Diabetes mellitus (DM) may adversely affect periodontal tissues during orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). The aim of this review is to systematically analyze and review animal studies investigating the effect of DM on periodontal tissues during OTM. An electronic search was conducted via PubMed/Medline, Google Scholar, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CONTROL) using the keywords
The use of guided tissue regeneration procedures has intensified the need to determine the types and quantity of tissues formed in healing. Regeneration is differentiated from new attachment in one basic, but very important manner: alveolar bone formation with new inserted periodontal fibers in new cementum is a prerequisite for the regeneration of periodontium (4-6). Areas of new cementum deposition without adjacent bone, and vice-versa, and areas of ankylosis, for example, do not satisfy the criteria for regeneration (7). Furthermore, recent advances in the understanding of functions and mechanisms of action of growth factors to regulate the healing process have provided evidence that these proteins may serve as therapeutic agents to enhance the healing of periodontal wounds (8-11). Sigurdsson et al. (12) found a significant enhancement in periodontal regeneration using the rhBMP-2 in dog models. They described limited root resorption and ankylosis generally limited immediately apical to the ...
Normal Periodontium and its components including gingiva, periodontal ligament, cementum, alveolar bone. Formation, classification and functions of these components.
Ye, Minglu. Noggin - an antagonist of bone morphogenetic protein - is crucial for tooth hard tissue and periodontium development. 2015, University of Zurich, Faculty of Medicine. ...
Results of the treatment of the marginal periodontium inflammation with the use of diode laser prior to orthopedic rehabilitation
Principal Investigator:HONDA Masaki, Project Period (FY):2009 - 2011, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:一般, Research Field:Dental engineering/Regenerative dentistry
HealthLink BC, your provincial health line, is as close as your phone or the web any time of the day or night, every day of the year. Call 8-1-1 toll-free in B.C. or for deaf and hearing-impaired, call 7-1-1. You can speak with a health service navigator, who can also connect you with a: ...
Principal Investigator:YAJIMA Toshihiko, Project Period (FY):1989 - 1990, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Morphological basic dentistry
Fellow Histonetters! I am having problems with background in connective tissue - specifically, sharpeys fibers from jaw bone. Has anyone encountered this before ? The dilution is OK. Other causes? Thanks AE __________________________________________________ Do You Yahoo!? Tired of spam? Yahoo! Mail has the best spam protection around http://mail.yahoo.com _______________________________________________ Histonet mailing list [email protected] http://lists.utsouthwestern.edu/mailman/listinfo/histonet ...
If your periodontium is weak, and you experience trauma to the mouth,or if the trauma hits you at the right angle with the right amount of force, you may be in the
Esthetics and Periodontium Online publication: December 24, 2009 Introductory pages (p. 1-5) Contents (p. 6-7) Scientific Editors note (p. 8) Full t...
As your cavitron buzzes away you suddenly notice that your patient is snoring in perfect rhythm with your ultrasonic scaler. You check your notes and realize that this happened at their last hygiene appointment and even the one before this. Is this normal or are your scaling skills so amazing they have a soothing effect? Probably not!!! Should this concern you? Being the caring hygienist you are and one fully skilled in the assessment of the periodontium, you start to wonder why this is happening to this patient and not others. Most of the time, patients are pale-knuckled in the chair until their treatment is complete to the point where you sometimes have to pry their fingers off the arm rest. You look at your patients file to see if there is anything that you can correlate to her sleeping episodes. Shes a petite young lady in her mid thirties. Since youve built great rapport with her, you know that she isnt married and doesnt have any children so you start to wonder. Yours and the ...
This study aimed to investigate the effect of experimental periodontitis on rat penis. Eighteen Wistar rats underwent the placement of a cotton ligature around the first molars to induce periodontitis. It was confirmed that periodontitis was induced in the group with ligature due to the greater number of osteoclasts, decreased osteocytes, greater distance from the cementoenamel junction to the alveolar crest, increase in gingival swelling (p |0.05) and intense bone resorption. Furthermore, there was a higher average concentration of IL-6 in the gingival samples and of TNFα in the penile samples of the rats with ligature (p |0.05). There was a statistically significant thicker and smaller area of the dorsal penile arteries in the experimental group, as well as a smaller area of the vascular spaces of the corpora cavernosa (p|0.05). Therefore, the systemic inflammation caused by periodontal disease can be an important risk factor for erectile dysfunction.
