Biological treatment of hypersaline wastewaters such as fermentation brine from table olive processing (FTOP), was carried out using four sequential biological reactors (SBRs). These wastewaters were characterized by conductivities higher than 90 mS·cm-1 together with COD and total phenols concentration values of more than 15 g·L-1 and 1000 mg·L-1, respectively. In order to increase the organic removal efficiency and to reduce the hydraulic retention time (HRT), extra nutrients were added and pre-treatment by adsorption was performed. Results showed that the COD/N/P relationship, in the FTOP, of 250/5/1 was appropriate for the biological process reaching COD removal efficiencies of around 80%. The FTOP adsorption pre-treatment with powder activated carbon for the reduction of phenols concentration to 400 mg·L-1 led to a HRT reduction from 40 to 15 days, maintaining the COD and total phenols removal percentages around 78% and 97%, respectively. On the other hand, γ-Proteobacteria was the ...
The influence of pH and inoculum size on phenol utilization by bacterial isolates from oil refinery effluent was investigated. The substrate used for the assessment was phenol, which formed a model substrate for the experiment. Phenol was progressively degraded at pH range of 6.3 to 8.0. Maximum phenol degradation by Bacillus sp. RBD1 and Corynebacterium sp. RBD2 was obtained at pH value of 7.1. Conversely, utilization of phenol at pH 5.5 was significantly high for both organisms. Phenol was degraded at every cell density (inoculum size) tested with the two organisms but phenol degradation rate increased with increasing inoculum size. Cultures of Bacillus sp. RBD1 and Corynebacterium sp.RBD2 with the lowest cell densities exhibited highest specific rate of utilization of phenol. The results obtained indicated lower phenol utilization rate per colony forming unit at higher cell density. It was also found that pH 6.3 to 8.0 was found to be optimal for phenol degradation by the test organisms ...
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Several activated carbons (ACs) were used as metal-free catalysts for degradation of a toxic organiccompound, phenol, in the presence of different oxidants, H2O2, peroxydisulfate (PS) and peroxymonosulfate (PMS). It was found that ACs were effective in heterogeneous activation of PMS toproduce sulfate radicals for degradation of phenol, much better than H2O2 and PS. Particle size of AC significantly influenced AC activity, and powder AC was much more effective than granular AC. The complete phenol removal could be achieved in 15 min on powder activated carbon (PAC) under the conditions of [phenol] = 25 mg L-1, [PAC] = 0.2 g L-1, [PMS] = 6.5 mmol L-1, and T = 25 degrees Celcius. It was also found that phenol degradation was significantly influenced by PMS loading, catalyst loading, phenol concentration and temperature. Surface activation of PMS and phenol adsorption played important roles in phenol degradation. Surface coverage by intermediate adsorption and structural change induced deactivation ...
Wastewaters from various types of industries contain different types of phenols. Phenolic compounds are toxic substances and some are known or suspected carcinogens. Therefore it is important to remove phenol and phenolic compounds from contaminated industrial and aqueous streams before discharged into any water bodies. It is well known that adsorption is an efficient method for removal of various pollutants from wastewater. Several adsorbents have been used for treatment of wastewater and removal of phenolic compounds. In the present study, efforts have been made for removal of phenol from aqueous solution using zeolite as an adsorbent. The adsorbent potential was tested on batch synthetic solutions containing 1-5 (mg/L) phenol concentration at room temperature. The influence of solution pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and initial phenol concentration on the removal efficiency of phenol from water was investigated. A 94 % phenol removal efficiency was obtained for an adsorption time of 4 hr at ...
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Viognier fruit-processing methods (whole-cluster press, destemming, crush with or without skin contact, contact time and temperature) impact phenol extraction from this relatively high-phenol grape. Modification of the phenol concentration may be achieved through oxygen management, including limiting pre-fermentation sulfur dioxide (which will enhance phenol polymerization and precipitations) and by cold settling and/or pre- or post-fermentation fining. The lower the nephelometer turbidity units level of the juice pre-fermentation, the lower the soluble tannin load in the juice. As such, juice clarity can be an important stylistic tool. Protein-fining agents generally remove higher molecular weight tannins. However, the difference in the phenol concentration before and after fining is not often large. This suggests that the sensory impact may be due, in part, to changes in the colloidal complexes, not simply a change in phenol concentration. This may explain why different wines react differently ...
