functional potentials of micro-organisms. Moreover, they contributed new bioinformatics tools to describe the genetic and functional composition of microbial communities However, this information has so far hardly be coupled to microbial physiological principles, which will be essential to provide quantitative, system-level understanding of biogeochemical processes. Microbes play a critical role in driving and modulating biogeochemical processes and many of the ecosystem services delivered by microbes relate to this role. Already half a century ago, Monod and Pirt derived equations to quantitatively describe microbial growth and the rates of microbial biogeochemical conversions of elements.

Volume 61, no. 3, p. 305-318: Because the issues of cells regulating their levels of enzymes were left for a subsequent review, key work from the laboratory of Ferenci (T. Ferenci, FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 18:301-317, 1996; L. Notley-McRobb, A. Death, and T. Ferenci, Microbiology 143:1909-1918, 1997) was omitted.. Page 310, column 2, lines 21 to 6 from the bottom: A two-component system regulating uptake and growth has already been described (J. W. Lengeler, Antonie Leeuwenhoek 63:275-288, 1993).. Page 311, column 1, lines 10 to 13: Reference 75 discusses a straightforward kinetic model; the cybernetic model is discussed by the same authors in Chem. Eng. Sci. 52:2567-2578, 1997.. ...

Work in my laboratory is focussed on microbial physiology - the study of how bacteria and other microorganisms work. Although rooted in the tradition of bacterial growth and intermediary metabolism, microbial physiology now embraces molecular biology, genetics, biochemistry, and indeed any discipline that can shed light on bacterial function. Much of our experimental work is conducted with Escherichia coli, the pre-eminent model organism with unrivalled ease of genetic and physiological ...

73, 6181-6191. , Sivan, A. and Kushmaro, A. (2008) Global distribution and diversity of coral-associated Archaea and their possible role in the coral holobiont nitrogen cycle. Environ. Microbiol. 10, 2979-2990. A. M. (2000) Crenarchaeota colonize terrestrial plant roots. Environ. Microbiol. 2, 495-505. , Wagner, M. and Schleper, C. (2010) Distinct gene set in two different lineages of ammonia-oxidizing archaea supports the phylum Thaumarchaeota. Trends Microbiol. 18, 331-340. , Wagner, M. W. (2008) Diversity and mode of transmission of ammonia-oxidizing archaea in marine sponges. In order to establish infection, resist host defences and re-emerge, Mtb must coordinate its metabolism with the in vivo environmental conditions and nutrient availability within the primary site of infection, the lung. Maintaining metabolic homeostasis for an intracellular pathogen such as Mtb requires a carefully orchestrated series of oxidation-reduction reactions, which, if unbalanced, generate oxidative or ...

Kimura S, Koenig D, Kang J, Yoong FY, Sinha N (2008) Natural variation in leaf morphology results from mutation of a novel KNOX gene. Curr Biol 18(9):672-677 67. Kim M, Pham T, Hamidi A, McCormick S, Kuzoff RK, Sinha N (2003) Reduced leaf complexity in tomato wiry mutants suggests a role for PHAN and KNOX genes in generating compound leaves. Development 130:4405-4415 68. Clayberg CD, Butler L, Kerr EA, Rick CM, Robinson RW (1966) Third list of known genes in the tomato. J Hered 57:189-196 69. Avivi Y, Lev-Yadun S, Morozova N, Libs L, Williams L, Zhao J, Varghese G, Grafi G (2000) Clausa, a tomato mutant with a wide range of phenotypic perturbations, displays a cell type-dependent expression of the homeobox gene LeT6/TKn2. Patens gametophore epidermal cells, namely basal and mid-stem rhizoid, and auxin induces their development (17). The PpHB7 gene (encoding a homeodomain-leucine zipper I transcription factor) is required for rhizoids late differentiation steps, but not for their determination. ...

Schorsch M, Kramer K, Goss T, Eisenhut M, Robinson N, Osman D, Wilde A, Sadaf S, Brückler H, Walder L, Scheibe R, Hase T, Hanke G (2018) A unique ferredoxin acts as a novel player in the low iron response of photosynthetic organisms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (in press). Balevičius V, Fox K, Bricker W, Jurinovich S, Prandi I, Mennucci B, Duffy C (2017). Fine control of chlorophyll-carotenoid interactions defines the functionality of light-harvesting proteins in plants. Scientific Reports. Sacharz J, Giovagnetti V, Ungerer P, Mastrioanni G, Ruban A (2017). The xanthophyll cycle affects reversible PsbS-LHCII interactions to control non-photochemical quenching. Nature Plants. Engl C, Schaefer J, Kotta-Loizou I, Buck M (2016). Cellular and molecular phenotypes depending upon the RNA repair system RtcAB in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Research. Schuergers N, Lenn T, Kampmann R, Meissner M, Esteves T, Temerinac-Ott M, Korvink J, Lowe A, Mullineaux C, Wilde A (2016). ...