1. Pihlstrom BL, Michalowicz BS, Johnson NW. Periodontal diseases. Lancet 2005; 366: 1809-20. 16298220. 2. Calsina G, Ramon JM, Echeverría JJ. Effects of smoking on periodontal tissues. J Clin Periodontol. 2002; 29(8): 771-6. 12390575. 3. Haffajee AD and Socransky SS. Microbial etiological agents of destructive periodontal diseases. Periodontol 2000. 2005; 5: 78-111.. 4. Darveau RP. Periodontitis: a polymicrobial disruption of host homeostasis. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010; 7: 481-490.. 5. Dewhirst FE, Chen T, Izard J, Paster BJ, Tanner AC, Yu WH et al. The human oral microbiome. J Bacteriol. 2010; JB.00542-10.. 6. Abusleme L, Dupuy AK, Dutzan N, Silva N, Burleson JA, Strasbaugh LD, et al. The subgingival microbiome in health and periodontitis and its relationship with community biomass and inflammation. ISME J. 2013; 7: 1016-1025. doi: 10.1038/ismej.2012.174 23303375. 7. Hajishengallis G, Lamont RJ. Beyond the red complex and into more complexity: the polymicrobial synergy and dysbiosis (PSD) model ...
Forenklet retraksjon ved hjelp av et nytt og unikt kapselsystem3M ESPE Astringent Retraction Paste er indisert for temporær retraksjon av den marginale gingiva for å oppnå en tørr sulcus når periodontium er friskt, slik som:- Ved avtrykkstagning (materialbasert og digitalt)- Fremstilling av temporære kroner og broer- Legging av fyllinger i klasse II og V kaviteterProduktet må ikke brukes på pasienter som lider av sykdom i periodontium, åpne furkasjoner eller eksponert ben.Egenskaper og fordeler- Gir en ren, tørr sulcus og langvarig robust hemostase- Effektiv åpning av sulcus- Enkel og tidsbesparende retraksjonsprosess: 50% raskere- Mindre risiko for blødning etter fjerning- Vevsvennlig for bedre pasientkomfort- Enklere applisering inn i sulcus og bedre interproksimal tilgang grunnet kapselens grasile spiss- Mer hygienisk applisering, unngår problemer forårsaket av krysskontaminering (enhetsdose)- Kan appliseres med de fleste kapseldispensere for komposittRefill-Pack:25 stk kapsler ...
Orthodontic tooth movement is brought about by prolonged application of force on the attachment apparatus. This results in cellular and extracellular changes within the periodontium. As shown in numerous studies, tooth movement is achieved after the
Teeth are supported by the surrounding peridontium, which is composed of both soft (periodontal ligament and lamina propria) and hard connective tissue (cementum and bone).. It is the periodontium that provides attachment of the teeth to the jaw and, when the periodontal tissues become diseased, the resultant lack of support results in tooth loss. Age is a definite factor in such loss, although other obvious causes are decay and physical trauma.. The loss of teeth decreases the preservation of an individuals dentition and also detracts considerably from a socially acceptable appearance. In such cases, the replacement of missing teeth is accomplished by the fabrication of either a complete or partial denture, or both. Regrettably, dental care in the elderly population is often neglected. This may be due to other physical handicaps, which may restrict the patients ability to travel or in situations where the patients are confined to their homes.. ...
Teeth are supported by the surrounding peridontium, which is composed of both soft (periodontal ligament and lamina propria) and hard connective tissue (cementum and bone).. It is the periodontium that provides attachment of the teeth to the jaw and, when the periodontal tissues become diseased, the resultant lack of support results in tooth loss. Age is a definite factor in such loss, although other obvious causes are decay and physical trauma.. The loss of teeth decreases the preservation of an individuals dentition and also detracts considerably from a socially acceptable appearance. In such cases, the replacement of missing teeth is accomplished by the fabrication of either a complete or partial denture, or both. Regrettably, dental care in the elderly population is often neglected. This may be due to other physical handicaps, which may restrict the patients ability to travel or in situations where the patients are confined to their homes.. ...