The activity of transparent and highly porous nanocrystalline TiO2 electrodes for phenol degradation by heterogeneous photocatalysis was investigated. Electrochemical characterization, performed for electrodes with areas = 1.0 cm(2), revealed that the capacitance values increased under irradiation. Electrodes with areas = 9.0 cm(2) were used for remediation of 10 mL of an aqueous solution containing 50 mg L-1 of phenol. irradiated by a solar simulator, removal of 48% of total organic carbon was achieved after 3 h. The efficiency was significantly enhanced for electrochemically assisted photocatalysis; the average mineralization was 78% after 3 h and was almost complete after 6 h for a TiO2 electrode externally connected to a Pt counter-electrode and biased at +0.7 or +1.1 V with a potentiostat, or by a series connection to a solar cell. Phenol degradation exhibited pseudo-first-order kinetics, and application of the bias potential increased the rate constant from 0.21 to 0.47 h(-1). Applying a ...
The potential of rice husk and rice husk ash for phenol adsorption from aqueous solution was studied. Batch kinetics and isotherm studies were carried out under varying experimental conditions of contact time, phenol concentration, adsorbent dose and pH. Adsorption equilibrium of rice husk and rice husk ash was reached within 6 hours for phenolic concentration 150-500 ?g/L and 3 hours for phenol concentration 500-1300 ?g/L, respectively. Kinetics of adsorption obeyed a first-order rate equation. The adsorption of phenol increases with increasing the solution pH value. The suitability of the Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models of the equilibrium data was investigated for each phenol-sorbent system. The results showed that the equilibrium data for all the phenol-sorbent systems fitted the Freundlich model best within the concentration range studied. A comparative study showed that rice husk ash is very effective than rice husk for phenol removal. The studies showed that the rice husk ash can be used
Granulicoccus phenolivorans is a Gram-positive and phenol-degrading bacterium from the genus of Granulicoccus which has been isolated from phenolic wastewater in Singapore. Parte, A.C. Granulicoccus. www.bacterio.net. Granulicoccus phenolivorans Taxon Passport - StrainInfo. www.straininfo.net. Granulicoccus phenolivorans. www.uniprot.org. Parker, Charles Thomas; Garrity, George M. Nomenclature Abstract for Granulicoccus phenolivorans Maszenan et al. 2007. The NamesforLife Abstracts. doi:10.1601/nm.10753. Details: DSM-17626. www.dsmz.de. Maszenan, A. M.; Jiang, H. L.; Tay, J.-H.; Schumann, P.; Kroppenstedt, R. M.; Tay, S. T.-L. (1 April 2007). Granulicoccus phenolivorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a Gram-positive, phenol-degrading coccus isolated from phenol-degrading aerobic granules. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 57 (4): 730-737. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.64671-0. PMID 17392196 ...
Phenol is one of toxic pollutants in many kinds of hypersaline industrial effluents which should be treated properly before discharged into water bodies. In this work, a halophilic strain which could utilize phenol as the sole source of carbon and energy was isolated. Based on 16S rRNA results, it was identified as a member of Citrobacter. The phenol biodegradation ability and cell growth of the strain was evaluated with the variation of initial phenol concentration and salinity. The effect of temperature and pH on phenol removal was also investigated. The results showed that the strain was capable of withstanding high phenol (up to 1,100 mg L−1) environment with varying salinity conditions (0-10% of NaCl). The optimal initial phenol concentration was 400 mg L−1, with which the average removal rates of phenol peaked at 10.8 mg L−1 h−1. The higher initial concentration of phenol could inhibit the microbial metabolism. The optimal temperature, pH and salinity were 35 °C, 6.0, and 0%, ...
