Secretory IgA (S-IgA) is a hallmark antibody principally produced at mucosal sites and plays an important role in the creation of immunological surveillance and homeostasis at mucosa. In addition to the IgA induction through gut-associated lymphoid tissues (e.g., Peyers patch), peritoneal B cells have been considered to be another source of S-IgA, especially specific for the T-independent antigen. Here we show that the trafficking of peritoneal B cells is principally regulated by sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). Peritoneal B cells expressed high levels of the type 1 S1P receptor. Thus, disruption of S1P-mediated signaling caused a rapid disappearance of peritoneal B cells. These changes did not affect natural plasma antibody production or phosphorylcholine (PC)-specific antibody production in serum after peritoneal immunization with heat-killed streptococcal pneumoniae. However, it dramatically reduced peritoneal B cell-derived natural intestinal S-IgA production without affecting the expression ...
The in vitro differentiation of homogeneous populations of monocyte-like cells from the unstimulated mouse peritoneal cavity is described. Under the conditions employed, a progressive increase in cell size occurs without significant cell division. This process is characterized morphologically by the accumulation of phase-dense and neutral red-positive granules, mitochondria, and lipid droplets. The phase-dense granules react strongly for acid phosphatase. Biochemical determinations indicate marked increases in the total content and specific activity of acid phosphatase, cathepsin, and ß-glucuronidase. The production of acid phosphatase is more rapid and extensive than that of the other two hydrolases. From these data it appears that the conversion of a monocyte-like cell to a mature macrophage is accompanied by the formation of increased numbers of lysosome-like cytoplasmic organelles. Mouse peritoneal phagocytes stimulated in vivo with a bacterial lipopolysaccharide undergo a similar series of ...
Results The recruitment of the polymorphonuclear cells induced by MSU injection into mouse peritoneal cavity was reduced by 35% with γ3MSH (1 nmol), whereas administration of a much lower dose of purified latent LAP-MMP-γ3MSH (0.03 nmol) attenuated leucocyte influx by 50%. Intramuscular gene delivery of plasmids coding LAP-MMP-VIP and LAP-MMP-αMSH at disease onset reduced the development of CIA compared with LAP-MMP, which does not contain any therapeutic moiety. Histological analysis confirmed a significantly lower degree of inflammation, bone and cartilage erosion in groups treated with LAP-MMP-VIP or LAP-MMP-αMSH. Antibody titres to collagen type II and inflammatory cytokine production were also reduced in these two groups.. ...
The peritoneal cavity is the space in our body which encloses certain vital organs. Here is a Buzzle post that gives you information on its location, the organs it contains, the peritoneal fluid, and some of the diseases associated with it.
The peritoneal cavity is a potential space between the parietal and visceral peritoneum. It contains only a thin film of peritoneal fluid, which consists of water, electrolytes, leukocytes and antibodies.
BioAssay record AID 178884 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was tested in vivo against rat anaphylaxis in the peritoneal cavity at concentration of 100 umol/kg; Not active.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antigen-pulsed neutrophils bearing Ia antigens can induce T lymphocyte proliferative response to the syngeneic or semisyngeneic antigen-primed T lymphocytes. AU - Okuda, K.. AU - Tani, K.. AU - Ishigatsubo, Y.. AU - Yokota, S.. AU - David, C. S.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - Antigen-pulsed neutrophils from mouse peritoneal cavities displayed a remarkable level of lymphocyte proliferative activities to antigen-primed T lymphocytes. Genetic mapping studies demonstrated that compatibility at the I-A, as well as I-E/C, subregions of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) was essential for effective presentation of the lysozyme antigen. These antigen-presenting activities were remarkably inhibited by anti-Ia sera. Inhibition tests revealed that neutrophil immune-associated (Ia) antigens seem to be essential for antigen presentation during the initial 8 hr. Elimination studies of antigen-pulsed neutrophils with alloantisera plus complement revealed these antigen-presenting ...