The human periodontium and dental pulp cavity are closely connected by their proximity and by the presence of apical and lateral radicular foramina, which permit the passage of pathogens between these two distinct anatomical areas. The interrelationship of these structures influences each other during health, function and disease. Although there are many factors that contribute to the development and progression of endodontic and periodontal diseases, the primary cause of both diseases is the presence of bacterial infections with complex microbial flora. Etiologic factors such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses as well as other various contributing factors such as trauma, root resorptions, perforations, and dental malformations also play an important role in the development and progression of such lesions. Although disease transmission from the pulp to the periodontal tissue is possible, the influence of periodontal disease on pulpal status remains controversial. The differential diagnosis of ...
OraMD is 100% all-natural oral care product for pyorrhea treatment. It is clinically proven to kill periodontal bacteria, the leading cause of gum disease.
Due to single teeth missing for a long time in the oral cavity so-called "tooth movement" or twisting of adjacent tooth into the empty space may occur, and may therefore cause bite defects. Very often these defects are connected to inflammatory changes and diseases of gums and periodontium, making oral hygiene more difficult, and may lead to speech impediments. For those reasons the extracted tooth must be replaced to prevent negative consequences of that missing tooth.. ...
OraMD has been the trusted solution for 15 years for fighting periodontal bacteria, periodontal bacteria is the leading cause of periodontal disease
Definition of periodontal inflammation in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is periodontal inflammation? Meaning of periodontal inflammation as a legal term. What does periodontal inflammation mean in law?
Modern gum treatment and prophylaxis Periodontitis, also called periodontal disease, is a widespread inflammation of the structure that holds the teeth (periodontium), which permanently damages the periodontium and can lead to tooth loosening. Your dentis in Berlin treats Periodontitis with a special laser.
INTRODUCTION ORAL MUCOSA consists of 3 zones: 1. Masticatory mucosa-gingiva plus over hard palate 2. Specialized mucosa- over tongue 3. Oral mucous membrane- in remaining oral cavity
Gingival inflammation was lower during menstruation than during ovulation and premenstruation," said Machtei. "This may be attributed to the hormone known as serum estradiol, which is a natural form of estrogen that peaks and drops during ovulation and premenstruation." "Further studies will be required to explore the mechanism by which this phenomenon occurs, and to examine whether these transitional changes have any lasting negative effects on the periodontium," said Michael P. Rethman, D.D.S., M.S., and president of the American Academy of Periodontology. "In the meantime, patients should remember the importance of telling their dental professionals about what is going on in their bodies including any prescription or over-the-counter medications they are taking. This way dental professionals can explain any effects it has on periodontal health ...
Periodontal disease, a common inflammatory oral disease involved periodontal tissues, has been linked with the evidence of some systemic disorders. Recently, periodontal disease has been suspected ...
Periodontal disease occurs when bacteria from the mouth form on the pets teeth in a substance called plaque. The plaque makes its way under the gumline and sets in motion a vicious circle, which can eventually lead to tooth loss for the animal. The bacteria in the subgingival plaque will secrete toxins. These toxins damage the periodontal tissues and can decrease the attachment.. However, the bacteria will also elicit an inflammatory response from the animals gingival tissues. White blood cells and other inflammatory mediators will leak out of the periodontal tissues and into the periodontal space (between the gum or bone and the tooth). The white blood cells will release their enzymes to destroy the bacterial invaders, but will also damage the attachment of the tooth. As this progresses, the pocket will get deeper and deeper. This will weaken the bone in the area, and if it is in the lower jaw it can weaken it to the point of causing a pathologic fracture. This is most common in older small ...
A major cause of tooth loss in adults is periodontal disease. The term gum disease or periodontal disease includes both gingivitis and periodontitis, and it affects the periodontium which consists of the tissue that surrounds and supports the teeth. However with early detection and treatment of the disease, it is now possible for most people to keep their teeth for a lifetime. Continue reading → ...
