Looking for online definition of pterygopharyngeal part of superior constrictor muscle of pharynx in the Medical Dictionary? pterygopharyngeal part of superior constrictor muscle of pharynx explanation free. What is pterygopharyngeal part of superior constrictor muscle of pharynx? Meaning of pterygopharyngeal part of superior constrictor muscle of pharynx medical term. What does pterygopharyngeal part of superior constrictor muscle of pharynx mean?
The inferior pharyngeal constrictor is a muscle that facilitates food propagation towards the esophagus. Learn more about this muscle at Kenhub!
Superior constrictor muscle of pharynx definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
Two sphincters regulate the passage of material into and out of the esophagus. The upper esophageal sphincter prevents air from entering the esophagus and food from refluxing out of the esophagus into the pharynx. The lower esophageal sphincter regulates the passage of food into the stomach and prevents stomach contents from refluxing into the esophagus. The upper sphincter is composed primarily of the cricopharyngeus muscle. Additional tone is variably provided by the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle and the cervical esophagus.1 The upper sphincter has a resting pressure of around 100 mm Hg. The lower sphincter is not discretely identifiable on an anatomic basis. The smooth muscle of the lower 1 to 2 cm of the esophagus, in combination with the skeletal muscle of the diaphragmatic hiatus, functions as the sphincter, with a resting pressure of 25 mm Hg. The pressure within the resting lower sphincter is a major source of esophageal symptoms and is discussed below under Gastroesophageal ...
Finally, identify the three pharyngeal constrictors. Before identifying the pharyngeal constrictors, you should first memorize their origins and then you wont have trouble picking them out during a dissection or an examination. The superior pharyngeal constrictor (SC) arises from the hamulus of the medial pterygoid plate and the pterygomandibular raphe which extends from the hamulus to the lingula of the mandible. This origin is not easy to point out so you will usually identify the other two constrictors first. The middle pharyngeal constrictor (MC) arises from the greater horn of the hyoid bone (GH). This structures can always be seen or felt. The inferior pharyngeal constrictor (IC) arises from the thyroid and cartilages which are also obvious structures. The inferior pharyngeal constrictor continues as the esophagus (ES). The constrictors join in the mid line posteriorly as a seam (pharyngeal raphe) which is suspended form the pharyngeal tubercle on bottom of the occipital bone. We will ...
The superior thyroid artery arises from the external carotid artery just below the level of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone and ends in the thyroid gland. From its origin under the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid the superior thyroid artery runs upward and forward for a short distance in the carotid triangle, where it is covered by the skin, platysma, and fascia; it then arches downward beneath the omohyoid, sternohyoid, and sternothyroid muscles. To its medial side are the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle and the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. It distributes twigs to the adjacent muscles, and numerous branches to the thyroid gland, connecting with its fellow of the opposite side, and with the inferior thyroid arteries. The branches to the gland are generally two in number. One, the larger, supplies principally the anterior surface; on the isthmus of the gland it connects with the corresponding artery of the opposite side. A second branch descends on the ...
A pharyngeal pouch is an out-pouching or pocket (diverticulum) that develops from the posterior wall of the pharynx just above the entrance to the oesophagus (gullet). The pouch may develop as the result of a lack of co-ordination in timing and muscle tone within the sphincter muscle at the top of the oesophagus (cricopharyngeus muscle) During the act of swallowing, the muscles of the pharynx contract and pressure in the pharynx increases. If the cricopharyngeus muscle does not open at the appropriate time, pressure builds up immediately above it and the pharyngeal mucosa may herniate through a potential weakness in the posterior wall of the pharynx at Killians dehiscence, between the cricopharyngeus and thyropharyngeus muscles. This results in the development of the pouch.. Patients usually present with symptoms in the sixth and seventh decade of life. Symptoms of pharyngeal pouch vary and small pouches may cause no symptoms at all. However, pouches may give rise to difficulty in swallowing, ...
