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The effects of tetrodotoxin on sinus node activity were studied by direct perfusion through its nutrient artery. Tetrodotoxin suppresses action potentials by blocking sodium entry into the cell. In the open-chest anesthetized dog, direct perfusion of the sinus node artery with tetrodotoxin, 1.0 µg/ml, caused immediate sinus slowing lasting 12 to 60 minutes. This slowing was not affected by intranodal atropinization. Tetrodotoxin also produced complete blockade of sinus node response to vagal stimulation. Blockade of sinus node responses to stellate stimulation was less profound. Tetrodotoxin had no effect on chronotropic responses to intranodal acetylcholine and norepinephrine. These findings suggest that blockade of transmembrane sodium transport (or the rapid entry channel) has a negative chronotropic effect which is not cholinergic and during which response to neurotransmitter substances is normal. Concomitant with this effect there is blockade of neurotransmitter release (or synthesis) in ...
One of the muscarinic antagonists with pharmacologic action similar to atropine and used mainly as an ophthalmic parasympatholytic or mydriatic. [PubChem]
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures. . ...
Introduction to Human Pathology (PATH:8133) Semester Hours: 4 Offered: Fall Description: Human disease; basic disease processes, organ-related and multisystem diseases; case analysis Prerequisite: None Drug Mechanisms and Actions (PCOL:4130) Semester Hours: 3 Offered: Spring Description: Introduction to principles of pharmacology, pharmacologic actions of drugs Prerequisite:
When examining molecular actions of xenobiotics on neurotransmitter systems, it quickly becomes apparent that substances rarely possess single pharmacologic actions. As examples, doxepin, in part, antagonizes voltage-gated sodium channels, histaminic H1 and H2 receptors, α-adrenergic receptors, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, dopamine D2 receptors, and GABAA receptors; prevents potassium efflux; and inhibits norepinephrine, serotonin, and adenosine uptake. Similarly, carbamazepine blocks voltage-gated sodium channels; inhibits uptake of norepinephrine, adenosine, and serotonin; antagonizes adenosine and muscarinic receptors; activates GABAB receptors; and binds to benzodiazepine-binding sites on mitochondria. For obvious reasons, then, this chapter cannot include every action of every xenobiotic on the nervous system. Nor is it meant to be a complete discussion of toxic syndromes produced by various xenobiotics, as these are discussed in specific chapters. Rather, this chapter provides a ...
VAERS was established after Congress passed the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act in 1986 requiring providers and vaccine manufacturers to report possible adverse events that occur during or following the administration of vaccines licensed in the United States. VAERS receives approximately 30,000 reports a year (Shimabukuro TT et al. Vaccine. 2015;30:4398). About 85% of VAERS reports describe mild adverse events such as fever or local reactions. Which three of the following statements are true:. a) An adverse reaction is defined as any side effect, injury, toxicity or sensitivity reaction, or failure of pharmacologic action. b) An adverse reaction occurring after vaccine administration does not need to be reported if it is considered to be unrelated to the vaccine. c) Serious adverse events include death, life-threatening conditions, hospitalization, permanent disability, congenital anomaly or impairment of a body function. While these events may occur after vaccination, they rarely are ...
Some medications are known to interact with Remicade. These drugs can either potentiate or reduce the pharmacologic action of Remicade, and possibly increasing your risk for side effects.
Octreotide exerts pharmacologic actions similar to the natural hormone, somatostatin. It is an even more potent inhibitor of growth hormone, glucagon, and insulin than somatostatin. Like somatostatin, it also suppresses leuteinizing hormone (LH) response to GnRH, decreases splanchnic blood flow, and inhibits release of serotonin, gastrin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, secretin, motilin, and pancreatic polypeptide. Octreotide has been used to treat the symptoms associated with metastatic carcinoid tumors (flushing and diarrhea), and Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) secreting adenomas (watery diarrhea). Octreotide substantially reduces and in many cases can normalize growth hormone and/or IGF-1 (somatomedin C) levels in patients with acromegaly ...
Today in my lab exam relating the in vitro dissolution study of drugs, I got to know that the motility of our stomach is more than that in our intestine. Though a very simple information it was but it is really nice to learn something new each time you get to know. A similar incident, while in the viva of my year end of Bachelor of Pharmacy, i was asked by my teacher about my any favorite subjects. I answered that they were physiology and pharmacology.And then based on my answer I was asked to answer, what is the difference between physiologic and pharmacologic action. I was really well prepared and very confident, but somehow I failed to give the correct answer, perhaps due to nervousness. But again rather than being sad for not being able to answer correctly I was very happy all again to learn something new when my teacher gave the answer in very simple words that, physiologic action is the normal functioning of our body systems and organs which is maintained by food and vtamins and minerals ...
Denise OReilly UK 07814 286988.; 2012-08-26 By the way used the Mobility Concentrate this morning and the mare was fantastic I could actually sit the trot and the muscles of her hind quarters and loin was beginning to soften and ripple as they moved.I think I am on a winner here.Thanks a lot Cheers Ann Australia . If horsetail is used with Benzodiazepines, Disulfiram, or Metronidazole, it may cause a disulfiram-like reaction. Youll find everything you need on our site to keep your horse healthy and fit. Each Solution has been precisely formulated by Dr. Thomas with strict adherence to Chinese medical theory and the pharmacologic actions of each herb used. This is an inactive roller-dried brewers yeast powder suitable for various speciality applications particularly in pet food. Herb Power. Tagged under Horse, Herb, Food, Dietary Supplement, Bucket. This herb & supplement combo is natural, highly palatable, economical and convenient. Plusbac Feed is a highly effective natural herbal feed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cardio-renal-endocrine dynamics during stepwise infusion of physiologic and pharmacologic concentrations of atrial natriuretic factor in the dog. AU - Zimmerman, R. S.. AU - Schirger, J. A.. AU - Edwards, B. S.. AU - Schwab, T. R.. AU - Heublein, D. M.. AU - Burnett, J. C.. PY - 1987/1/1. Y1 - 1987/1/1. N2 - Infusion of α-human-atrial natriuretic factor (α-h-ANF) into pentobarbitol anesthesized dogs (n = 10) at 0.0025, 0.005, 0.01, and 0.3 μg/kg/min was performed to differentiate the physiologic actions of atrial natriuretic factor from its pharmacologic actions. The lowest doses of atrial natriuretic factor infusion resulted in circulating levels that were previously produced by 0-10% saline volume expansion. At the lowest infusion rate, circulating ANF increased 31 ± 3 pg/ml, resulting in a significant increase in absolute sodium excretion, fractional excretion of sodium, and fractional excretion of lithium, and a significant decrease in urine osmolality. A greater change ...