Results: The mean DMFT value observed was 3.69 ± 3.31. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant for D e F components (p < 0.05). The caries-free rate is lower in the call-up soldiers group (12.57%) than that reported for the cadets group (25.26%) and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01). Statistically significant differences were observed in DMFT values between the two groups stratified by educational level. A healthy periodontium was observed in more than 50% of the sample. In the call-up soldiers group, 40.95% had healthy periodontal conditions; 40.25% of the subjects showed bleeding on probing; 19.03% presented with calculus; and 2.77% presented periodontal pockets 4-5 mm deep. In the cadets group, 57.95% had healthy periodontal conditions; 38.18% of the subjects showed bleeding on probing; 3.52% presented with calculus; and 0.35% presented periodontal pockets 4-5 mm deep. The differences in proportion between the two groups were always ...
Looking for periodontal? Find out information about periodontal. Surrounding a tooth. Of or pertaining to the periodontium Explanation of periodontal
Periodontal Surgery is a general term that implies a surgical procedure involving the supporting structures of the teeth. Most often the term periodontal surgery is used to discribe the surgical treatment of periodontal disease. In the treatment of periodontal disease, the primary reason for periodontal surgery is to get visual access to see the root surface and bone support and to get mechanical access to remove the irritants (plaque and calculus) that are responsible for the periodontal disease. The secondary reason for periodontal surgery is to see if additional therapy would improve the health and maintainability of the periodontium and to treat the areas accordingly. These additional therapies may include, but not limited to, regenerative bone therapy, bone re contouring, root/tooth reshaping, root removal and/or gums repositioning. The final goal of periodontal surgery is to improve and/or stabilize the prognosis of the tooth/teeth. ...
The exact meaning of the medical terminology,Periodontium - Connective tissue attaching the teeth to the alveolar bone, is clearly explained in Medindia s glossary of medical terms
Jack G. Caton, Jr., DDS, MS, has received numerous awards and honors for his contributions to periodontology during his 40-year career. He has served his profession as commissioner for the Commission on Dental Accreditation and as director and chairman of the American Board of Periodontology. He is past president of the AAO and also served as secretary-treasurer and president of the AAP Foundation Board of Directors. His honors include The William J. Gies Award in Periodontology, the Gold Medal for contributions to the specialty of Periodontics from the American Academy of Periodontology, the 2008 Norton Ross Award winner for contributions to clinical research in dentistry, recognizing his 100+ published scientific articles and chapters on periodontal wound healing, animal models, diagnosis, and human clinical trials. Caton began teaching at EIOH following graduation and became program director in 1990.. He earned his dental degree from the Univ. of California, San Francisco and a U.S. Army ...
Jack G. Caton, Jr., DDS, MS, has received numerous awards and honors for his contributions to periodontology during his 40-year career. He has served his profession as commissioner for the Commission on Dental Accreditation and as director and chairman of the American Board of Periodontology. He is past president of the AAO and also served as secretary-treasurer and president of the AAP Foundation Board of Directors. His honors include The William J. Gies Award in Periodontology, the Gold Medal for contributions to the specialty of Periodontics from the American Academy of Periodontology, the 2008 Norton Ross Award winner for contributions to clinical research in dentistry, recognizing his 100+ published scientific articles and chapters on periodontal wound healing, animal models, diagnosis, and human clinical trials. Caton began teaching at EIOH following graduation and became program director in 1990.. He earned his dental degree from the Univ. of California, San Francisco and a U.S. Army ...
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of tooth supporting tissues resulting in periodontal tissue destruction, which may ultimately lead to tooth loss. The pathogenetic mechanisms of periodontitis are not fully elucidated. The disease is characterized by continuous leukocyte infiltration, likely mediated by local cytokine and chemokine production. There are no serologic biomarkers for the diagnosis of periodontitis, which is based solely on the degree of local tissue destruction. The aim of this study was to identify serological biomarkers for periodontitis by analyzing a spectrum of cytokines in serum from subjects with and without periodontitis and also to investigate if the detected cytokines were expressed by gingival fibroblasts, the most abundant cell type in the inflamed periodontium. We mapped serum cytokine and chemokine levels from periodontitis subjects and healthy controls. We used multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modeling and identified monocyte chemoattractant ...