The pharyngeal plexus is a network of nerve fibers innervating most of the palate and pharynx. (Larynx, which is innervated by superior and recurrent laryngeal nerve from vagus nerve (CN X), is not included) It is located on the surface of the middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle. Although the Terminologia Anatomica name of the plexus has "vagus nerve" in the title, other nerves make contributions to the plexus. It has the following sources: CN IX - pharyngeal branches of glossopharyngeal nerve - sensory CN X - pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve - motor superior cervical ganglion sympathetic fibers - vasomotor Because the cranial part of accessory nerve (CN XI) leaves the jugular foramen as joining the CN X, it is sometimes considered part of the plexus as well. The pharyngeal plexus provides sensory innervation of the oropharynx and laryngopharynx from CN IX and CN X. (The nasopharynx above the pharyngotympanic tube and the torus tubarius is innervated by CN V2) The pharyngeal plexus, with fibers ...
Gross Anatomy Lateral Pharyngeal Wall tutorial of Gross Anatomy Dissections courseUniversity of Michigan. You can download the course for FREE !
Like the stylopharyngeus muscle of the third arch, the muscles of the fourth arch retain their embryonic position in the wall of the pharynx. The muscles are divided into two muscle groups, the three constrictor muscles of the pharynx proper and their anterior extension the cricothyroideus and the muscles of the soft palatal septum at the anterior aspect of the pharynx. The constrictor muscles form a semicircular arch of muscle in the posterior and lateral walls of the pharynx. When they contract they narrow, or constrict, the pharynx and help to initiate the swallowing reflex. The palatal muscles are small slips of muscle that converge posterior to the hard palate to form the muscular substance of the soft palate. The principal function of this musculature is to tense and raise the palate against the roof of the pharynx. This closes the posterior nasal aperture and prevents food and drink from entering the nasal cavity. The vagus nerve is the nerve supply to all of the muscles of the fourth ...
Fibrovascular polyps are thought to originate from areas of diminished resistance in the pharyngeal musculature and to be initiated secondary to changes in pressure during the different phases of swallowing (6-8). In a review of esophageal and hypopharyngeal fibrovascular polyps, Owens et al (6) describe two areas of inherent weakness in the posterior wall of the hypopharynx: one between the superior and inferior cricopharyngeal muscles (Killians dehiscence), and the second between the inferior cricopharyngeus muscle and the proximal end of the esophagus (also known as the area of Laimer- Haeckermann, or Laimer triangle). Polyps are thought to originate from nodular submucosal thickenings or redundant submucosal folds, which, because of changes in intrinsic mucosal tension and lack of muscular support, evaginate into the surrounding lax connective tissue. Then, through a mechanism of traction triggered by peristaltic activity, the size of these mucosal/submucosal "evaginations" increases to ...
Cricopharyngeal bar refers to the radiographic appearance of a prominent cricopharyngeus muscle contour on barium swallow. Terminology The terms cricopharnygeal bar and cricopharyngeal muscle spasm/achalasia are often used synonymously but this...
A system for treating sleep-related breathing disorders. In one embodiment, the system includes a first magnetically susceptible material attached to a left lateral pharyngeal wall and a second magnetically susceptible material attached to a right lateral pharyngeal wall. The second magnetically susceptible material is positioned opposite the first magnetically susceptible material across an upper airway. The system further includes a first magnet disposed outside the body and lateral to the first magnetically susceptible material, and a second magnet disposed outside the body and lateral to the second magnetically susceptible material.
Electromyography (EMG) of the superior and middle constrictor muscles was recorded during phonated and whispered productions of the vowels /i/ and /a/ and the stop consonants /p/ and /b/ in VCVCV trisyllables. Lower levels of EMG activity were consistently associated with production of the voiced consonant /b/ than with comparable productions of the voiceless consonant /p/. Larger amplitude EMG signals were associated with vowel production than with consonant production. No systematic differences in muscle activity were observed as a function of phonated VS whispered productions. These findings are interpreted in relation to the active role of the pharynx during speech production.. ...
The inferior constrictor muscle has been partially resected on the left to expose the middle constrictor of the pharynx. The vagus nerve and sympathetic trunk have been removed ...
