CIRS ATOM phantoms are a full line of anthropomorphic, cross sectional dosimetry phantoms designed to investigate organ dose, whole body effective dose as well as verification of delivery of therapeutic radiation doses.. ATOM is the only line of dosimetry phantoms to range in sizes from newborn to adult. Six models are available: newborn, 1-year, 5-year and 10-year old pediatric phantoms as well as adult male and female phantoms.. Each phantom is sectional in design with traditional 25 mm thick sections. The sectional surfaces are extremely flat and smooth and do not require any special coatings or treatment. This results in minimal interfaces between the slabs when viewed in a scout or projection X-ray. The ATOM line also differs from other dosimetry phantoms by providing optimized TLD locations specific to 21 inner organs.. Tissue-equivalent epoxy resins are used in all aspects of the phantom. CIRS technology offers superior tissue simulation Dosimetry Verification Phantoms by covering a wider ...
We describe herein a novel life-size phantom model of the intracranial cavity and its validation. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) domains including ventricular, cysternal, and subarachnoid spaces were derived via magnetic resonance imaging. Brain mechanical properties and cranio-spinal compliance were set based on published data. Both bulk and pulsatile physiologic CSF flow were modeled. Model validation was carried out by comparisons of flow and pressure measurements in the phantom with published in vivo data of healthy subjects. Physiologic intracranial pressure with 10 mmHg mean and 0.4 mmHg peak pulse amplitude was recorded in the ventricles. Peak CSF flow rates of 0.2 and 2 ml/s were measured in the cerebral aqueduct and subarachnoid space, respectively. The phantom constitutes a first-of-its-kind approach to modeling physiologic intracranial dynamics in vitro. Herein, we describe the phantom design and manufacturing, definition and implementation of its operating parameters, as well as the ...
IMRT Homogeneous Phantom - Complete QA from CT imaging to dose verification. CIRS is the leading manufacturer of medical imaging phantoms and simulators for radiation therapy QA, dosimetry, diagnostic imaging QA as well as training and demonstration phantom
This Spotlight describes the use of optical phantoms as validation tools for probe-based imaging and spectroscopy platforms. Composition of optical phantoms, including scattering and absorbing agents, is discussed in the context of their specific application. Next, requirements for designing optical phantoms for validation of small endoscopic instrumentation is presented including a discussion on the diffuse and sub-diffuse scattering regimes and how this relates to common types of epithelial tissue. This Spotlight concludes with a tutorial section for constructing solid phantoms to simulate thin epithelial tissue structure and liquid phantoms to extract tissue optical properties using probe-based reflectance spectroscopy techniques. For these applications, solid phantoms are made using poly(dimethylsiloxane) and liquid phantoms are made using deionized water as the substrate material. The scope of the chapter is limited to optical phantom design and application and is not intended to describe ...
This Spotlight describes the use of optical phantoms as validation tools for probe-based imaging and spectroscopy platforms. Composition of optical phantoms, including scattering and absorbing agents, is discussed in the context of their specific application. Next, requirements for designing optical phantoms for validation of small endoscopic instrumentation is presented including a discussion on the diffuse and sub-diffuse scattering regimes and how this relates to common types of epithelial tissue. This Spotlight concludes with a tutorial section for constructing solid phantoms to simulate thin epithelial tissue structure and liquid phantoms to extract tissue optical properties using probe-based reflectance spectroscopy techniques. For these applications, solid phantoms are made using poly(dimethylsiloxane) and liquid phantoms are made using deionized water as the substrate material. The scope of the chapter is limited to optical phantom design and application and is not intended to describe ...
Regulation of intracranial pressure (ICP) is vital to proper brain function. Pathologic conditions such as traumatic brain injury and hydrocephalus can cause lethal changes in ICP through an imbalance of fluid passage into and out of the craniospinal space. The relationship between craniospinal volume and pressure determines to a large extent whether such imbalance can be compensated or if it will lead to neuronal damage. Phantom models are predisposed for the evaluation of medical procedures and devices that alter volume in the spinal or cranial space. However, current phantoms have substantial limitations in the reproduction of craniospinal pressure-volume relationships, which need to be overcome prior to their deployment outside the basic research setting. We present herein a novel feedback controlled phantom for the reproduction of any physiologic or pathologic pressure-volume relation. We compare its performance to those of existing passive methods, showing that it follows reference curves ...
Purpose: Epidemiological study of second cancer risk for cancer survivors often requires the dose to normal tissues located outside the anatomy covered by radiological imaging, which is usually limited to tumor and organs at risk. We have investigated the feasibility of using whole body computational human phantoms for estimating out-of-field organ doses for patients treated by Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT). Methods: Identical 7-field IMRT prostate plans were performed using X-ray Voxel Monte Carlo (XVMC), a radiotherapy-specific Monte Carlo transport code, on the computed tomography (CT) images of the torso of an adult male patient (175 cm height, 66 kg weight) and an adult male hybrid computational phantom with the equivalent body size. Dose to the liver, right lung, and left lung were calculated and compared. Results: Considerable differences are seen between the doses calculated by XVMC for the patient CT and the hybrid phantom. One major contributing factor is the treatment ...
All Blue Phantom models are made using our patented SimulexUS tissue. SimulexUS is specifically designed to match the acoustic properties of human tissue. This means that you can use virtually any ultrasound system with a Blue Phantom model and have a realistic ultrasound image.
NAVIGATING AN INTERVENTIONAL DEVICE - The present invention relates to navigating an interventional device. In particular, the invention relates to a system for navigating an interventional device within a tubular structure of an object, a method for navigating an interventional device within a tubular structure of an object as well as a computer program element and a computer-readable medium. In order to provide enhanced information to the user in an easily comprehensible manner while keeping the X-ray dose to a minimum, a system and a method for navigating an interventional device within a tubular structure of an object are provided, wherein the method comprised the following steps: a) Acquiring 2D X-ray fluoroscopy image data in one projection geometry of a region of interest of the tubular structure; b) detecting the interventional device in the 2D X-ray image; c) determining the 2D position of the interventional device in the 2D X-ray image; d) registering the at least one 2D X-ray image ...