Introduction. Diabetes mellitus and periodontitis are chronic inflammatory diseases with high prevalence. Both conditions possess some common traits and can mutually affect each other. Diabetes weakens resistance of the periodontal tissues, eases their damage by microorganisms, and affects hard dental tissues and oral mucosa. Periodontitis can lead to the development of systemic traits of the inflammation and be a risk factor for insulin resistance. The aim of the study was to investigate the state of teeth and periodontium in Czech patients and contribute to the identification of genetic risk factors of both diseases. Methods. We examined and mutually compared three groups of subjects: type 1 diabetic patients (DM1), type 2 diabetic patients (DM2) and subjects without diabetes mellitus. The subjects included in the study underwent clinical (KPE, PI, GI indices, number of extracted teeth, the presence of teeth replacement, HPCH, GR, CAL), radiological, microbiological (test StomaGene®) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Determinants for periodontal disease during pregnancy among Indonesian women. T2 - A cross-sectional study using National Riskesdas 2013 data. AU - Andayani, Lia Hapsari. AU - Bungsu, Putri. AU - Prihartono, Nurhayati. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Hormonal changes occurring in women during pregnancy can affect periodontal tissue health. Elevated estrogen and progesterone levels alter the bacterial composition, permeability of blood vessels, and general condition of periodontal tissues, making them more susceptible to periodontal disease. This study aimed to determine the relationship between periodontal disease during pregnancy and sociodemographic factors, pregnancy, oral health behavior, and other local factors among pregnant women in Indonesia. In this cross-sectional study, information from 1733 pregnant women was retrieved from Riskesdas 2013 data. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to assess the relationships between periodontal disease in pregnant women and ...
Gingivectomy re nes dental esthetics by correcting gingival margins and improving dental crown forms to enhance outcomes for orthodontic and interdisciplinary treatment. The predictability of a gingival revision depends on preoperative planning, which is based on a thorough understanding of the form and function of a healthy periodontium. The epithelial attachment (EA) is composed of three periodontal tissues: sulcus depth (SD) of marginal gingiva, connective tissue attachment (CTA), and junctional epithelium (JE). The combination of two anatomical tissues (CTA and JE) is de ned as the biologic or biological width. It is the physical barrier that protects sterile internal tissues from the microbes of the oral cavity. The tissues of the biological width are bordered and protected by an immunologic buffer zone (SD). In effect, all three tissues (SD, CTA, JE) function together as a biological zone, which is an essential physiologic barrier between the oral cavity and alveolar bone. The biological ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Innate immune signaling and Porphyromonas gingivalis-accelerated atherosclerosis. AU - Gibson, F. C.. AU - Yumoto, H.. AU - Takahashi, Y.. AU - Chou, H. H.. AU - Genco, C. A.. PY - 2006/2. Y1 - 2006/2. N2 - Periodontal diseases are a group of diseases that lead to erosion of the hard and soft tissues of the periodontium, which, in severe cases, can result in tooth loss. Anecdotal clinical observations have suggested that poor oral health may be associated with poor systemic health; however, only recently have appropriate epidemiological studies been initiated, with defined clinical endpoints of periodontal disease, to address the association of periodontal disease with increased risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Although conflicting reports exist, these epidemiological studies support this connection. Paralleling these epidemiological studies, emerging basic scientific studies also support that infection may represent a risk factor for atherosclerosis. With P. ...
Molecules involved in periodontal regeneration, Cytokines, Growth factors, Adhesion molecules, Fibroblast growth factor-1 and -2, Bone morphogenetic proteins, Insulin-like growth factor-I and II, Platelet-derived growth factor.
Fu, J.-H.,Wang, H.-L. (2013-04-05). Clinical Correlate: Periodontal Regeneration. Mineralized Tissues in Oral and Craniofacial Science: Biological Principles and Clinical Correlates : 201-205. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118704868.ch23 ...
Chapple ILC, Mealey BL, Van Dyke TE, Bartold PM, Dommisch H, Eickholz P, Geisinger ML, Genco RJ, Glogauer M, Goldstein M, Griffin TJ, Holmstrup P, Johnson GK, Kapila Y, Lang NP, Meyle J, Murakami S, Plemons J, Romito GA, Shapira L, Tatakis DN, Teughels W, Trombelli L, Walter C, Wimmer G, Xenoudi P, Yoshie H. Periodontal health and gingival diseases and conditions on an intact and a reduced periodontium: Consensus report of workgroup 1 of the 2017 World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases and Conditions. J Clin Periodontol. 2018 06; 45 Suppl 20:S68-S77 ...