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Phenols and its derivatives are environmental pollutant commonly found in many industrial effluents. It is toxic in nature and causes various health hazards. However, they are poorly removed in conventional biological processes due to their toxicity. Immobilization of microbial cells has received increasing interest in the field of waste treatment and creates opportunities in a wide range of sectors including environmental pollution control. Live cells of phenol-degrading yeast, Candida tropicalis RETL-Cr1, were immobilized on coconut husk and loofah by adsorption. The immobolized particle was packed into biofilter column which used for continuous treatment of a phenol with initial phenol concentration of 3mM. Both loofah and coconut husk have similar phenol biodegradation rate of 0.0188 gL-1h -1 within 15 hours to achieve a phenol removal efficiency of 100 %. However loofah have lower biomass concentration of 4.22 gL-1 compared to biomass concentration on coconut husk, 4.39 gL-1 . Coconut husk ...
Summary Applied routinely to 1081 recently isolated cultures, the phenol-induced slide-agglutination test (standard procedure) with flagellar antiserum correctly identified 98-9% of Vibrio cholerae strains of O type-I and NAG serotypes; 10% of cultures were unstable in phenol-saline. The incidence of instability and other types of defect was higher (7-3%) in older stock cultures. The majority of such strains were successfully tested by one of the three modified procedures. No cross-reactions were observed in 47 cultures of other species including the halophilic vibrios. Only one out of the 1205 cultures of V. cholerae tested by all procedures reacted negatively; this strain was found to lack functional flagella. These results establish the significance of flagellar specificity as a classificatory determinant in V. cholerae, and the fidelity and utility of the phenol test in routine bacteriology.
To correct this post, I meant a 23 month old child. Thanks, Tracy ,scholzfam5 at mindspring.com, wrote in message news:8cg497$8dh$1 at slb7.atl.mindspring.net... , Hello Group, , I was wondering if anyone had any information of the effects or concerns (if , any) of giving botox and Phenol injections to a 23 year old child with , Hypogammaglobulinemia for the treatment of his spasticity due to his , Cerebral Palsy. , , Sincerely, , Tracy , , , ...
In this investigation, single and hybrid immobilization techniques for whole cells of Pseudomonas sp. SA01 were employed to enhance phenol degradation rate. The single immobilization was achieved using alginate (2-4%) and pectin (3-5%) together with the combined immobilization systems which consisted of alginate-chitosan-alginate (ACA), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-alginate capsules. The freely suspended cellsof Pseudomonas sp. SA01 was able to degrade phenol in concentrations up to 1000 mg/L 84 h. The complete degradation of the same concentration of phenol by cells entrapped in alginate (3%), in hybrid immobilization system alginate-chitosan-alginate (ACA), and in PVA-alginate encapsulated cells were achieved as low as 30 h. However, the cells immobilized in pectin (5 %) could degrade the same concentration of phenol at 35 and 40 h respectively. The cell loading capacity is increased in PVA-alginate hybrid capsules owing to the reduction of cell leakage from the beads, resulted in higher activity ...
Early buyers will receive 10% customization on reports.. This growth is driven by rising demand from Asia-Pacific region due to highly industrialized countries, such as China. Phenol derivatives are preferred for the production of polycarbonates, epoxy resins, bakelite, and nylon.. Bisphenol -A: The most-widely used derivative of phenol derivatives. Bisphenol-A is a phenol derivative commonly used for producing polycarbonates and epoxy resins. The bisphenol-A is the most-widely used derivative of phenol. Polycarbonate finds application in food and drink packaging such as water & baby bottles, compact discs, impact-resistant safety equipment, and medical devices. Further, epoxy resins used to coat metal products such as food cans, bottle tops, and water supply pipes. BPA is also be found in certain thermal paper products, including cash register and ATM receipts.. Asia-Pacific: The largest market for phenol derivatives. The Asia-Pacific region is the largest market in the global phenol ...