The following evening, despite the Phantoms warnings, a defiant Carlotta appears as Marguerite. At first, the performance goes well, but soon the Phantoms curse takes its effect, backstage, causing the great crystal chandelier to fall down onto the audience. Christine runs to her dressing room and is entranced by a mysterious voice through a secret door behind the mirror, descending, in a dream-like sequence, semi-conscious on horseback by a winding staircase into the lower depths of the Opera. She is then taken by gondola over a subterranean lake by the masked Phantom into his lair. The Phantom introduces himself as Erik and declares his love; Christine faints, so Erik carries her to a suite fabricated for her comfort. The next day, when she awakens, she finds a note from Erik telling her that she is free to come and go as she pleases, but that she must never look behind his mask. In the next room, the Phantom is playing his composition, "Don Juan Triumphant." Christines curiosity gets the ...
SEA WATER PHANTOM 500. The new PHANTOM 500, with its 15 m in length, represents SEA WATERs new flagship and a new landmark for our shipyard in terms of design and technology. The most recent addition to our range and now SEA WATERs leading RIB, the PHANTOM 500 can be supplied in an open configuration, with an enormous sun-pad and an array of spacious lockers for use as a day cruiser, tender or chase boat or with a spacious bow cabin and a custom maxi T-Top for comfortable cruising. The PHANTOM 500 can house either twin inboard diesel engines with sterndrives or other propulsion drives or triple and even quadruple outboard engines and together with one of the new Joystick piloting packages, available both with inboard or outboard engine configurations and/or a bow thruster, manoeuvrability and ease-of-use become unmatched.. Deck layout has once again been designed according to our SEA WATER philosophy: a simple and functional layout, where everything is in the right place and where beauty means ...
Disclosed herein is a spine phantom for calibrating a dual energy x-ray attenuation measurement device for measuring vertebral bone density. Simplified construction of the phantom is made possible by equating the density variations in the three dimensionally complex and inhomogeneous spine as a set of easily machined flat surfaces of different thicknesses. In particular, the spine phantom includes a vertebra-simulating body having a base surface perpendicular to the x-ray beam of the measurement device and defining an intervertebral section, a composite bone section and cortical wall sections. These sections each extend to planes of different heights from the base surface, so as to simulate cartilage, cortical and tabecular bone, and cortical bone wall regions of a human spine, respectively. The spine phantom of the present invention can include multiple vertebra-simulating bodies simulating a range of vertebra types and densities. Moreover, the vertebra-simulating bodies may be embedded in an acrylic
The Anthropomorphic Torso Phantom is used for the evaluation of non-uniform attenuation and scatter compensation methods. The phantom consists of a large, body-shaped cylinder with lung, liver and spine inserts. The phantom simulates the anatomical structures of radioactivity distributions for the upper torso of average to large male/female patients. Lung inserts can be filled with Styrofoam® beads and water to simulate lung tissue density ...
A couple of the more popular posts in recent months here on Photography Bay deal with reports and concerns about DJI Phantom users and their experience with flyaways. By "flyaway", we are talking about when the user loses control of the DJI Phantom quadcopter and it is most often lost or heavily damaged as it heads off into an unanticipated direction.. Obviously, flyaways are a concern for DJI Phantom users, and to read the comment threads below Photography Bays articles or in our forum threads, you would think we have reached an epidemic status. The actual numbers of flyaways are unknown; however, I would speculate that we are still dealing with a small percentage of users. There are many users who have been using the product for years without a single flyaway.. That said, when a flyaway occurs, it is a significant loss to most users when you consider the cost of the equipment often exceeds $1000 for the DJI Phantom and the oft-equipped GoPro camera. And then, of course, there is the danger to ...
A couple of the more popular posts in recent months here on Photography Bay deal with reports and concerns about DJI Phantom users and their experience with flyaways. By "flyaway", we are talking about when the user loses control of the DJI Phantom quadcopter and it is most often lost or heavily damaged as it heads off into an unanticipated direction.. Obviously, flyaways are a concern for DJI Phantom users, and to read the comment threads below Photography Bays articles or in our forum threads, you would think we have reached an epidemic status. The actual numbers of flyaways are unknown; however, I would speculate that we are still dealing with a small percentage of users. There are many users who have been using the product for years without a single flyaway.. That said, when a flyaway occurs, it is a significant loss to most users when you consider the cost of the equipment often exceeds $1000 for the DJI Phantom and the oft-equipped GoPro camera. And then, of course, there is the danger to ...
We seek to characterize the sampling conditions for iterative image reconstruction exploiting gradient-magnitude sparsity. We seek the number of views necessary for accurate image reconstruction by constrained, total variation (TV) minimization, which is the optimization problem suggested in the compressive sensing (CS) community for this type of sparsity. The preliminary finding here, based on simulations using images of realistic sparsity levels, is that necessary sampling can go as low as N/4 views for an NxN pixel array. This work sets the stage for fixed-exposure studies where the number of projections is balanced against the X-ray intensity per projection ...
Objective(s): Considering the fact that the standardized uptake value (SUV) of a normal lung tissue is expressed as x±SD, x+3×SD could be considered as the threshold value to outline the internal tumor volume (ITV) of a lung neoplasm. Methods: Three hollow models were filled with 55.0 kBq/mL fluorine18- fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) to represent tumors. The models were fixed to a barrel filled with 5.9 kBq/mL 18F-FDG to characterize normal lung tissues as a phantom. The PET/CT images of the phantom were acquired at rest. Then, the barrel was moved periodically to simulate breathing while acquiring PET/CT data. Volume recovery coefficient (VRC) was applied to evaluate the accuracy of ITVs. For statistical analysis, paired t-test and analysis of variance were applied. Results: The VRCs ranged from 0.74 to 0.98 and significantly varied among gross tumor volumes for delineating ITV (P|0.01). In two-dimensional PET scans, the motion distance did not affect VRC (P|0.05), whereas VRC decreased with increasing
Purpose: 4D CT is routinely performed during radiation therapy treatment planning of thoracic and abdominal cancers. Compared with the cine mode, the helical mode is advantageous in temporal resolution. However, a low pitch (∼0.1) for 4D CT imaging is often required instead of the standard pitch (∼1) for static imaging, since standard image reconstruction based on analytic method requires the low-pitch scanning in order to satisfy the data sufficient condition when reconstructing each temporal frame individually. In comparison, the flexible iterative method enables the reconstruction of all temporal frames simultaneously, so that the image similarity among frames can be utilized to possibly perform high-pitch and sparse-view helical 4D CT imaging. The purpose of this work is to investigate such an exciting possibility for faster imaging with lower dose. Methods: A key for highpitch and sparse-view helical 4D CT imaging is the simultaneous reconstruction of all temporal frames using the prior ...