Lesser peritoneal cavity definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
The experiments used 76 adult male albino rats weighing 250-320 g. The animals were housed singly in hanging wire cages for at least 1 wk before experiments and had free access to food, water, and 2% NaCl. Room lights were on for 14 h/day, and temperature was controlled at 23°C.. Sodium appetite was stimulated by an acute body sodium depletion induced by PD. The technique, described previously (9), consisted of an intraperitoneal injection of a 5% glucose solution warmed at 37°C, in a volume equivalent to 10% of rat body weight. After 1 h, the ascitic fluid was recovered by inserting a needle into the peritoneal cavity. The amount of NaCl withdrawn by this method in the dialyzed or experimental group (experimental) was 0.84 ± 0.02 meq/100 g body wt (mean ± SE, n = 18). In control sham-depleted rats (control sham), no injection was given but the needle was inserted into the peritoneal cavity. Dialyzed and control rats were caged individually without food and with distilled water as the only ...
Ascites The term Ascites defines fluid accumulation in the peritoneal cavity.The condition is also known as peritoneal cavity fluid, peritoneal… Read More ». ...
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Surgery - a laparotomy is performed. This will only be performed after a reasonable urine output has been attained. This will try to repair the perforation, and the contents of the peritoneal cavity will be washed out. The surgery often has two purposes in that it will sort out the underlying problem as well as treat the peritonitis. Some surgeons like to use an antibiotic wash, however there is no evidence to suggest this is more effective that just using saline solution ...
The diaphragm is a partition that separates the peritoneal cavity from the pericardial and pleural cavities. At this time it is largely composed of the septum transversum ...
Cytotoxic effects of MWCNTs-COOH and MWCNTs-PEG on macrophages.(A) RAW 264.7 cells and (B) primary rat peritoneal macrophages were incubated with or without ind
search results: communication between peritoneal cavity and extra-embryonic coelom Search 11-202 11-214 11-217 11-220 11-223 11-232 11-244 11-250 11-259 11-304 11-313 12-234 12-246 12-252 12-261 12-284 ...
A self-mode-locked ring cavity laser incorporating a laser crystal such as Ti:Sapphire includes an external cavity for producing self-starting of mode-locked operation. The external cavity receives a portion of one of the continuous wave beams from the ring cavity modulates it, and retroreflects it back to the ring cavity to initiate mode-locked unidirectional operation. The unidirectional mode-locked operation is in a direction which decouples the external cavity.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanism of bradykinin-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. AU - Zhao, Qiu E.. AU - Mihara, Takuma. AU - Sugimoto, Yukio. AU - Kamei, Chiaki. PY - 1996/2. Y1 - 1996/2. N2 - Bradykinin at concentrations higher than 2 μM caused a significant histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells when extracellular Ca2+ was removed from the medium. Under the same experimental conditions, bradykinin increased Ca2+ release from the intracellular Ca store of the rat peritoneal mast cells, and a clear relationship was observed between the magnitude of histamine release and an increase in fluorescence intensity. Addition of Ca2+ to the medium resulted in an inhibition of the response to bradykinin in a concentration-dependent manner. Almost the same results were obtained when Mg2+, Ba2+ and La3+ were added to the medium. Neither B1 nor B2 antagonists caused significant antagonistic effects on histamine release induced by bradykinin. However, B2 antagonists caused a ...
Latexin, a protein possessing inhibitory activity against rat carboxypeptidase A1 (CPA1) and CPA2, is expressed in a neuronal subset in the cerebral cortex and cells in other neural and non-neural tissues of rat. Although latexin also inhibits mast-cell CPA (MCCPA), the expression of latexin in rat mast cells has not previously been confirmed. In the present study we examined the expression and subcellular localization of latexin in rat peritoneal mast cells. Western blot and reverse-transcriptase-mediated PCR analyses showed that latexin was contained and expressed in the rat peritoneal mast cells. Immunocytochemically, latexin immunofluorescence was localized on granular structures distinct from MCCPA-, histamine- or cathepsin D-immunopositive granules. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that latexin was associated with a minority population of granules. The latexin-associated granules were separated from MCCPA- or histamine-containing granules on a self-generating density gradient of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - ATP-induced pore formation in the plasma membrane of rat peritoneal mast cells. AU - Hofmann, Polly. AU - Metzger, Joseph M.. AU - Greaser, Marion L.. AU - Moss, Richard L.. PY - 1990/3/1. Y1 - 1990/3/1. N2 - Various functional roles for myosin light chain 2 (LC2) have been suggested on the basis of numerous and predominantly in vitro biochemical studies. Using skinned fibers from rabbit psoas muscle, the present study examines the influence of partial removal of LC2 on isometric tension, stiffness, and maximum velocity of shortening at various levels of activation by Ca2+. Isometric tension, stiffness, and velocity of shortening were measured at pCa values between 6.6 and 4.5 (a) in a control fiber segment, (b) in the same fiber segment after partial removal of LC2, and (c) after recombination with LC2. The extraction solution contained 20 mM EDTA, 20 or 50 mM KC1, and either imidazole or PO4 2− as a pH buffer (pH 7.0). The amount of LC2 extracted varied with the temperature, ...