The adsorption of phenol on flat and stepped Pt and Rh surfaces and the dissociation of hydrogen from the hydroxyl group of phenol on Pt(111) and Rh(111) were studied by density functional calculations. On both Pt(111) and Rh(111), phenol adsorbs with the aromatic ring parallel to the surface and the hydroxyl group tilted away from the surface. Furthermore, adsorption on stepped surfaces was concluded to be unfavourable compared to the (111) surfaces due to the repulsion of the hydroxyl group from the step edges. Transition state calculations revealed that the reaction barriers, associated with the dissociation of phenol into phenoxy, are almost identical on Pt and Rh. Furthermore, the oxygen in the dissociated phenol is strongly attracted by Rh(111), while it is repelled by Pt(111).
Introduction. 1. Give an account of the properties and uses of phenol. (1) Phenol is acidic and its conjugate base, phenoxide ion is stabilized by resonance. However, phenol is not acidic enough to liberate CO2 from phenol because an aqueous solution of carbon dioxide is a stronger acid than phenol. An aqueous solution of phenol has a pH value of 9. This means phenol reacts with NaOH but not NaHCO3. Phenol dissolves in NaOH(aq) to form sodium phenoxide, an ionic salt. (2) Phenol is corrosive and is a useful antiseptic. (3) Phenol is a colorless solid of low melting point. Its pink appearance is due to the presence of impurities. (4) When attached to a benzene ring, a hydroxyl group does not show the properties of an alcohol. The delocalization of electrons into the ring makes the -OH group inert towards replacement. On the other hand, the -OH group activates the ring toward electrophilic substitution at the ortho- and para-positions. Therefore, phenol reacts with (a) NO2+, (b) CH3+, (c) CH3CO+, ...
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The effect of phenol on the growth rate and respiration was studied with the yeast Candida mycoderma cultivated in the pH-static conditions with continuous recording of the principal kinetic parameters of the population. The kinetics of growth inhibition with phenol was studied. Adaptation of the culture in terms of the growth rate and the rate of oxygen uptake was detected within 10--15 hours of cultivation. A new strain of C. mycoderma Phen. R. isolated using the technique of autoselection upon continuous cultivation for a long period of time, at a phenol concentration of 1.5 g/l in the growth medium, had an elevated growth rate (2.2 times higher) in these conditions as compared with the parent culture and required less oxygen. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adsorption of phenols onto 1,1′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium-smectites. AU - Okada, Tomohiko. AU - Ogawa, Makoto. PY - 2002/8/5. Y1 - 2002/8/5. N2 - Adsorption of phenols (phenol and 2-naphthol) onto the 1,1′dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium (methylviologen:MV2+)-smectite intercalation compounds, which were synthesized by ion exchange reactions, led to the change in the color and the basal spacing. The color change was ascribed to the formation of charge-transfer complex of MV2+ and phenols. The increase in the basal spacing by the reaction with phenols indicates a change in the interlayer microstructure.. AB - Adsorption of phenols (phenol and 2-naphthol) onto the 1,1′dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium (methylviologen:MV2+)-smectite intercalation compounds, which were synthesized by ion exchange reactions, led to the change in the color and the basal spacing. The color change was ascribed to the formation of charge-transfer complex of MV2+ and phenols. The increase in the basal ...
In this work, Fe/TiO2 nanostructured catalyst was prepared using sol-gel method developed by Yoldas and tested in degradation of phenol in water under UV radiation. The synthesized catalyst was characterized by XRF, XRD, specific surface area and porosimetry, and SEM methods. The porosimetry revealed the mesopore structure of the catalyst. Results of SEM confirmed the nano dispersion of iron oxides on titania support. Effects of Fe load of the catalyst, dosage of the catalyst, pH, H2O2 amount, and time were investigated. Results of phenol photodegradation over Fe/TiO2 showed that the reaction followed an apparent first order kinetics at low phenol concentration and the apparent rate constant was 0.0017 min-1. Also, there was an optimum for Fe load of the catalyst.