In this work, the resistive dipole antenna is designed for sensing the effective dielectric constants of the skull defect as part of the healing stages for craniosynostosis. The performance of the fabricated resistive dipole antenna is analyzed by comparing to the conventional dipole antenna in terms of both frequency and time domain. The measurement result is shown that the amplitude of the reflected pulse is increased as the thickness of the powder is increased.. ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Efforts to establish MRA as clinically practical are hampered by lack of realistic beating heart flow phantom. We propose to develop an enhanced Coronary Artery Disease (eCAD) phantom for use by MR researchers, developers and medical equipment manufacturers, eCAD combines advanced features from previously introduced technology with innovative design, materials and processing to create a controlled environment which reproduces clinical conditions. This will be accomplished by: 1) developing functional cardiac structures based on clinical data, 2) combining structures with advanced materials, processing and modular infrastructure to reproduce cardiac functionality, 3) verifying eCAD is anatomically accurate with proper flow patterns and motion under pulsatile flow conditions and 4) demonstrating prototype reproducibility, stability and commercial potential during extended evaluations in academic and industrial environments. Design optimization and manufacturing ...
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the accuracy of bone mineral density (BMD) quantification using dual-layer spectral detector CT (SDCT) at various scan protocols. METHODS: Two validated anthropomorphic phantoms containing inserts of 50-200 mg/cm(3) calcium hydroxyapatite (HA) were scanned using a 64-slice SDCT scanner at various acquisition protocols (120 and 140 kVp, and ... read more 50, 100 and 200 mAs). Regions of interest (ROIs) were placed in each insert and mean attenuation profiles at monochromatic energy levels (90-200 keV) were constructed. These profiles were fitted to attenuation profiles of pure HA and water to calculate HA concentrations. For comparison, one phantom was scanned using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). RESULTS: At both 120 and 140 kVp, excellent correlations (R = 0.97, P , 0.001) were found between true and measured HA concentrations. Mean error for all measurements at 120 kVp was -5.6 ± 5.7 mg/cm(3) (-3.6 ± 3.2%) and at 140 kVp -2.4 ± 3.7 mg/cm(3) (-0.8 ± 2.8%). ...
True Real-Time Cardiac MRI with Radial K-Space Sampling in Free Breathing without ECG-synchronization-Improved Image Quality with Iterative Image Reconstruction, SSC02-07, 12026589, Ralf Bauer,
SPEAG has released a novel generic forearm phantom. The SHO-GFPC-V1 phantom was jointly developed with CTIA. It was extensively tested in a round-robin. It can be used for the evaluation of wrist-worn transmitters. The same phantom is also available for specific absorption rate (SAR) testing.
Abstract--To test the feasibility of using 1.1MHz focused ultrasound to increase the diffusion of drug through neurological tissue, tissue mimicking agar phantoms and a water soluble dye mimicking drug were exposed to 1.1MHz ultrasonic sound fields for 1 to 4 minutes in duration. Histology was then performed on the phantoms to assess the effect of ultrasound on the perfusion of drug. Mathematical analysis was used to quantify the extent of perfusion of dye and parametrically fit the experimental data to the theoretical diffusion equation. Results show a substantial increase in drug perfusion and not diffusion like behavior for the sonicated phantoms.
Ive been using my BG4.1 with batteries as an unbalanced mic (XLR to 1/4 mono cable). I have a new mixer that accepts XLR balanced mics and also has 48 volt phantom supply. How do I use this mic in this configuration: (1) Do I remove the internal battery to utilize the phantom supply? (2) If I dont use the phantom supply and continue to use battery instead, does the mic still produce a balanced signal? (3) Ive seen mic cables advertised that are 2 conductor but have XLR on both ends - how do these carry balanced signals (I thought you needed 3 conductors). How do I identify proper cables?|br/| |br/| Thanks.
Summon Phantom Satchel (8 slot, giant, wt 0.1, wr 0%), WAR/CLR/PAL/SHD/BRD, ALL but IKS, Phantom Plate Helm (AC 10, wt 7.5), Phantom Breastplate (AC 17, wt 12.5), Phantom Plate Vambraces (AC 8, wt 8.1), 2 Phantom Plate Bracers (AC 7, wt 5.0), Phantom Plate Gauntlets (AC 9, wt 6.2), Phantom Plate Greaves (AC 10, wt 9.4), Phantom Plate Boots (AC 8, wt 8.1) ...
Veröffentlichung: 13.10.2017. Stil: Melodicrock, Hardrock. Label: Frontiers Records. Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Pfivemusic. PHANTOM 5, die eigentlich unter dem Namen SUPREMACY gegründet wurden, änderten ihren Bandnamen in PHANTOM 5 bevor sie ihr Debutalbum veröffentlichten. Mit ihrem selbstbetiteltem Debut ernteten sie Lob von Fans und der Fachpresse und nun veröffentlicht die Band um den Mastermind Michale Voss ihr zweites Album „Play To Win". PHANTOM 5 die sich neben Michael Voss noch aus Sänger Claus Lessmann, Gitarrist Robert Boebel und Schlagzeuger Axel Kruse zusammensetzt, versuchen nun mit ihrem 11 Songs umfassenden Albums „Play To Win" das Debut zu übertreffen. Mal sehen ob ihnen das gelungen ist.. Schon beim ersten Song „The Change In You" bemerkt man das man sich am Mikro keinen besseren hätte wählen können als Claus Lessmann. Toller rockiger Song der den Reigen von 11 neuen Stücken beginnt. Der Hardrocker „Crossfire" klingt am Anfang sehr düster, aber das ...
The Fairline Phantom 40 is a very popular flybridge cruiser, held in high regard by boat owners and the industry alike. This boat combines the practicality required for serious, long-distance cruising with the spaciousness and comfort to accommodate four people with an exclusive blend of privacy and sociability. The Phantom 40 is a boat that should feature on the wish list of anyone looking for a second-hand family-friendly flybridge cruiser.. Who and what is the boat designed for ...