CA125 is a well-established ovarian cancer (OC) serum biomarker. The CA125 heavily glycosylated epitope is carried by the MUC16 mucin, a high molecular weight transmembrane mucin. Upon proteolytic cleavage, the extracellular domain of MUC16 is released from the cell surface into malignant ascites and blood vessels. Previous studies have shown that both tumor and surrounding mesothelial cells may express MUC16. Although little is known about the regulation of MUC16 expression in these cells, recent evidence suggest that inflammatory cytokines may stimulate MUC16 expression. Because malignant ascites is a pro-inflammatory environment, we investigated whether OC ascites stimulate the expression and release of MUC16 by human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs). HPMCs were isolated from peritoneal lavages of women operated for conditions other than cancer. MUC16 protein expression was determined by immunoblot, immunofluorescence or immunohistochemistry depending on the experiments. The release of MUC16 from
Background. Peritoneal mesothelial cells play an important role in peritoneal dialysis and are often exposed to dialysis fluid containing high glucose levels. Loss of peritoneal function is a major complication associated with long-term peritoneal dialysis. In this study, we hypothesized that high glucose levels induce apoptosis, and that insulin attenuates this apoptosis in peritoneal mesothelial cells. To clarify this hypothesis, we examined the effects of insulin on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway and apoptosis in rat peritoneal mesothelial cells.. Methods. Phosphorylated insulin receptor and Akt were detected by western blot analysis. Apoptosis was evaluated by measuring caspase 3 activity and by TUNNEL staining.. Results. Insulin (100 nmol/L) increased tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor in peritoneal mesothelial cells. Furthermore, insulin (1-100 nmol/L) dose-dependently stimulated Akt phosphorylation. Treatment with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase ...
Advanced ovarian cancer is characterized by peritoneal metastasis and the accumulation of ascites. Peritoneal metastasis of ovarian cancer is a major cause of the negative treatment outcome, as these metastases are resistant to most chemotherapy regimens. The aim of this study was to clarify aggressive pathology of peritoneal metastasis and examine the therapeutic efficacy of a liposomal agent in the model. A human cancer cell line ES-2 of ovarian clear cell carcinoma, known as a chemotherapy-resistant cancer, was cultured in nonadherent plate to form spheroid and single cell suspension was transplanted into mouse peritoneal cavity. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathways in the cellular aggregates were analyzed both spheroid and ascites. The pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy of CPT-11 (45 mg/kg) and IHL-305 (45 mg/kg), an irinotecan-encapsulated liposome, were examined by intravenous administration. Established peritoneal metastasis model showed an accumulation of ascites. The
This study shows that in mice selectively depleted of neutrophils by treatment with a monoclonal antibody, RB6-8C5, listeriosis is severely exacerbated in the liver, but not in the spleen or peritoneal cavity during the crucial first day of infection. At sites of infection in the livers of neutrophil-depleted mice, Listeria monocytogenes grew to large numbers inside hepatocytes. By contrast, in the livers of normal mice neutrophils rapidly accumulated at infectious foci and this was associated with the lysis of infected hepatocytes that served to abort infection in these permissive cells. In the spleen the situation was different, in that depletion of neutrophils did not result in appreciable exacerbation of infection. In this organ intact infected cells, many of which appeared to be fibroblast-like stromal cells, were found at foci of infection in the presence or absence of large numbers of neutrophils. This suggests that neutrophils are less effective at destroying L. monocytogenes-infected ...
Peritoneal dialysis uses the inside lining of your abdomen (the peritoneum) as the filter, rather than a machine. Like the kidneys, the peritoneum contains thousands of tiny blood vessels, making it a useful filtering device.. Before treatment starts, an incision is made near your belly button and a thin tube called a catheter is inserted through the incision and into the space inside your abdomen (the peritoneal cavity). This is left in place permanently.. Fluid is pumped into the peritoneal cavity through the catheter. As blood passes through the blood vessels lining the peritoneal cavity, waste products and excess fluid are drawn out of the blood and into the dialysis fluid. The used fluid is drained into a bag a few hours later and replaced with fresh fluid.. Changing the fluid usually takes about 30-40 minutes and normally needs to be repeated around four times a day. If you prefer, this can be done by a machine overnight while you sleep. Read more about how dialysis is performed.. ...