AMOC effluent wastewater had phenol content of 2 ppm which did not meet environmental legislation to discharge to open surface. PuriChem (in conjugation with REDO® GmbH) proposed the use of anolyte oxidation method presented in REDO® PURE 250S units to minimize phenol concentration in the final wastewater effluent below 0.05 ppm which meets the environmental legislation.. Considering that this (AMOC case) was the first time (Global) to use anolytic oxidation method in petrochemical wastewater, the two parts agreed to setup a pilot plant to obtain results, and through analysis of these results both parts will be able to evaluate the quality of the process, determine the optimum operation conditions, and avoid the major drawbacks prior to scale-up design.. ...
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The trial is designed to investigate the sensitivity of C-Tb using various sizes of cut-off of induration in a double blind randomised, split-body study comparing 0.1 µg/0.1 mL C-Tb with the reference agent 2 T.U. Tuberculin PPD RT23 SSI. (Each volunteer receives the C-Tb agent in one arm and 2 T.U. Tuberculin PPD RT 23 SSI in the other arm). Two groups of adult patients recently diagnosed with active TB will be investigated; patients in the main group will NOT have a co-infection with HIV and patients in the second group will have a co-infection with HIV.. The C-Tb and 2 TU Tuberculin PPD RT 23 SSI agents are given concomitantly to each volunteer in the RIGHT AND LEFT forearms according to a double blind randomisation scheme.. The primary objectives are to assess the sensitivity of the C-Tb test as a function of the cut-off value (i.e., the smallest size of induration measured in mm resulting in a positive outcome of the C-Tb test) when the test is administered intradermally by the Mantoux ...
The trial is designed to investigate the sensitivity of C-Tb using various sizes of cut-off of induration in a double blind randomised, split-body study comparing 0.1 µg/0.1 mL C-Tb with the reference agent 2 T.U. Tuberculin PPD RT23 SSI. (Each volunteer receives the C-Tb agent in one arm and 2 T.U. Tuberculin PPD RT 23 SSI in the other arm). Two groups of adult patients recently diagnosed with active TB will be investigated; patients in the main group will NOT have a co-infection with HIV and patients in the second group will have a co-infection with HIV.. The C-Tb and 2 TU Tuberculin PPD RT 23 SSI agents are given concomitantly to each volunteer in the RIGHT AND LEFT forearms according to a double blind randomisation scheme.. The primary objectives are to assess the sensitivity of the C-Tb test as a function of the cut-off value (i.e., the smallest size of induration measured in mm resulting in a positive outcome of the C-Tb test) when the test is administered intradermally by the Mantoux ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Simultaneous removal of phenol, Cu and Cd from water with corn cob silica-alginate beads. AU - Shim, Jaehong. AU - Lim, Jeong Muk. AU - Shea, Patrick J.. AU - Oh, Byung Taek. PY - 2014/5/15. Y1 - 2014/5/15. N2 - Phenol and heavy metals in petroleum waste are environmental and human health concerns, but physicochemical removal is often cost-prohibitive and can produce toxic secondary products and treatment residues. An environmentally benign alternative combines corn cob silica with alginate and immobilized bacteria into beads for treating contaminated water. The concentration of phenol was decreased ,92% by Pseudomonas putida YNS1 on aliginate-silica beads (2%, w/v) after equilibrating for 96. h with water containing 214. mg phenol/L. GC-MS analysis indicated formation of benzoquinone and other polar products. Beads containing corn cob silica decreased Cu concentrations by 84-88% and Cd by 83-87% within 24 h. In a mixture of 114. mg phenol, 43. mg Cu and 51. mg Cd/L, phenol ...