An integral equation relating the lateral absorbed dose profile of a photon beam to the resultant absorbed dose distribution during single-turn rotating-beam therapy has been set up and solved for the case of a cylindrical phantom with the axis of rotation coinciding with the axis of symmetry of the cylinder. In the first approximation the results obtained are also valid when the axis of rotation is somewhat off-centred, even in a phantom that deviates from circular symmetry, provided the rotation is performed in both clockwise and counter clockwise directions. The calculated dose profiles indicate that improved dose uniformity can be achieved using a new type of non-linear wedge-shaped filter, which can easily be designed using the derived general analytic solution to the integral equation.. ...
Positron Emission Tomography has experienced several advances-in the last decade. This thesis assesses the recent developments in PET scanners: New, fast scintillators, higher resolution detectors, fully 3D imaging and increased sensitivity, iterative reconstruction algorithms with implementation of point spread function modelling and time-of- flight. The physical performance characteristics of three multi-ring and one panel based configuration were quantified using phantom experiments. The clinical impact of increased sensitivity was explored. Figures of merit to assess image quality were established and a method to optimise reconstruction algorithms for signal-to-noise was developed and applied. The improvements of implementing point spread function modelling into image reconstruction were investigated and quantified. The implementation of time-of- flight in addition to point-spread-function modelling was explored in substantial detail and compared. Experimental results were obtained and the ...
Three-dimensional (3D), multiwavelength near-infrared tomography has the potential to provide new physiological information about biological tissue function and pathological transformation. Fast and reliable measurements of multiwavelength data from multiple planes over a region of interest, together with adequate model-based nonlinear image reconstruction, form the major components of successful estimation of internal optical properties of the region. These images can then be used to examine the concentration of chromophores such as hemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, water, and lipids that in turn can serve to identify and characterize abnormalities located deep within the domain. We introduce and discuss a 3D modeling method and image reconstruction algorithm that is currently in place. Reconstructed images of optical properties are presented from simulated data, measured phantoms, and clinical data acquired from a breast cancer patient. It is shown that, with a relatively fast 3D inversion ...
The active detection element of the dosimeter is a strip of OSL material 3.0 mm wide, 0.13 mm thick and 30.0 mm long with an overlying aluminum step wedge with thicknesses of 0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 mm Al, encapsulated in a light-tight plastic enclosure with outer dimensions of 10.0 mm wide, 5.4 mm thick, and 54.0 mm long. The dosimeter is used in conjunction with a breast phantom for the purpose of estimating the half-value layer (HVL), entrance surface exposure (ESE), and average glandular dose (AGD) in conventional projection mammography. ESE and HVL were computed based on analysis of exposure profiles obtained from exposed strip dosimeters. The AGD was estimated by multiplying the ESE by the appropriate exposure to dose conversion factor for the thickness and % glandular tissue fraction represented by the phantom and target-filter combination employed. The accuracy and reproducibility of the ESE, HVL and AGD estimates obtained using the dosimeter positioned on the surface of the ACR phantom at ...
A method of correcting for the impairments of phase jitter and frequency offset imposed by a transmission medium and of a clock frequency difference between a transmitting and a receiving multicarrier modem is disclosed. The method comprises two modes: a training mode that uses pilot tones, and a data mode that uses random data modulated onto many carriers. During the training mode the frequencies of the phase jitter are estimated, and the parameters of a correcting signal are initialized; during the data mode the correcting signal is used to compensate for the impairments, and then is updated from an estimate of the phase error.
A synchronous algorithm applicable for time domain synchronous orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (TDS-OFDM) carrier frequency offset (CFO) is prop
Radiotherapy is a common treatment option for malignant tumors. The use of magnetic resonance imaging in radiotherapy is increasing world-wide and sets additional requirements on the image quality compared to diagnostics applications. Thereby, the overall goal of the present project was to develop and implement a structured image quality assurance approach for MRI in radiotherapy. Specific aspects studied was the image quality, spatial accuracy and spin-lattice relaxation time quantification. Measurements using three different phantoms were performed at the positron emission tomography magnetic resonance (PET/MR) scanner at Norrlands Univeristy Hosptial, Umeå. The image quality was evaluated using the American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom and its accompanying tests. ACR phantom measurements were performed once or twice daily throughout the project. The results from the ACR tests were implemented in an automatic analysis program and displayed on a website, accessible from the hospital ...
The present invention relates to an interventional device for interacting with occlusive material. A wall attachment jet moves and removes particulate from lumens such as vessels.
In this study, we aimed to extract ITV-b from PET images using calculations from phantom studies. The results of the current study have demonstrated that tumour size, motion amplitude, tumour site (lung or head-and-neck, abdomen), and AC can have a significant impact on PET/CT imaging outcomes, including SUVmax and THmax. These four factors are individually discussed below.. In considering tumour size, we found no influence of PVE in the experiments with 28- and 37-mm spheres. In spheres with a diameter of 22 mm or less, reduced SUV estimates can result from PVE. Because the underestimation of SUV is exacerbated by respiratory movement, one should be careful when evaluating targets smaller than 28 mm by estimating the SUV. In cases with volumes larger than spheres of 37-mm diameter, the potential influence of PVE remains to be determined.. When evaluating the effect of target motion amplitude, we observed no SUVr underestimation for 10-mm respiratory motion. In the case of amplitudes of 20 mm or ...
We have seen that the generation of subject contrast is related to attenuation differences between different materials in the body. We can therefore infer that X-ray dose is dependent on the number of photons striking a tissue and their energy, as well as on the Linear Attenuation Coefficient of the tissues involved. Dose can therefore be considered to result from the deposition of radiant energy in a tissue. The amount of energy deposited is given by the absorbed dose, D, which is defined, in SI units, as the absorption of 1 joule per kilogram of attenuating material - and which is referred to as the absorption of 1 gray (Gy). This energy is equivalent to that of ~1017 X-ray photons at 60 keV and therefore represents a relatively large exposure. Ionization chambers have traditionally been used to measure the Exposure of X-ray beams. This quantity was measured in roentgens (R), where 1 R is defined as an exposure which generates 2.58x10-4 C/kg of air (at STP). It is an empirically-derived ...
Recapitulation of microvascular structure, function and perfusion in vitro can enable studies of vascular biology, provide a model for diseases such as ischemic stroke or tumor angiogenesis and enable quantitative evaluation of physiologic blood or lymph perfusion. Here we describe the initial design and deployment of a first-generation, self-contained 3D-printed, physiologically-faithful, microfluidic perfusion phantom to form explicit, hierarchically-branching, microvascular structure encapsulated in a type I collagen matrix in vitro, with pump-driven perfusion easily visible via phase-contrast MRI (Fig. 1). The phantom flexibly supports creation of user-defined vessel network geometries with human vascular cells and allows experimental validation of blood flow, i.e., via constitutive equations for convective and diffusive transport that quantitatively relate the flux of tracers from time-resolved images to transport field quantities. Thus, the largely qualitative and unmeasurable global ...