Course format: Laboratory (1:25P-5:00P, MW, JH A402) with discussions at the beginning and/or end of labs (TBA in JH 248.) Requirements: C341, L113, M250, M255 or consent of the instructor. Course description: This course will provide an overview of key microbial genetic and biochemical concepts, which are used in today s academic and industrial research settings. Students will become familiar with several methods of gene expression and protein purification, as well as mutagenesis and identification of mutants, characterization of enzymatic activity, and the chemical basis for microbial communication. Required text: Fundamental Lab Approaches for Biochemistry and Biotechnology. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1998. Weekly assignments: TBA Exams/papers: TBA ...

El Aidy, S., Stilling, R., Dinan, T. G., & Cryan, J. F. (2016). Microbiome to brain:: Unravelling the multidirectional axes of communication. In M. Lyte (Ed.), Microbial Endocrinology: Interkingdom Signalling in Infectious Diseases and Health (2 ed., Vol. 874, pp. 301-336). (Advances in Experimental Medical Biology; Vol. 874). Springer ...

View Notes - mathstudysec1 from MTH 141, 142, at SUNY Empire State. Number Sense Number Sense Statistics, Data Analysis, Probability Algebra Measurement Math and and Reasoning Functions Geometry

Transition paths of macromolecular conformational changes such as protein folding are predicted to be heterogeneous. However, experimental characterization of the diversity of transition paths is extremely challenging because it requires measuring more than one distance during individual transitions. In this work, we used fast three-color single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer spectroscopy to obtain the distribution of binding transition paths of a disordered protein. About half of the transitions follow a path involving strong non-native electrostatic interactions, resulting in a transition time of 300 to 800 microseconds. The remaining half follow more diverse paths characterized by weaker electrostatic interactions and more than 10 times shorter transition path times. The chain flexibility and non-native interactions make diverse binding pathways possible, allowing disordered proteins to bind faster than folded proteins. ...

The effects of transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) have been documented for a variety of mental functions, including numerical cognition. This article first reviews 2 prominent forms of tES, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS). This is followed by an assessment of the applications of this technology in the enhancement of aspects of numerical cognition, including numerosity, magnitude representation, and more complex arithmetic operations. The review concludes with discussions of directions for future research. These include the need to take individual differences into account in experimental designs, extending research to individuals with difficulties and deficits in working with numbers, the need to consider potential cognitive costs that may offset cognitive benefits of tES. A recurring theme in this article is the need to move toward greater ecological validity of experimental findings.

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Adults, infants and non-human primates are thought to possess similar non-verbal numerical systems, but there is considerable debate regarding whether all vertebrates share the same numerical abilities. Despite an abundance of studies, cross-species comparison remains difficult because the methodology employed and the context of species examination vary considerably across studies. To fill this gap, we used the same procedure, stimuli and numerical contrasts to compare quantity abilities of five teleost fish: redtail splitfin, guppies, zebrafish, Siamese fighting fish, and angelfish. Subjects were trained to discriminate between two sets of geometrical figures using a food reward. Fish initially were trained on an easy numerical ratio (5 vs. 10 and 6 vs. 12). Once they reached the learning criterion, they were subjected to non-reinforced probe trials in which the set size was constant but numerical ratios varied (8 vs. 12 and 9 vs. 12). They also were subjected to probe trials in which the ratio was

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Read it.. Quite frankly, the concept "Anglican Dominican nun" does not compute.. This entry was posted on Friday, May 29th, 2009 at 06:39 and is filed under Think about it.. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. Both comments and pings are currently closed. ...

Considering eye-fixation behavior is standard in reading research to investigate underlying cognitive processes. However, in numerical cognition research eye-tracking is used less often and less systematically. Nevertheless, we identified over 40 studies on this topic from the last 40 years with an increase of eye-tracking studies on numerical cognition during the last decade. Here, we review and discuss these empirical studies to evaluate the added value of eye-tracking for the investigation of number processing. Our literature review revealed that the way eye-fixation behavior is considered in numerical cognition research ranges from investigating basic perceptual aspects of processing non-symbolic and symbolic numbers, over assessing the common representational space of numbers and space, to evaluating the influence of characteristics of the base-10 place-value structure of Arabic numbers and executive control on number processing. Apart from basic results such as reading times of numbers ...

Division of numerical quantities is a great way to start exploring and understanding division of polynomials. In this activity students start with what they know about division of numerical quantities and then apply this to division of polynomials. This assists with some of the terminology and also developing a deeper understanding. Polynomials can be regenerated dynamically and rapidly including the resultant quotient and, where applicable, the remainder, this helps students identify and explain patterns. The visual representation of polynomial division also helps students understand the factor and remainder theorem, particularly expressing a polynomial as a product of its linear factors.