Stimulation with IL-4+IL-10 induces apoptosis in freshly isolated peritoneal mast cells. Peritoneal mast cells were cultured for 6 d in the indicated cytokines,
Scher, W; Ansley, H; and Ornstein, L, "Similar esterases in friend leukemia (fl) cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages (pm). Abstr." (1976). Subject Strain Bibliography 1976. 2745 ...
RNA interference is an evolutionary conserved immune response mechanism that can be used as a tool to provide novel insights into gene function and structure. The ability to efficiently deliver small interfering RNA to modulate gene expression in vivo may provide new therapeutic approaches to currently intractable diseases. In vitro, siRNA targeting IL-12p40 was delivered to the murine macrophage cell line (J774A.1) encapsulated in a liposome with an IL-12 inducing agent (LPS/IFN-γ) over a number of time points. Controls included a variety of non-target specific siRNA reagents. Supernatants were analyzed for cytokine production while the cells were removed for mRNA profiling. In vivo, siRNA-targeting IL-12p40 was delivered to the murine peritoneal cavity in a therapeutic fashion, after endotoxin (LPS) challenge. Cells from the peritoneal cavity were removed by lavage and analyzed by flow cytometry. Levels of IL-12 present in lavage and in serum were also examined by ELISA. In this report, we show that
To the Editor:. We found the study by Campbell et al1 to be very interesting, and we believe that it deserves the full attention of the tissue engineering and vascular biology scientific communities. This study offers a promising way of growing self-compatible vascular replacements, at a time when the need for transplantable vessels increases constantly.. This approach was recently criticized in a Letter to the Editor published in Circulation Research, on the grounds that the cells covering the graft are not "true" endothelial cells. However, what Cebotari et al2 documented was "a typical inflammatory reaction to the foreign body, and the cells present on the silastic tube surface are in fact inflammatory cells and do not carry a typical endothelial function." While replicating the major finding reported by Campbell et al,1 ie, the repopulation of implanted graft scaffolds in the given time period, Cebotari et al found that the supposed endothelial cells stained positively for CD31 and CD18, two ...
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Wiltrout, R H.; Brunda, M J.; Gorelik, E; Peterson, E S.; Dunn, O J.; Leonhardt, J; Varesio, L; R; and Holden, H T., "Distribution of peritoneal macrophage populations after intraven- ous injection in mice: differential effects of eliciting and activating agents." (1983). Subject Strain Bibliography 1983. 1806 ...
Definition of Peritoneal exudate with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Rectovesical pouch is the forward reflection of the peritoneum from the lower third of the rectum to the upper part of the bladder in males. Gross anatomy The rectovesical pouch is the lowest part of the peritoneal cavity and usually contains l...
Ascites: Ascites, accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity, between the membrane lining the abdominal wall and the membrane covering the abdominal organs. The most common causes of ascites are cirrhosis of the liver, heart failure, tumours of the peritoneal membranes, and escape of chyle (lymph laden
The system for this is not recognized but could be triggering crucial generic pathways that suppress the proliferation of T. gondii. A latest review, using
Journal of Immunology Research is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that provides a platform for scientists and clinicians working in different areas of immunology and therapy. The journal publishes research articles, review articles, as well as clinical studies related to classical immunology, molecular immunology, clinical immunology, cancer immunology, transplantation immunology, immune pathology, immunodeficiency, autoimmune diseases, immune disorders, and immunotherapy.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of 0.9% NaCl and other solutions suitable for peritoneal lavage on in vitro viability and fibrinolytic activity of human peritoneal mesothelial cells.Material and methods. Mesothelial cells were isolated from the intra-operatively collected greater omentum specimens and then cultured. Subsequently, eight cultures (n=8) were incubated for six hours with M199 culture medium (control group) or culture medium with the addition of 0.9% NaCl, PD fluid Gambrosol-Trio 10 or Hanks' solution. Immediately after exposure to the studied solutions, the amount of LDH released by the cultured cells was determined. Then, cultured cells were incubated for the next 24 hours; after this period their metabolism and fibrinolytic activity were determined by means of IL-6, t-PA and PAI-1 levels. Levels of these substances were compared to the amount of total cellular protein that was determined simultaneously.Results. Hanks' solution showed no significant ...