Analysis of spectral scattering features observed in simulated reflectance spectra collected by devices with separate source and detector. Left hand column shows dimensionless reflectance spectra returned using selected source detector separations of A) 0.2 (x marks), B) 0.4 (circle marks), and C) 1.0 mm (square marks). Each panel shows spectra simulated from dilutions of IL resulting in volume particle concentrations of [0.455, 0.568, 0.908, 1.135, 1.476, 2.951, 4.540]% that are indicated by colors [blue, red, green, yellow, magenta, cyan, and black], respectively. Middle column shows spectra returned by 3 selected source-detector separations in D) 4.54% and E) 0.454% phantoms, with the spectra normalized at 400 nm for comparative purposes. Right hand column shows the average number of scattering events experienced by photons at discrete wavelengths for spectra in F) 4.54% and G) 0.454% phantoms ...
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a widely used medical tool that relies on magnetic fields and ra- dio waves to visualize the bodys inter- nal structures, especially soft tissues, may soon become even more useful.. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has devel- oped the first "phantom" for calibrat- ing MRI machines that is traceable to standardized values. The proto- type, named Phannie, was developed in collaboration with the standards committee of the International Soci- ety for Magnetic Res-onance in Medicine(ISMRM).. Traceable MRI cal-ibrations are expected to enable accurate, quantitative measure-ments of tumors and other disease markers that can be re-produced across many different patients, scanners and clinics over time and potentially reduce medical costs.. The NIST phantom is a plastic sphere about the size of a persons head, filled with water-bathed grids of 100 small plastic spheres containing various salt solutions that become magnetized in a magnetic ...
Kyoto Kagaku is the leading manufacturer of medical and nursing simulators, training models and phantoms for ultrasound and radiology from Japan since 1895.
The SPACEFAN-ST provides high quality training for routine second trimester screening. This phantom contains a 23 week fetus with full anatomy placed in the uterus that can be scanned with 2D and 3D transducers.
A phantom for a nuclear imaging system is provided. In particular, systems and method are provided for a phantom including a pattern plate having a plurality of passages and a plurality of channels sequentially interconnecting each of the plurality of cylindrical cavities.
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Global Technologies is an authorized dealer for the SOMSO and CLA Models, supplying Medical Phantoms including the CLA 8/58 Intubation Phantom of New-Born Baby.
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PURPOSE: In gated cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), image reconstruction is often hampered by various degrading factors including depth-dependent spatial blurring, attenuation, scatter, motion blurring, and low data counts. Consequently, there has been significant development in image reconstruction methods for improving the quality of reconstructed images. The goal of this work is to investigate how these degrading factors will impact the reconstructed myocardium when different reconstruction methods are used. METHODS: The authors conduct a comparative study of the effects of these degrading factors on the accuracy of myocardium by several reconstruction algorithms, including (1) a clinical spatiotemporal processing method, (2) maximum likelihood (ML) estimation, (3) 3D maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation, (4) 3D MAP with posttemporal filtering, and (5) motion-compensated spatiotemporal (4D) reconstruction. To quantify the reconstruction results, the authors use the
An ultrasound imaging system superimposes sectional views created from volumetric ultrasound data and the location data for an intervention device, such as a catheter. The position of an interventional medical device may be shown, in one or more views, relative to organs and tissues within a body as the interventional device is moved. The interventional device positional data is updated continuously and is superimposed on tissue images that may be updated less frequently, resulting in real-time or near real-time images of the interventional device relative to the tissues. The superimposed images permits medical personnel to perform procedures such as angiograms with minimal or no exposure of patients to x-rays and contrasting dye. The look and feel of the familiar fluoroscopy-like imaging may be maintained, or a three dimensional real-time, or near real-time projected image of the intervention medical device relative to an organ or tissue may be provided.
I(KAS) is important in maintaining repolarization reserve and preventing TdP in HF ventricles. Sampling with partial replacement can also be very efficient in biological and environmental studies where estimation of toxicants and its trends over time is viagra boots the main interest. Position-dependent scatter response functions: will they make viagra connect a difference in SPECT conducted with homogeneous cylindrical phantoms? Use of hierarchical models to analyze European trends in congenital anomaly prevalence.. Enantioselective synthesis of indole-fused dihydropyranones via catalytic cycloaddition of ketenes and 3-alkylenyloxindoles. Association of IL-4 promoter polymorphisms viagra connect questionnaire with asthma: a meta-analysis. The pattern M2a was reported for the majority of isolates from pigs but also was common in small rodents isolates.. The attenuation of these parameters provides two measures for the influence of a finite coating thickness and underlying viagra for female rigid ...
SPEAGs accessories to the EM Phantoms include precisely designed fixture and positioners, alignment tools, and head masks. They enable easy, accurate and repeatable positioning of mobile phones in the hand and at the head according to the CTIA Test Plan for Wireless Device Over-the-Air Performance.
Thermal dosimetry studies of the Helios ultrasound system were performed in a tissue-equivalent phantom and in porcine tissues in vivo. SAR distributions in the phantom demonstrate the adjustability of the power deposition pattern from the 50 cm diameter annular array of 30 transducers. Examples are given of well-localized SAR patterns (< 3 cm diameter) in the phantom, and of peripherally enhanced (doughnut-shaped) SAR patterns up to 10 cm in diameter at the focal plane. In vivo trials in porcine thigh muscle demonstrate the ability of the Helios system to produce regions of therapeutic heating (42-45 degrees C) as small as 20 cm3 and as large as 200 cm3 at depths of greater than 10 cm at a frequency of 0.5 MHz. Keywords: ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - A new CT reconstruction technique using adaptive deformation recovery and intensity correction (ADRIC). AU - Zhang, You. AU - Ma, Jianhua. AU - Iyengar, Puneeth. AU - Zhong, Yuncheng. AU - Wang, Jing. PY - 2017/6/1. Y1 - 2017/6/1. N2 - Purpose: Sequential same-patient CT images may involve deformation-induced and nondeformation-induced voxel intensity changes. An adaptive deformation recovery and intensity correction (ADRIC) technique was developed to improve the CT reconstruction accuracy, and to separate deformation from non-deformation-induced voxel intensity changes between sequential CT images. Materials and methods: ADRIC views the new CT volume as a deformation of a prior high-quality CT volume, but with additional non-deformation-induced voxel intensity changes. ADRIC first applies the 2D-3D deformation technique to recover the deformation field between the prior CT volume and the new, to-be-reconstructed CT volume. Using the deformation-recovered new CT volume, ADRIC ...