Phenol is an aromatic organic compound which occurs as white crystalline powder or a colourless liquid, having the chemical formula, C6H6O. Also known as carbolic acid, benzenol or monohydroxybenzene, phenol is mildly acidic in nature. It has stronger hydrogen bond and higher solubility in water than alcohols.. Being inexpensive, phenol has diverse applications in numerous industries. Traditionally, it was used as an antiseptic and in carbolic soaps. Nowadays, it is used in the manufacture of packaging, coatings and adhesives, automotive, agrochemicals, paints, textiles, food, construction, pharmaceuticals, etc. About two-thirds of the production of phenol is consumed in conversion to precursors for other chemicals, plastics and other materials. The derivatives of phenol are also used in the production of certain cosmetics like hair dyes, sunscreens, skin lightening creams, etc. According to a new report by Expert Market Research, the global phenol market reached a volume of 11.4 Million Tons in ...
Phenol is an aromatic organic compound which occurs as white crystalline powder or a colourless liquid, having the chemical formula, C6H6O. Also known as carbolic acid, benzenol or monohydroxybenzene, phenol is mildly acidic in nature. It has stronger hydrogen bond and higher solubility in water than alcohols.. Being inexpensive, phenol has diverse applications in numerous industries. Traditionally, it was used as an antiseptic and in carbolic soaps. Nowadays, it is used in the manufacture of packaging, coatings and adhesives, automotive, agrochemicals, paints, textiles, food, construction, pharmaceuticals, etc. About two-thirds of the production of phenol is consumed in conversion to precursors for other chemicals, plastics and other materials. The derivatives of phenol are also used in the production of certain cosmetics like hair dyes, sunscreens, skin lightening creams, etc. According to a new report by Expert Market Research, the global phenol market reached a volume of 11.4 Million Tons in ...
* found in: Phenol:Chloroform(pH6.7/8.0), Phenol:Chloroform 5:1 (pH4.5), Phenol S/P Buffer-Saturtd, Phenol:Chloroform Low pH, Phenol, Crystalline, Phenol..
Name: 4-(4-Dimethylaminoanilino)phenol CA Name: Phenol,4-[[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]amino]- Molecular Structure: 4-(4-Dimethylaminoanilino)phenol,Phenol,4-[[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]amino]-,CAS 6358-22-1,228.29,C14H16N2O 4-(4-Dimethylaminoanilino)phenol,Phenol,4-[[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]amino]-,CAS 6358-22-1,228.29,C14H16N2O Molecular Formula:C14H16N2O Molecular Weight: 228.29 CAS Registry Number: 6358-22-1
We went in to be weighed and talk to the doc. She took us down to another room and the anesthesiologist was in there and was not expecting us. But we were there, we took off Tys socks and shoes and showed her where there was some concerns on his toes and the anesthesiologist told him he was going to wear a mask and Ty cried, got the mask, and I was right there the whole time ( so was Grays and D too!) Ty was quickly out and we left. He had his shots and we went back to get him ...
C. A. Herter, A. J. Wakeman; THE ACTION OF HEPATIC, RENAL AND OTHER CELLS ON PHENOL AND INDOL, UNDER NORMAL AND PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS . J Exp Med 1 May 1899; 4 (3-4): 307-326. doi: https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.4.3-4.307. Download citation file:. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selective and efficient generation of ortho-brominated para-substituted phenols in ACS-grade methanol. AU - Georgiev, David. AU - Saes, Bartholomews W.H.. AU - Johnston, Heather J.. AU - Boys, Sarah K.. AU - Healy, Alan. AU - Hulme, Alison N.. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - The mono ortho-bromination of phenolic building blocks by NBS has been achieved in short reaction times (15-20 min) using ACS-grade methanol as a solvent. The reactions can be conducted on phenol, naphthol and biphenol substrates, giving yields of ,86% on gram scale. Excellent selectivity for the desired mono ortho-brominated products is achieved in the presence of 10 mol % para-TsOH, and the reaction is shown to be tolerant of a range of substituents, including CH3/ F,and NHBoc.. AB - The mono ortho-bromination of phenolic building blocks by NBS has been achieved in short reaction times (15-20 min) using ACS-grade methanol as a solvent. The reactions can be conducted on phenol, naphthol and biphenol ...