The peritoneal cavity is lined by the parietal peritoneum, a mesothelial lining. This lining is called the visceral peritoneum where it is reflected onto the enclosed abdominal organs. Its relationship to intraperitoneal structures defines discrete compartments within which abscesses may form (see Intra-abdominal Abscesses). The peritoneal surface area is a semipermeable membrane with an area comparable to that of the cutaneous body surface. Nearly 1 m2 of the total 1.7 m2 area participates in fluid exchange with the extracellular fluid space at rates of 500 mL or more per hour. Normally, there is less than 50 mL of free peritoneal fluid, a transudate with the following characteristics: specific gravity below 1.016, protein concentration less than 3 g/dL, white blood cell count less than 3000/μL, complement-mediated antibacterial activity, and lack of fibrinogen-related clot formation. The circulation of peritoneal fluid is directed toward lymphatics in the undersurface of the diaphragm. There, ...
inproceedings{226715, author = {BRUYNINCKX, W and BLANQUAERT, AM and Ysebaert, Maria and Vanneste, Walter}, language = {eng}, title = {Phagocytosis-induced functional heterogeneity of resident peritoneal macrophages. Proc. Conference of the Federation of the American Societies for Experimental Biology, Atlanta, april 1992 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biologic response to passive dissolution of titanium craniofacial microplates. AU - Jorgenson, Daniel S.. AU - Centeno, Jose A.. AU - Mayer, Michael H.. AU - Topper, Michael J.. AU - Nossov, Patricia C.. AU - Mullick, Florabel G.. AU - Manson, Paul N.. PY - 1999/4/1. Y1 - 1999/4/1. N2 - The effect of anodization on passive dissolution of titanium was studied by measuring titanium levels in peritoneal leukocytes and tissues of laboratory animals with titanium plates implanted into the peritoneal cavity. Fifteen Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned randomly to three treatment groups of five animals. One group served as controls, the other two groups had an anodized or an unanodized implant placed in the left paracolic gutter. Peritoneal lavage samples and blood samples, organ tissues and tissue surrounding the implants, were removed for histologic examination and titanium levels. Titanium was not detected in any distant organs or in the peritoneal lavage fluid. The capsular tissues ...
In 1921 Sampson proposed that menstrual cells that arrive in the peritoneal cavity by retrograde menstruation can implant and can develop further to endometriotic lesions. This theory is attractive since it has been proven that retrograde mentration occurs in most women, that this fluid contains viable cells and that these cells can inplant.Key in this theory is that endometriosis are normal cells in an abnormal environment ie the peritoneal cavity.. This theory fails to explain why progression occurs in some women only, why endometriosis is heriditary etc.. This theory is based upon the fact that mesothelial cells in the peritoneum can be transformed by menstrual blood into endometrial cells.. Progression and further development is identical to the implantation theory.. Key in this theory is that implantation/metaplasia is the most important event whereas progression will occur for unknown reasons. ...
The cannula of a conventional intravascular catheter is placed into the peritoneal cavity through a small shallow incision in antiseptically prepared skin. The stylet or trocar of the conventional catheter is removed; and a stainless steel elongated flexible guide is inserted through the catheters cannula into the peritoneal cavity. The catheters cannula is removed and a flexible elongated cannula inserted into the cavity over the guide and secured in place with a suture. Fluid operation means is connected to the elongated cannula by connector means to permit fluid treatment after removal of the guide. Apparatus to effect peritoneal fluid treatment are placed in sterile openable sealed packages for storage and transport.
compare with Fig. 26). Within it hangs this large umbilical vesicle, the lumen of which no longer connects with the alimentary canal. The separation is now complete. Around the stern of the vesicle the extra-embryonic coelom communicates freely with the body cavity, as shown in Fig. 30. This figure is from a reconstruction, and shows the general extent of the body cavity within the embryo. It encircles the heart, and then extends to the lungs and over them and to the stomach, over the intestines, and out into the cord. iA cast of the whole cavity is also given, showing the slit on the dorsal side for the mesentery of the intestine, and the grooves on either side of this for the Wolffian bodies. There are also grooves in the cast for the veins, and the place where the Cuvierian duct enters the heart is marked V The sagittal section of the peritoneal cavity is given in Fig. 32. The striated lin.e indicates where the cavity crosses the median line Fm. 32.--Outline of Coelom of the body, while the ...
a cavity in the mesoderm of an embryo that gives rise in humans to the pleural cavity and pericardial cavity and peritoneal cavity. ...