Email: [email protected] Phone: (206) 685-2012. Dr. Bassingthwaightes lab uses multiple radioactive tracers simultaneously to measure reactions of adenosine and its metabolites and to determine their rates of transport across membranes. Models describe the kinetics in a precise way, allowing us to understand the regulation. He is also the originator of the Human Physiome Project, a large-scale international program for developing databasing and biological systems modeling for understanding genomic and pharmaceutic effects on human physiology. His program is highly collaborative, involving co-investigators at a dozen U.S. universities, several in Europe, and in 14 departments at the University of Washington. Some of these are involved in the Physiome Project, in particular the Cardiome Project. The Cardiome Project, to define a functional heart in mathematical terms, extends from the biochemistry and the signaling, to the mechanics and energetics of the three-dimensional heart.. View Bio. ...

In the "per" construction, use a forward slash only when (1) the construction involves units of measure (including time) and (2) at least 1 element includes a specific numerical quantity and (3) the element immediately adjacent on each side is either a specific numerical quantity or a unit of measure. In such cases, the units of measure should be abbreviated in accordance with , Abbreviations, Units of Measure. (See also , Numbers and Percentages, Forms of Numbers, Reporting Proportions and Percentages.)The hemoglobin level was 14 g/dL. The CD4+ cell count was 200/μL. Blood volume was 80 mL/kg of body weight. Less ...

In the "per" construction, use a forward slash only when (1) the construction involves units of measure (including time) and (2) at least 1 element includes a specific numerical quantity and (3) the element immediately adjacent on each side is either a specific numerical quantity or a unit of measure. In such cases, the units of measure should be abbreviated in accordance with , Abbreviations, Units of Measure. (See also , Numbers and Percentages, Forms of Numbers, Reporting Proportions and Percentages.)The hemoglobin level was 14 g/dL. The CD4+ cell count was 200/μL. Blood volume was 80 mL/kg of body weight. Less ...

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A range of hosts was used for functional recombinant protein production. E. coli is one of the preferred hosts of choice for the preparation of therapeutic proteins because of its simplicity, fast growth, and low-cost fermentation process [15, 16]. The soluble expression of functional HSA in E. coli is the major difficulty for investigators. In earlier attempts, rHSA was expressed in E. coli but the majority of the protein expressed is insoluble, in the form of inclusion bodies [17, 18]. It is known that the majority of the overexpressed proteins that have hydrophobic patches, undergo post-translational modifications or have disulfide bonds are primarily at the risk to form such amorphous aggregates [21]. HSA is a large multidomain disulfide-rich protein and it is often difficult for a disulfide bond rich protein to fold in its functional form under the normal reducing physiological environment of the E. coli cells.. In the present study, we have targeted and eventually resolved the prime ...

Innumeracy in the Wild explains how numeric ability supports the quality of the decisions we make and, ultimately, the life outcomes we experience. It dissects three ways that people can be good or ... More. Innumeracy in the Wild explains how numeric ability supports the quality of the decisions we make and, ultimately, the life outcomes we experience. It dissects three ways that people can be good or bad with numbers and how each of these numeric competencies matter to decision making. Furthermore, it delves into how we can use this knowledge to improve decision making. Understanding the roles of numeric ability (often called numeracy) is particularly important today due to widespread innumeracy. In addition, policies in health and financial domains have shifted toward giving consumers and patients more information (which is often numeric). These changes are intended to empower individuals to take charge of their own welfare. The evidence is clear, however, that not everybody is prepared to ...

A vector space (also called a linear space) is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars. Scalars are often taken to be real numbers, but there are also vector spaces with scalar multiplication by complex numbers, rational numbers, or generally any field. The operations of vector addition and scalar multiplication must satisfy certain requirements, called axioms, listed below.[clarification needed] Euclidean vectors are an example of a vector space. They represent physical quantities such as forces: any two forces (of the same type) can be added to yield a third, and the multiplication of a force vector by a real multiplier is another force vector. In the same vein, but in a more geometric sense, vectors representing displacements in the plane or in three-dimensional space also form vector spaces. Vectors in vector spaces do not necessarily have to be arrow-like objects as they appear in the mentioned examples: ...

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In scattering problems, commonly used techniques are surface and volume integral equations. Discrete dipole approximation (DDA) is an alternate and useful discretization technique to solve these problems where the continuum scatterer is replaced by a set of polarizable dipoles. It is an alternative to volume integral equations and produces a dense matrix equation to be solved. Computationally, the method requires the solution of large dense systems of linear equations, and various iterative methods have been employed in the literature for the purpose. In this work, two distinct methods are proposed that can reduce the cost of computation. The first method to reduce the computation time of the solution is using matrix decomposition methods. The idea in this method is using randomized algorithms for low rank approximating of matrices. When implemented using special kinds of random matrices, the computational complexity of the multilevel solver is comparable to that of the fast multipole method. ...