Mathematic model observers that predict human performance are of interest in medical imaging as substitutes in psychophysical studies. We have examined the correlations between human observers and several forms of the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) for a tumor detection task with simulated SPECT liver images that were used to study the effects of scatter and scatter correction on detection. METHODS: A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) study was devised to investigate the relative value of a scatter-subtraction strategy in SPECT imaging. The study used simulated images of the biodistribution of 99mTc-labeled FO23C5 anticarcinoembryonic antigen antibodies within the liver. Projection data for 3 separate tumor locations and 5 strategies for handling scatter were obtained using Monte Carlo software applied to an anthropomorphic phantom. The strategies were (a) perfect scatter rejection, (b) no scatter correction, (c) no scatter correction under an assumption of an elevated amount of scatter,
The systems performance was quantitatively characterized by deriving the systems point spread function (PSF). Based on in vitro micrographs, axonal projections were assumed to have negligible diameters relative to the PSF, and therefore their observed width was used as a conservative estimate of the PSF. Intensity profiles were taken along 20 cross-sections of axonal projections from a fundus image of an anesthetized ChR2-expressing mouse, as illustrated in Figure 4A, and were fitted with a Gaussian curve, according to a minimum mean squared error criterion. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of each of the fitted curves was evaluated (Fig. 4B) and the PSF, which was estimated as the mean FWHM, had a diameter of 18.3 ± 0.7 μm (average value ± SEM, n = 4 eyes). In order to estimate the effect of motion due to breathing on resolution (in the head-fixed animal), the PSF from a live animal (18.5 ± 1.2 μm, average value ± SEM) was compared to that of the same animal after euthanization ...
Background. The ability to measure and quantify myocardial motion and deformation provides a useful tool to assist in the diagnosis, prognosis and management of heart disease. The recent development of magnetic resonance imaging methods, such as harmonic phase analysis of tagging and displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE), make detailed non-invasive 3D kinematic analyses of human myocardium possible in the clinic and for research purposes. A robust analysis method is required, however.. Methods. We propose to estimate strain using a polynomial function which produces local models of the displacement field obtained with DENSE. Given a specific polynomial order, the model is obtained as the least squares fit of the acquired displacement field. These local models are subsequently used to produce estimates of the full strain tensor.. Results. The proposed method is evaluated on a numerical phantom as well as in vivo on a healthy human heart. The evaluation showed that the proposed ...
The main focus of my work is the physics of arterial disease. Physical quantities such as blood velocity, wall shear stress and wall stiffness provide a description of the haemodynamic and mechanical environment of arteries. These physical quantities are used in improving an understanding of the function of arteries and in clinical diagnosis to predict future events such as stroke and heart attack. I use a number of different medical imaging systems to obtain data from individual patients; this data may be used in its own right or integrated with computational modelling to provide data not obtainable from medical imaging (especially on wall stress). The measurement of physical quantities must involve a consideration of measurement accuracy. For this purpose measurement errors are evaluated using experimental phantoms which simulate the key characteristics of the arteries (both mechanical and imaging properties). In addition simulation of the imaging process may be performed for the purposes of ...
A phantom for teaching and practicing transvaginal and transabdominal ultrasound procedures as well as learning to identify a range of pathologies.
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Find trailers, reviews, synopsis, awards and cast information for Lost in Space: The Phantom Family (1967) - Ezra Stone on AllMovie - Will (Bill Mumy) returns to the settlement to…
The thyroid biopsy training phantom contains the right and left lobes, the trachea, several veins & lesions with different echogenicity levels
AutoMeter Phantom II has a subtle black bezel and a stark white face with black lettering. Features: LED digital display 0-4v Data Output Feed for ECU, data
KontrolFreek® Perfect Arsenal™ Phantom comes with three different thumbstick options, giving gamers the versatility to adapt to any range in any game.
PSP Online! Guild of talented individuals experienced in most forms and aspects of show productions. Performance in Improv, Sketch, Satire,Parody, and more! Online Resumes, Shows, FAQ, Contact sheet, photos, scripts, and more!
Hey guys, One of my Black Phantom Tetras (a first addition to my 75gal) has two raised spots at the base of her (red fins) tail. I ruled out ich, because they dont appear to be white and they seem much larger than grains of salt. I dont think its black spot disease, because from the pictures it seems like the spots wouldnt be raised. Im not sure if its a parasite, but the bump doesnt seem to be circular. I cant figure this out. Ive looked online for a similar disease, but cant
Acting as his own cinematographer, Paul Thomas Anderson films the initial scenes of Phantom Thread with the same overlit, finely detailed close-u
Originally released as a Japanese exclusive by Microsoft, Phantom Dust became another lost cause in the Land of the Rising Sun. Considering the Japanese release of PD offered English voice and text, it seemed only a matter of time before it was brought over to the US. Majesco wisely stepped up to the plate. The US version is identical to its Japanese counterpart, expect it retails for a mere $20. Worth it? Oh, yeah.
At next months Geneva Motor Show, the worlds leading luxury carmaker will be saying goodbye to the Phantom coupé and its drophead counterpart with a special highly desirable Zenith editions, strictly limited to 50 examples.
El nuevo trabajo de The Phantom Keys nos llega de la mano de los incansables FOLC Records. Dos nuevos temas para caerse de espaldas, un tema propio de corte garagero psicodélico y la versión del clásico de R&B, Just A Little Bit (renombrada por la banda como Just A Little Beat), de Rosco Gordon. ¡Un discazo, vaya! ...
I remember the spring of 99, waiting in a line of over a hundred for like 2 hours so I could see the very first showing of the Phantom Menace, the first new Star Wars movie in about 15 years. I was too little to remember the other ones in the theater but the Star Wars franchise was one of my all time favorites, like just about everyone else on the planet. I had no doubts it was going to be awesome, I mean, it was the freaking Star Wars franchise, theres no way theyd ever make a bad Star
Wee Willie Winkie Under the Deodars The Phantom Rickshaw and other stories by Rudyard Kipling and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at AbeBooks.com.