The formation of the coelomic cavity during fetal life divides the abdomen into two major parts-the peritoneal cavity and the retroperitoneum. Classically, the retroperitoneum is further subdivided...
The peritoneum is one continuous sheet, forming two layers and a potential space between them: the peritoneal cavity.. The outer layer, the parietal peritoneum, is attached to the abdominal wall and the pelvic walls.[1] The tunica vaginalis, the serous membrane covering the male testis, is derived from the vaginal process, an outpouching of the parietal peritoneum.. The inner layer, the visceral peritoneum, is wrapped around the visceral organs, located inside the intraperitoneal space for protection. It is thinner than the parietal peritoneum. The mesentery is a double layer of visceral peritoneum that attaches to the gastrointestinal tract. There are often blood vessels, nerves, and other structures between these layers. The space between these two layers is technically outside of the peritoneal sac, and thus not in the peritoneal cavity.. The potential space between these two layers is the peritoneal cavity, filled with a small amount (about 50 mL) of slippery serous fluid that allows the two ...
123 Research Paper Journal of Cancer 2011; 2: In Vivo Imaging of Human Malignant Mesothelioma Grown Orthotopically in the Peritoneal Cavity of Nude Mice Mingqian Feng 1, Jingli Zhang 1, Miriam Anver
into the persons body near the belly button. This operation happens while the person is asleep under general anesthesia. Doctors usually put the catheter in a couple of weeks before dialysis starts. That gives the area around it a chance to heal.. When its time for dialysis, the patient (or someone who is helping the patient) puts a cleaning solution called dialysate into the body through the catheter. This is done either by machine or by hanging the solution above the body and relying on gravity to do the rest.. Dialysate uses a type of sugar called dextrose to pull wastes and fluids out of the peritoneum and into the peritoneal cavity. After a set amount of time called the dwell time, the dialysate, waste products, and extra fluids are drained out of the peritoneal cavity through the catheter. Each cycle of filling and draining the peritoneal cavity is called an exchange. ...
Hamilton, T.A.; Weiel, J.E.; Adams, D.O., 1984: Expression of the transferrin receptor in murine peritoneal macrophages is modulated in the different stages of activation
The metacestode stage of the tapeworm Mesocestoides vogae (M. vogae) has the ability of asexual growth in the peritoneal cavity of rodents and other intermediate hosts without restriction. Early immunological events have decisive role in the establishment of infection. In the present study we investigated the kinetic of myeloid and lymphoid cell populations and the proportions of cells undergoing apoptosis in peritoneal cavities of mice within the first month after oral infection with M. vogae larvae. Proportions of cell phenotypes and apoptotic cells were examined by flow cytometry and by microscopical analysis of cells following May/Grünwald staining and fluorescent stain Hoechst 33234, respectively. Total numbers of peritoneal cells increased and their distribution changed towards accumulation of myelo-monocytic cell lineage in the account of reduced proportions of lymphoid cells. CD4+ T cell subpopulations were more abundant than CD8+ and their proportions elevated within two weeks post ...
This necessity for prolonged contact may prove to be important for macrophage activation. This is suggested by comparing the prolonged effects in vivo of injection of casein, on the one hand, and C. parvum or other anaerobic coryneforms on the other. Both have short-term stimulating effects on macrophages. Both casein and C. parvum are chemotactic for macrophages and both induce a macrophage exudate 2-5 days after injection into the peritoneal cavity of the guinea-pig (49). However after casein-induction, these macrophages disappear from the peritoneal cavity soon afterwards. The relevance of this mechanism to the microbicidal effect of activated macrophages is not known, especially since mature macrophages, at least in the mouse, are thought to be relatively poor in peroxidase activity (25). 2. Nonmicrobial Targets Activated macrophages appear to kill tumor cells by a nonphagocytic mechanism. Several authors have emphasized the need for a close contact between activated macrophages and target ...