Emancipation Kit (2009) is set of emetic tools and pharmaceuticals, specially designed for the eviction of the contents of the stomach.. One of the tools, the emetic spatula, is an ergonomic vomit inducing instrument. The stick is designed to easily and comfortably stimulate the constrictor muscle. The latter is found deep in the throat, behind the dangling bit of tissue called the uvula, and known for its susceptibility to vomit provocation. Pick the tool, stick it down your throat and tickle it. Once you start to heave, take the spatula out. Enjoy the emancipation!. ...
Using a hierarchical sequence, the four hypotheses (genioglossus activity as well as duty-cycle in protocol 1 and 2) were tested with an α-error of 5% (two-tailed testing) without adjustment for multiple testing.29 The following sequence was defined: first, we tested whether genioglossus electromyogram differs between states. Possible differences in duty-cycle were tested subsequently only if the hypothesis of no difference in genioglossus activity during ketamine anesthesia was rejected. With statistical comparison of both main criteria (genioglossus activity and duty-cycle) we first tested if variables differed in the acute experiments (protocol 1); subsequent tests were performed if, and only if, all previous tests were significant to compare variables in chronically instrumented rats. Statistical comparisons were made by using a mixed linear model (compound symmetry type). We used data from rats studied under protocol 1 and tested for an effect of the independent variables (fixed effects: ...
Dissection Masticator and Lateral Pharyngeal Spaces tutorial of Gross Anatomy Dissections courseUniversity of Michigan. You can download the course for FREE !
Pressure changes were registered with videomanometry (simultaneous manometry and barium swallow) in the pharynx and in the pharyngoesophageal segment (PES)
Skull. Esophagus. Figure 17.13. Muscles of the pharyngeal wall, posterior view.. Skull. Esophagus. Figure 17.13. Muscles of the pharyngeal wall, posterior view.. which prevents air from entering the esophagus during breathing.. Although the pharyngeal muscles are skeletal muscles, they are under voluntary control only in the sense that swallowing (deglutition) can be voluntarily initiated. Complex reflexes control the precise actions of these muscles during swallowing.. Was this article helpful?. ...
Heparin- bonded, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene-lined stent graft to the primary survey. In addition, transfusions of packed red blood cells (rbcs) 2. 965. Monitor vital signs: Heart rate, respiratory rate, or reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (gfr) urine output and blood pressure. To do during a recumbent position before surgery and understands the need for a brief period between the arachnoid and the surgical defect, therefore. Cervical cancer treatment in this patient has support for the surgical defect is harvested from the anterior margin of symphysis to the lateral pharyngeal wall, which disrupts the indigenous gut microbiota allowing the patient was drinking). 2483 a. B. C. A. B. Placement of a clinical nurse specialist, support groups and in redressing the patients cardiac response to iv iron supplementation may be transient or reversible causes. 765chapter 15 soft tissue are harbingers of malignancy, but may occur asymptomatically or may not fit the skin incision is made up ...
Caterpillar filed two third-party lawsuit against the UAW today, contending the union is breaching its contract by sponsoring the retiree lawsuits that are based on issues the UAW agreed to in bargaining. Therefore, the company says, the UAW should share any cost burdens if the company is held liable for taking away free health care for its retirees. Efforting UAW comment.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails. In mammals and most other vertebrates, two lungs are located near the backbone on either side of the heart. Their function in the respiratory system is to extract oxygen from the atmosphere and transfer it into the bloodstream, and to release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere, in a process of gas exchange. Respiration is driven by different muscular systems in different species. Mammals, reptiles and birds use their different muscles to support and foster breathing. In early tetrapods, air was driven into the lungs by the pharyngeal muscles via buccal pumping, a mechanism still seen in amphibians. In humans, the main muscle of respiration that drives breathing is the diaphragm. The lungs also provide airflow that makes vocal sounds including human speech possible.. Humans have two lungs, a right lung and a left lung. They are situated within the ...