Preview and download your favorite episodes of Danny Phantom, Season 1, or the entire season. Buy the season for $12.99. Episodes start at $1.99.
A Long Time Ago In A Galaxy Far, Far Away. A Trade Dispute On The Planet Naboo Has Led To... Watch Star Wars: The Phantom Menace trailer at Contactmusic.com. Directed by George Lucas and Starring Liam Neeson, Ewan McGregor, Natalie Portman, Jake Lloyd, Ian McDiarmid, Pernilla August, Oliver Ford Davies, Hugh Quarshie, Ahmed Best, Anthony Daniels, Kenny Baker, Frank Oz, Terence Stamp, Star Wars
Pretty sure this is old news and a many-times told story, but I had such an enjoyable first day. The Phantom arrived yesterday while I was out of...
Lyrics to Phantom Heart by Nails: Love has a sister / Shes called desire / One lifts you up / I said the other one takes you higher / The
Ultrasonic probe and aligned needle guide system | Subject information acquisition apparatus | Radiation imaging apparatus and radiation imaging system | Computed tomography apparatus and method of controlling X-ray by using the same | Radiographic apparatus |
The acquisition of data for cardiac imaging using a C-arm CT system requires several seconds and multiple heartbeats. Hence, incorporation of motion correction in the reconstruction step may improve the resulting image quality. Cardiac motion can be estimated by deformable 3-D/3-D registration performed on initial 3-D images of different heart phases. This motion information can be used for a motion-compensated reconstruction allowing the use of all acquired data for image reconstruction. However, the result of the registration procedure and hence the estimated deformations are influenced by the quality of the initial 3-D images. In this paper, the sensitivity of the 3-D/3-D registration step to the image quality of the initial images is studied. Different reconstruction algorithms are evaluated for a recently proposed cardiac C-arm CT acquisition protocol. The initial 3-D images are all based on retrospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated data. ECG-gating of data from a single C-arm rotation ...
The rotating radiofrequency coil (RRFC) has been developed recently as an alternative approach to multi-channel phased-array coils. The single-element RRFC avoids inter-channel coupling and allows a larger coil element with better B1 field penetration when compared with an array counterpart. However, dedicated image reconstruction algorithms require accurate estimation of temporally varying coil sensitivities to remove artefacts caused by coil rotation. Various methods have been developed to estimate unknown sensitivity profiles from a few experimentally measured sensitivity maps, but these methods become problematic when the RRFC is used as a transceiver coil ...
Mean Time to Enhance (MTE) represents the average time for the entire bolus of injected contrast to pass through a region of tissue. Absolute values of MTE are therefore highly dependent on the shape (compactness) of the arriving contrast bolus and to a lesser degree on tissue perfusion. Although frequently confused, it is important to recognize that MTE is not the same as Mean Transit Time (MTT), which reflects the average time for a single contrast molecule (not the entire bolus) to pass through tissue. In simulations, MTE can be up to 3x longer than true MTT. The uncertainty is compounded in that vendors have slightly different names and methods for computing MTE, including calculating the first moment (centroid) of the NEI or using its full width at half maximum (FWHM). Some software applications also provide a simplified estimate of relative blood flow (rBF) from this data, calculated as NEI/MTE. Although an analog for true blood flow (BF = BV/MTT), the limitations and errors in this ...
locks only index records, not the gaps before them, and thus permits the free insertion of new records next to locked records. Gap locking is only used for foreign-key constraint checking and duplicate-key checking. Because gap locking is disabled, phantom problems may occur, as other sessions can insert new rows into the gaps. For information about phantoms, see Section 14.5.4, "Phantom Rows". If you use ...
I started with the tricopter in 2011, got the TBS discovery with DJI naza in 2012 (which was my first GPS position hold, return home platform back then!). Later got into AP ships with brushless gimbals (DJI Phantom2, Black Snapper, Xugong). I still fly the Phantom 2 from time to time - but a 2axis gimbal just doesnt look good anymore :) Tried the Inspire1 and the Phantom4 when I had the chance to - but after the first playing around with it I didnt actually buy one (cause I had so many similar drones already ...
My friend knew Carlin from HBO. Through HBO and my friend, I became aware of things like "The Exorcist," and Monty Python, and Phantom of Paradise, which was a rock n roll musical take-off of Phantom of the Opera. Unlike "The Exorcist," which thankfully I didnt see until years later, I did watch Phantom of Paradise as a 9-year-old and it freaked me out. I didnt sleep the whole night. The main actor in the movie, Paul Williams, briefly became the representation of all that was weird and perplexing in adult life ...
CiteSeerX - Scientific articles matching the query: Correction for Collimator-Detector Response in SPECT Using Point Spread Function Template
The aim of this project is to improve the well-known methods of continuous and discrete tomography. We study image processing methods that can be applied directly on the projections to improve reconstruction quality. We improve techniques to measure the quality of the reconstructed images, and develop image reconstruction methods based on parallel processing using GPUs. We also investigate which are the most valuable projections, if the reconstruction is performed from just a few of them ...
Get detailed information on the diffraction pattern called the point spread function. Furthermore, understand the principles of deconvolution and convolution of objects thanks to thorough explanations.
Triangulation range finders are exactly the opposite. They have a limited range of some meters, but their accuracy is relatively high. The accuracy of triangulation range finders is on the order of tens of micrometers.. Time-of-flight scanners accuracy can be lost when the laser hits the edge of an object because the information that is sent back to the scanner is from two different locations for one laser pulse. The coordinate relative to the scanners position for a point that has hit the edge of an object will be calculated based on an average and therefore will put the point in the wrong place. When using a high resolution scan on an object the chances of the beam hitting an edge are increased and the resulting data will show noise just behind the edges of the object. Scanners with a smaller beam width will help to solve this problem but will be limited by range as the beam width will increase over distance. Software can also help by determining that the first object to be hit by the laser ...