This report contains a preliminary process design for a direct route to phenol from benzene based on the 2009 patent issued to the Council of Scientific Research in New Delhi. This patent describes a significantly improved method to produce phenol using a vanadyl pyrophosphate catalyst. The process evades over-oxidized byproducts and yield loss. The resulting design produces the desired 500 million pounds per year of phenol by combining the ideas presented in the patent and adjustments made by the design group. The optimal process presented utilizes two parallel series of three reactors each to produce the phenol. Through a combination of azeotropic distillation and flash vaporization, it is possible to achieve greater than 99 percent pure phenol as a product while recycling all components not consumed. The plant requires a capital investment of 85.7 million USD with an internal rate of return of 4.98 percent and return on investment of 1.48 percent. It is suggested that the research and development
This study investigated the catabolic potential of a eukaryotic alga to degrade one of the most common organic pollutants, phenol. The alga, Ochromonas danica (993/28), was selected for study after screening for its heterotrophic capabilities. The catabolic versatility of the alga was elucidated by incubating with a variety of phenolic compounds. The alga removed phenol, all the cresol isomers and 3,4-xylenol from its incubation media, with phenol being removed more rapidly than any of its methylated homologues. Consequently, the alga was found to have a greater specificity for phenol than for o- or p-cresols. This study shows that O. danica could catabolize phenol and its methylated homologues.. ...
Phenol-chloroform extraction Phenol-chloroform extraction is a liquid-liquid extraction technique in biochemistry and molecular biology for purifying DNA
the core of the technology for the new type of chelating extraction agent and high efficient centrifugal extraction machine, complexation extraction insulation materials plant containing phenol wastewater treatment technology is a reversible complex should be combined with extraction separation process. Complexation extraction insulation materials plant containing phenol wastewater treatment technology, simple operation, less equipment investment, low consumption, recycling phenol can reuse, extraction raffinate phenol is lower than the emission standards, can create a direct social and economic benefits, is better than that of other domestic extraction technology of removing phenol. In 1991 is listed as national key scientific and technological achievements to promote the technology plan, in 1992 was named national best practical technology for environmental protection ...
Notes on Phenol Safety Procedure: Keep Phenol under hood at all times. Use FULL protective gear to avoid touching or breathing the phenol. Wash all dishes that have touched phenol thoroughly and pour waste water in a labeled waste container. Clean up ANY and ALL phenol that spills thoroughly. Throw away all solid waste that has touched phenol in a labeled solid waste container. Notes on Films: These films did not form as well as hoped. 2 of the solutions (the 0.214g Phenol and the 0.0214g phenol) dissolved but then began to form many bubbles in them. The films therefore look somewhat white with bubbles. The 2.15g phenol solution had a lot of trouble dissolving, furthermore the phenol was a little brown almost immediately on being added to the solution. An extra 5 mL was added to this solution to aid dissolution. Calculations: There are 6.86508E21 OH groups n 0.5g PVOH (from previous days calculations) * 2 = 1.373E22 OH groups in 1g PVOH We want films in which 10%, 1%, 0.1%, and 0.01% of PVOH OH ...
IMARCs new TMMR Phenol Market - Industry Trends, Prices, Manufacturing Process, Applications, Raw Materials, Manufacturers, Regional Breakup, Mass Balance provides a technical, analytical and statistical insight into the phenol market. The market analysis includes volume trends, value trends, price trends, key players, market breakup by region, market breakup by end-use industries, key success factors, key risk factors, feedstock market trends, import trends, export trends, etc.. Apart from the market analysis, the report also provides an exhaustive technical insight on phenol. This includes chemical information, manufacturing process, chemical reactions involved, raw material requirements, mass balance, conversion rate of feedstocks, etc. The study, which is based both on desk research and multiple waves of qualitative primary research, is a must-read for entrepreneurs, investors, researchers, consultants, business strategists, and all those who are planning to foray into the phenol industry ...