Diagnostically basic tests: Thorough subjective test with medical history. Radiological examination of the oesophagus with contrast medium, together with stomach and duodenum tests - narrowing or change of the oesophageal axis may signify the presence of a tumour and it estimates the usefulness of the stomach to be joined. Double contrast use is advisable in order to reveal smaller changes that are invisible during tests with single contrast use.. Diagnostically additional tests: Aspirational biopsy of palpable cervical nodes in order to exclude metastases beyond the chest. Oesophagoscopy with a sample taken to histopathological tests - estimates the cancer macroscopally (it can be assigned to one of the following groups: convex, ulcerating, superficial, egzofitic and mixed) and microscopally, it is localized precisely against the physiological narrowing of the oesophagus, and regarding the distance from the upper incisors; one should pay attention to changes in the area of the pharyngeal muscle ...
GM, looking to trim its health care costs by $2 billion over two years, is turning to the UAW for help. Ford and DaimlerChrysler AGs Detroit-based Chrysler Group have said they will seek the same relief if GM comes away from its talks with a competitive ...
The deal negotiated by Chrysler and the United Auto Workers includes a boost in hourly wages, additional bonuses, and an agreement by the company to bring over 2,000 jobs to the United States.
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Esophageal perforation usually is the result of iatrogenic injury caused by instrumentation (e.g., esophagoscopy, bougienage, and achalasia dilation)1-3 (Table 48-1). The most common site for perforation of the normal esophagus is at its most proximal location, immediately above the cricopharyngeus muscle and below the inferior pharyngeal constrictor (Killians triangle). Injury at this location is most often caused by attempted forceful intubation of the esophagus for endoscopy (rigid or flexible) in a patient who is not sufficiently anesthetized. Other common sites of perforation include those in which the esophagus is normally narrowed (the distal esophagus), pathologically narrowed, or anatomically abnormal. Occasionally, intramural perforation can occur when the mucosa is sheared off the muscularis during endoscopy or bougienage. These conditions are not perforations in the truest sense, but present in a similar fashion and must be differentiated from frank perforation. Spontaneous ...
Provision of nutritional support is a crucial component of ICU care and EN is preferred over parenteral nutrition. [1] NGT insertion is simple and minimally invasive and is frequently carried out in critically ill patients. NGT-related complications are not as rare as commonly believed. Most complications are due to mechanical injury of the nose, esophagus, and stomach. Misplacement of the NGT into a pulmonary or intracranial region can also occur.[2,3] NGT syndrome was first named by Sofferman et al.[4] to describe bilateral vocal cord paralysis developed in patients with an NGT. Three pathophysiologic mechanisms were proposed as the cause of NGT syndrome; the dynamic and vertical movements of the larynx against the fixed NGT, compression of the cricoid by the NGT and the cervical spine, and tonic contraction of the cricopharyngeus muscle pulling the NGT against the postcricoid. These induce postcricoid esophageal ulceration and extended inflammation causes esophageal perforation and myositis ...
rahang, ct, scan, without, contrast, axial, muscle, mandible, maxilla, tumor, upper, lower, incisor, molar, canine, premolar, larynx, pharynx, arch, maxillofacial, turbinates, maxillary, turbinates, maxillary, sinus, paranasal, pterygoid, process, sphenoid, atlas, axis, cervical, spine, bone, 3d, model, printable, .stl, medulla, oblongata, mastoid, mastoid, cells, Larynx, Sternohyoid muscle Thyroid cartilage, Thyrohyoid muscle, Thyroid gland, Arytenoid cartilage, Transverse arytenoid muscle, Platysma, Sternocleidomastoid muscle, Longus capitis muscle, Anterior scalene muscle Hypopharynx/esophagus, Middle scalene muscle, Posterior scalene muscle, Longus colli muscle, Longissimus capitis muscle, Longissimus cervicis muscle, Vertebral artery, Splenius cervicis muscle, Levator scapulae muscle, Semispinalis capitis muscle, Inferior constrictor muscle of pharynx, Spinal cord, Spinalis cervicis muscle and multifidus muscle, Posterior vertebral arch, Splenius capitis muscle, Trapezius muscle, ...