Triangulation range finders are exactly the opposite. They have a limited range of some meters, but their accuracy is relatively high. The accuracy of triangulation range finders is on the order of tens of micrometers.. Time-of-flight scanners accuracy can be lost when the laser hits the edge of an object because the information that is sent back to the scanner is from two different locations for one laser pulse. The coordinate relative to the scanners position for a point that has hit the edge of an object will be calculated based on an average and therefore will put the point in the wrong place. When using a high resolution scan on an object the chances of the beam hitting an edge are increased and the resulting data will show noise just behind the edges of the object. Scanners with a smaller beam width will help to solve this problem but will be limited by range as the beam width will increase over distance. Software can also help by determining that the first object to be hit by the laser ...
Poster (2012, September). PET studies provide valuable information in the assessment of animal models for human diseases. MicroPET systems provide the high resolution needed to explore small organs but suffer from a reduced axial ... [more ▼]. PET studies provide valuable information in the assessment of animal models for human diseases. MicroPET systems provide the high resolution needed to explore small organs but suffer from a reduced axial FOV. Multiple bed positions are then used to obtain whole body scans resulting in increased scan time and incomplete dynamic data. In contrast, human PET systems have larger axial FOV but a lower resolution. In this study, an image-based model of the scanner spatial response function combined with a 3D-OSEM reconstruction algorithm were used to improve spatial resolution of the Siemens ECAT EXACT HR+ PET scanner. A stationary double Gaussian model [1] of the ECAT EXACT HR+ point spread function was derived from 18F point source measurements performed at ...
Dataset: SlicerRT_WorldCongress_TutorialIGRT_Dataset The tutorial dataset is a two-timepoint phantom dataset taken from a RANDO head&neck phantom. It contains two studies, the planning one is a DICOM study consisting of a CT grayscale image and radiotherapy data: contours, dose distribution, treatment beams, plan information. The second timepoint consists of a CT NRRD volume and a dose NRRD volume ...
Dataset: SlicerRT_WorldCongress_TutorialIGRT_Dataset The tutorial dataset is a two-timepoint phantom dataset taken from a RANDO head&neck phantom. It contains two studies, the planning one is a DICOM study consisting of a CT grayscale image and radiotherapy data: contours, dose distribution, treatment beams, plan information. The second timepoint consists of a CT NRRD volume and a dose NRRD volume ...
Universal filtered multi-carrier (UFMC) systems offer a flexibility of filtering arbitrary number of subcarriers to suppress out of band (OoB) emission, while keeping the orthogonality between subbands and subcarriers within one subband. However, subband filtering may affect system performance and capacity in a number of ways. In this paper, we first propose the conditions for interference-free one-tap equalization and corresponding signal model in the frequency domain for multi-user (MU) UFMC system. Based on this ideal interference-free case, impact of subband filtering on the system performance is analyzed in terms of average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) per subband, capacity per subcarrier and bit error rate (BER) and compared with the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system. This is followed by filter length selection strategies to provide guidelines for system design. Next, by taking carrier frequency offset (CFO), timing offset (TO), insufficient guard interval between ...
In a 3D angio-volume reconstruction method for a three-dimensional subject based on 2D projection exposures, shadowing artifacts are avoided by producing a 3D angio-volume dataset based on 2D mask images and a 3D angio-volume dataset based on 2D fill images, and a vessel tree is isolated in the fill volume dataset by a segmentation and is added to the mask image volume dataset after scaling.
Another assumption that I had made was that I could change the frequency coverage by changing the TRF interstage coils with other coils wound for a different frequency. The coils supplied with the Phantom were marked "A" on the bottom along with the number of the stage that the coil was intended to be plugged into. The Leutz ad specifies the Type A coils as having a wavelength range of 200 to 560 meters or 1500 KHz to 536 KHz. This range is almost exactly what I had measured in the operational tests.. Other coils were available for the short and long-wave bands for an extra charge. Regrettably no specific information is given on what other frequencies could be tuned using these coils.. Power Supply Details. The Phantom was designed primarily to operate completely from AC power for "A" (filament), "B" (plate), and "C" (grid bias) voltages. While it could be operated from batteries, it would have been very inconvenient.. The AC filament current for the audio output tubes and the various plate, ...
The age at which women begin to menstruate, number of pregnancies and the age when first pregnant also influence risk of later cancer of the breast. It might be reassuring to American consumers to know just how much weve learned about why cancer develops - and that weve learned a great deal both about prevention (with drugs as well as lifestyle changes mainly dealing with anti-smoking education) as well as treating it through surgery and pharmaceuticals. Early detection utilizing evidence-based screening tools, especially mammography and colonoscopy, have contributed to declining cancer mortality rates.. But instead of encouraging the public and medical professionals to focus on the well-established cancer causes, government and environmental activists chase after the phantom of trace levels of industrial chemicals, hoping to find a big-business scapegoat for our health fears. Worse, we enshrine these phantom cancer fears in regulation. Those regulations in turn shift the focus of scientific ...
Hello, My P3 arrived yesterday and works great! The only thing is my gimbal is slightly tilted to right. Can somebody help me where I can find a gimbal...
From cells and tissues in our body to fish schools in the Atlantic, active matter appears around us in various shapes and sizes. The physics of active matter has evolved into an extremely active field of research in last few years. Active particles can consume energy from their environment to move, interact and even grow. These non-equilibrium driven systems show dynamics that are unlikely or impossible in passive thermodynamic systems. In this talk Ill discuss two examples of active systems from my research: traffic jams, and driven microtubule networks. For the first part of the talk, Ill show how active granular particles can be used to create and study a miniature traffic jam in lab. For the second part, Ill talk about how we use local interactions among microtubules to create a global extensile or contractile state.. ...
That must be what Im going through now. My period was due the 1st of March. Well here it is the 11th and nothing. But yet my breasts are sore, Ive had slight period like cramping the entire time but no bleeding. I figure it will show up sometime maybe!!! But Im used to my breasts getting sore well in advance of my period. I will have several in a row right on time and then I get this weird stuff like I have now. If they are going to stop I wish they would ...
While the characters are talking to Brother Splintershield one of the settlers cries out in alarm and everyone on the compound turn to face a ghostly apparition of a magnificent tower. The apparition, rises to its full height and in another instant, solidifies. This tower looks unscathed and as solid as the day it was built. After the initial cry of alarm, one of the settlers reaches out to touch the stone of the building, but Brandis cries out not to. Too late, the settlers hand comes to rest on the....solid stone! After Brother Splintershields surprised look at the apparition, immediately cries for his alcolytes to position themselves for the casting of the ritual ...