The INN identifies a specific pharmaceutical substance or active pharmaceutical ingredient. The INN is in the public domain and can be used without restriction. It is sometimes referred to colloquially as the generic name. However, the terms generic and nonproprietary are not synonymous. Generic drugs are nontrademarked formulations of a drug that can be manufactured once a drug is no longer under patent restrictions. Generic drugs should be referred to by their nonproprietary name, just as are proprietary drugs. The INN reflects the chemistry, pharmacologic action, and therapeutic use through its stem. Herbals (see , Herbals and Dietary Supplements), homeopathic
The only frequent adverse reaction during therapy with oral anticoagulants is bleeding due to depression of vitamin K-dependent hepatic clotting proteins. Untoward effects not related to the desired pharmacologic action of coumarin derivatives are unusual and generally benign events such as gastrointestinal dysfunction, hypersensitivity dermatitides, drug fever, and alopecia. Only one serious complication remains poorly understood: coumarin necrosis of skin and subcutaneous tissue. Widely reported in Europe (1-10) it has received little attention in English-speaking countries (11-14) and is still being misinterpreted as a hemorrhagic effect.. Although clinical use of bishydroxycoumarin began in 1940, coumarin necrosis was not recognized until ...
History. In the 1930s, Erspamer began to study the distribution of enterochromaffin cells, which stained with a reagent for indoles. The highest concentrations were found in GI mucosa, followed by platelets and the CNS. Soon thereafter, Page and colleagues isolated and chemically characterized a vasoconstrictor substance released from platelets in clotting blood. This substance, named serotonin, was shown to be identical to the indole isolated by Erspamer. Subsequent discovery of biosynthetic and degradative pathways for 5-HT and clinical presentation of patients with carcinoid tumors of intestinal enterochromaffin cells spurred interest in 5-HT. The gross effects of 5-HT, produced in excess in malignant carcinoid, gave some indication of the physiologic and pharmacologic actions of 5-HT, as did the identification of several naturally occurring and semi-synthetic tryptamine-like substances that were hallucinogenic and induced behavioral effects similar to those observed in carcinoid patients. In ...
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1. Popping S, Rose H, Ionescu I, et al. Effect of a hawthorn extract on contraction and energy turnover of isolated rat cardiomyocytes. Arzneimittelforschung. 1995;45:1157-1161. 2. Joseph G, Zhao Y, Klaus W. Pharmacologic action profile of crataegus extract in comparison to epinephrine, amirinone, milrinone and digoxin in the isolated perfused guinea pig heart [in German; English abstract]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1995;45:1261-1265. 3. Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physicians Guide to Herbal Medicine. 3rd ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1998:91-94. 4. Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physicians Guide to Herbal Medicine. 3rd ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1998:91-95. 5. Ammon HPT, Handel M. Crataegus, toxicology and pharmacology. Parts I, II and III [translated from German]. Planta Med. 1981;43:105-120, 209-239, 313-322. 6. Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physicians Guide to Herbal Medicine. 3rd. ed. Berlin, ...
1. Popping S, Rose H, Ionescu I, et al. Effect of a hawthorn extract on contraction and energy turnover of isolated rat cardiomyocytes. Arzneimittelforschung. 1995;45:1157-1161. 2. Joseph G, Zhao Y, Klaus W. Pharmacologic action profile of crataegus extract in comparison to epinephrine, amirinone, milrinone and digoxin in the isolated perfused guinea pig heart [in German; English abstract]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1995;45:1261-1265. 3. Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physicians Guide to Herbal Medicine. 3rd ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1998:91-94. 4. Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physicians Guide to Herbal Medicine. 3rd ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1998:91-95. 5. Ammon HPT, Handel M. Crataegus, toxicology and pharmacology. Parts I, II and III [translated from German]. Planta Med. 1981;43:105-120, 209-239, 313-322. 6. Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physicians Guide to Herbal Medicine. 3rd. ed. Berlin, ...
Bretylium tosylate (Bretylol) has recently been approved for parenteral use against resistant ventricular arrhythmias. The pharmacologic action of bretylium is complex, and its antiarrhythmic action differs significantly from other drugs. Bretylium is an adrenergic neuronal blocking agent taken up selectively at peripheral adrenergic nerve terminals, where it initially releases norepinephrine (sympathomimetic effect) and then produces adrenergic neuronal blockade. It has direct cardiac membrane effect to prolong action potential duration and effective refractory period but, unlike other membrane active antiarrhythmic agents, does not depress conduction velocity or automaticity. Bretylium increases ventricular fibrillation threshold and prevents the decrease in ventricular fibrillation threshold associated with myocardial ischemia. It does not depress myocardial contractility. Clinical studies have shown parenteral bretylium to be effective in suppressing ventricular arrhythmias, particularly ...
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