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STUDY OBJECTIVES: Obese patients develop obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), at least in part because of a narrowed upper airway. However, many obese adolescents do not develop OSAS, despite having a presumably narrower airway. The reasons for this phenomenon are unclear. The authors hypothesized that obese controls have a compensatory neuromuscular response to subatmospheric pressure loads during sleep, making them less likely to develop upper airway collapse. DESIGN: Patients underwent pressure-flow measurements during sleep while wearing intraoral electrodes to measure genioglossal electromyography (EMGgg). Two techniques were applied to decrease nasal pressure (P(N)) to subatmospheric levels, resulting in an activated and relatively hypotonic upper airway. SETTING: Sleep laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: There were 35 obese patients with OSAS, 28 obese controls, and 43 lean controls. RESULTS: In the activated state, the two control groups had a flatter slope of the pressure-flow relationship ...
The oral lymphoepithelial cyst develops within a benign lymphoid aggregate or accessory tonsil of the oral or pharyngeal mucosa. The surface of such aggregates may be indented with tonsillar crypts, as are the much larger pharyngeal tonsils of the lateral pharyngeal walls. The crypts may become obstructed by keratin or other debris, or the surface opening may become constricted during episodes of inflammatory hyperplastic responses. Certain cases develop a complete disunion of the crypt epithelium from the surface epithelium, resulting in a subepithelial cyst lined by the old crypt epithelium. This cyst was first reported by Parmentier in 1857 as hydatid cyst. Outside of the head and neck region, lymphoepithelial cyst is found most frequently in the pancreas and testis. Continue reading →. ...
The most common cause of airway obstruction in the anesthesia setting is iatrogenic, i.e. occurs with induction of general anesthesia/ sedation, when a reduced level of consciousness and loss of pharyngeal muscle tone leads to the back of the tongue falling backwards against the posterior pharyngeal wall in the patient positioned supine. Other conditions causing a reduced level of consciousness (intoxication, stroke, head injury, ...) can lead to airway obstruction for the same reason.. (Partial) upper airway obstruction due to the same mechanism can occur during sleep causing snoring and as a consequence of obstructive sleep apnea.. The potential types of obstacles to gas flow through the airway are blood, pus, secretions, edema and hematoma, either within the airway or external to the airway but compressing it, tumor or other tissue, a foreign body, regurgitated material or the vocal chords in cases of paralysis.. ...
It is not generally appreciated that alteration of the muscular component of viscera can be a dominant feature of myotonic dystrophy. Twelve patients with varying degrees of clinically evident involvement of somatic muscles were studied. Abnormal electromyograms were present in the five patients tested. Dysfunction of striated laryngeal and pharyngeal muscles was a prominent clinical finding. Manometric evaluation of the pharynx and esophagus was carried out in ten patients, six of whom complained of dysphagia. Not only was there a marked weakness of the pharyngeal swallowing contraction in five of eight patients examined, but nine of ten patients had similar ...
Muscle weakness, the cardinal feature of ALS, leads to progressive loss of motor function affecting the limbs, tongue, respiratory and pharyngeal muscles. Symptomatic treatments such as the placement of a feeding tube, can compensate for the inability to swallow. Riluzole, the only approved treatment for ALS, may slow disease progression but no treatment is curative and none have improved function.. Unexpectedly, Nuedexta®, approved for the treatment of labile emotionality that occurs in association with ALS and other neurological disorders, has been observed to improve bulbar function, primarily speech and swallowing, in a number of neurological disorders, including ALS. The basis for this is conjectural but likely due to a direct effect of the drug on motor neurons in the part of the brain that controls speech and swallowing. The same part of the brain appears to modulate the expression of emotions and interestingly the site of action of the drug is the same as a site that has been implicated ...
Tetanus occurs when a very powerful toxin from a bacteria called Clostridium tetani climbs the nerves into the spinal cord. The nerve cells dont communicate well when this happens and they begin sending too many signals to the muscles. The muscles go into spasm. This is what caused the Haitian babys jaw to lock and his hands to clench. His arched back is due to muscle contraction and is very painful. When contraction of the tracheal and pharyngeal muscles occurs, periods of apnea can occur, and the baby cannot breathe. Seizures and swings in blood pressure are common also ...