Phenol is an important commodity chemical, and is a starting material for the production of numerous industrial chemicals and polymers, including bisphenol A and phenolic resins, and others. At present, the production of phenol entirely depends on the chemical synthesis from benzene, and its annual production exceeds 8 million tons worldwide. Microbial production of phenol seems to be a non-viable process considering the high toxicity of phenol to the cell. Researchers at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) have reported the successful development of an engineered Escherichia coli strain which can produce phenol from glucose. E. coli… Login to continue. ...
Detection of phenols using engineered bacteria. A biosensor can be created by placing a reporter gene under control of an inducible promoter. The reporter gene produces a signal when a cognate transcriptional activator senses the inducing chemical. Creation of bacterial biosensors is currently restricted by limited knowledge of the genetic systems of bacteria that catabolize xenobiotics. By using mutagenic PCR to change the chemical specificity of the Pseudomonas species CF600 DmpR protein, the potential for engineering novel biosensors for detection of phenols has been demonstrated. DmpR, a well-characterized transcriptional activator of the P. CF600s dmp operon mediates growth on simple phenols. Transcription from Po, the promoter heading the dmp operon, is activated when the sensor domain of DmpR interacts with phenol and mono-substituted phenols. By altering the sensor domain of the DmpR, a group of DmpR derivatives that activate transcription of a Po-lacZ fusion in response to eight of the EPAs
The Ortho Phenyl Phenol (OPP) Market research report presents an all-inclusive study of the global Ortho Phenyl Phenol (OPP) market. The report includes all the major trends and technologies performing a major role in the Ortho Phenyl Phenol (OPP) market development during forecast period. The key players in the market are Lanxess, Dow, SANKO, Shandong Xingang Chemical, Jinan Yudong Technology. An attractiveness study has been presented for each geographic area in the report to provide a comprehensive analysis of the overall competitive scenario of the Ortho Phenyl Phenol (OPP) market globally.. Apply here for the SAMPLE copy of the report @: www.reportsbuzz.com/request-for-sample.html?repid=53820. Furthermore, the report comprises an outline of the diverse tactics used by the key players in the market. It also details the competitive scenario of the Ortho Phenyl Phenol (OPP) market, placing all the key players as per their geographic presence and previous major developments. SWOT analysis is ...
Phenol is moderately soluble in water - about 8 g of phenol will dissolve in 100 g of water. If you try to dissolve more than this, you get two layers of liquid. The top layer is a solution of phenol in water, and the bottom one a solution of water in phenol. Phenol is somewhat soluble in water because of its ability to form hydrogen bonds with the water.. ...
I have done a friedel crafts acylation reaction to 4-chloro phenol using benzoyl chloride. Now my reaction mixture contains o-acylated product and probably unreacted phenol. both of which contain phenolic OH group. Now how can I separate the unreacted phenol from the acylated product. I doubt whether base extraction can do it because both the components phenol and its acylated product have phenolic OH. Is there any other way such that I can remove the unreacted phenol and get the pure acylated product ...
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Nov. 23, 1965 Transmiffance Transmit/since H. s. BLANCHARD ETAL 3,219,626 PROCESS FOR OXIDIZING PHENOLS TO POLYPHENYL ETHERS AND DIPHENOQUINONES Filed May 29. 1961 I l I I I I I l I I l I I I I I I 4000 3200 2400 2000 I900 /800 I600 I400 I200 I000 800 600 Wave number (:m) I I I I I I 1 I I I l I I l I I I I 4000 3200 2400 C000 I900 I800 I600 I400 I200 I000 800 500 Wave number (cm Inventors Harry 5. Blanchard rmqn L. Hume/g7 b ,ym/ff United States Patent This invention relates to a method of utilization new compounds as catalysts in the oxidation of phenols. More specifically, this invention relates to the use of a cupric complex having the empirical formula CH=C11 z 2 n where X is selected from the group consisting of chlorine and bromine and n is an integer and is at least 1, as catalysts for the oxidation of phenols, and more particularly to the oxidation of phenols to either phenylene oxide polymers or to diphenoquinones. In an application, Serial No. 212,128, filed July 24, 1962, Hay which ...