Periodontitis is a chronic destructive category of periodontal disease that progresses to the resorption of alveolar bone, which leads to progressive bone destruction and tooth loss. As a consequence of resorption, breakdown of products are released into periodontal tissues, migrating toward the gingival sulcus and gathering from the surrounding site in whole saliva, where several of them have been identified. 2930. Among the several host enzymes proposed as diagnostic indicators of periodontal status, ALP was one of the first to be identified. 31 ALP is released from polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) during inflammation 10 and from osteoblasts 32 and periodontal ligament fibroblasts 33 during bone formation and periodontal regeneration respectively.. ALP activity in serum has been extensively studied, and it was suggested that ALP allows bone mineralization by releasing an organic phosphate that contributes to the deposition of calcium phosphate complexes into the osteoid matrix. 3435 ALP might ...
PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY OF PERIODONTIUM DISEASES Indications: Periodontitis of different severity Gingivitis and inflammation of mucousa of oral cavity Intolerance of medical agents Patie
Most of us would name calcium as the main ingredient of milk necessary for good, strong teeth. While calcium is important for maintaining bone and dental health, the protein lactoferrin could help with keeping teeth free of bacteria.Lactoferrin is a protein found in cow milk, human milk, and body fluids such as saliva. When bacteria enter the periodontium (the tissue surrounding teeth), lactoferrin becomes the major player of an immune response to prevent infection.The lactoferrin protein binds ...
Periodontitis, an inflammatory disease that affects the tissues surrounding the teeth, is a common disease worldwide. It is caused by a dysregulation of the host inflammatory response to bacterial infection, which leads to soft and hard tissue destruction. In particular, it is the excessive inflammation in response to bacterial plaque that leads to the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from neutrophils, which, then play a critical role in the destruction of periodontal tissue.Generally, ROS produced from immune cells exhibit an anti-bacterial effect and play a role in host defense and immune regulation. Excessive ROS, however, can exert cytotoxic effects, cause oxidative damage to proteins and DNA, can interfere with cell growth and cell cycle progression, and induce apoptosis of gingival fibroblasts. Collectively, these effects enable ROS to directly induce periodontal tissue damage. Some ROS also act as intracellular signaling molecules during osteoclastogenesis, and can thus also play an
The aim of the study: The aim of the study was clinical and cytological examination of gingival changes in smokers and non-smokers. was higher than in non-smokers group, but difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The values of examined indices showed buy 213261-59-7 higher values in smokers group. This finding could show that the level of oral hygiene is higher in the non smokers group. The size of nucleus (area, Ferrets diameter and perimeter) was higher in the group of smokers, but differences were not statistically significant. Teamwork of many different speciality experts is required for better periodontal health of smokers. Key words: smoking, periodontal disease, gingival, cytological investigation. 1.?INTRODUCTION Periodontal disease is chronic, inflammatory disease followed by destruction of periodontal tissues. Oral biofilm with anaerobic microorganisms represents main etiological factor for occurrence of periodontal disease, buy 213261-59-7 but cigarette smoking is ...
Periodontal health is a crucial component of your oral and overall health. If neglected, you may experience the severe consequences of the periodontal (gum) disease.
Fig. 6. After establishing the rat hypoxic model, SD rats were fed under normoxic conditions (Control) or in a decompression chamber equal to 5,000 m above sea level (Hypoxia) for 8 weeks. After the approval of the Medical Ethics Committee of the Army Medical University, SD rats were euthanized, and the periodontal tissues were removed. (A) HIF-1α, VEGF, and RUNX2 in periodontal tissues were visualized via immunofluorescence. Representative images of the control and hypoxic groups are shown. Scale bars = 200 μm. (B) Immunohistochemistry showed increased positive staining with HIF-1α, VEGF, and RUNX2 under hypoxia (arrows). DAB stain. Scale bars = 100 μm ...