9th Cranial nerve - Glossopharyngeal nerve - mixed nerve - sensation and taste in the pharynx and the tongue, supplies the pharyngeal muscles ...
Upper motor neuron disease with peripheral degeneration producing a giant motor unit. Paraplegia with poor autonomic control must be assessed, especially in view of hemodynamic control. There is a high prevalence of seizure disorder and medications must be given until the morning of the anesthesia procedure. The risk of gastric reflux and regurgitation must be evaluated carefully because of the elevated risk of pulmonary aspiration. Relevant airway complications related to poor pharyngeal muscle control complicated by the presence of copious oral secretions. Adrenal involvement is frequent: check adrenal function and serum electrolytes. ...
James Martin. "I know if the UAW had been there and had a contract, they would have had my back," Martin said at a recent town hall at Local 696 in nearby Dayton with his co-workers, UAW members and community supporters. Fuyao workers want to organize their own union with the UAW to fix the many health and safety issues at the massive former General Motors plant and have a voice on the job.. Martin began work in February 2015. On his first day, management at the plant, which is the worlds largest auto glass manufacturing facility, held a safety class in which half of it was spent learning about some of the dangerous substances he and his co-workers would be working with. They discussed the importance of Safety Data Sheets (SDS) that explain in detail about the chemicals and their potential hazards.. In mid-March, after his first two hours of exposure to chemicals in the manufacturing process, Martin and some of his co-workers began to experience headaches, lightheadedness, nausea, and a burning ...
Oropharynx and laryngopharynx Allow passage of food, fluids, and air Stratified squamous epithelium lining Skeletal muscle layers: inner longitudinal, outer pharyngeal constrictors
Cricopharyngeal muscle - What are the different functions of the cricopharyngeal .... We provides discount Herbal Sports nutritionals. Muscle Advance Weight Gainer with 810 Calories, 52g Protein, 94g Carbs Per-Serving.
A intubating pharyngeal airway having a side access for passage of a tube on the said airway comprising a flanged stop at the proximal end, a curved airway central tubular member and distal ball tip adapted to fit into the vallecular. The side opening may be expanded or closed by means of either a hinge on the opposite side wall of the tube or by a cap or insert closure.
Usually, what happens next step in the foreclosure process is the arrival of a truck hauling a dumpster, with a crew ready to throw out a familys belongings.. But UAW 600 and its allies confronted the would-be eviction team with a tactic appropriate to the Motor City: cars and lots of them. The anti-foreclosure forces surrounded the Garretts home with dozens of cars, and the banks evictors were shut out. When the eviction squad called in the police, officers came to the scene but dismissed it as a "civil matter" and drove off. That left the anti-foreclosure forces still in command of the situation, and the evictors left the scene.. Meanwhile, some 40 protesters-about half from Local 600-picketed outside the Mellon bank to publicize its treatment of the Garretts. With the eviction foiled and the prospect of bad publicity growing, the Mellon bank relented and sold the Garretts home back to them for $12,000.. Local 600s role in the fight against foreclosures is in keeping with its history of ...
A conserved feature of all vertebrate embryos is the presence of a series of bulges on the lateral surface of the head, the pharyngeal arches; it is within these structures that the nerves, muscles and skeletal components of the pharyngeal apparatus are laid down.[well established][VHOG]. ...
A conserved feature of all vertebrate embryos is the presence of a series of bulges on the lateral surface of the head, the pharyngeal arches; it is within these structures that the nerves, muscles and skeletal components of the pharyngeal apparatus are laid down.[well established][VHOG]. ...
Pharyngeal raphe: | | | |Pharyngeal raphe| | | | | ||... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
dilator muscle: Any of the muscles that widen a body part. In humans, the dilator muscle of the iris contains fibres that extend radially through the iris of the eye and involuntarily contract...
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