The present study was designed to investigate the electrophysiological properties of strial pericytes and the effect of aspirin on pericyte K+ channels. Pericytes were identified by determining their morphological characteristics and using pericyte‑associated immunofluorescence techniques. The electrophysiological properties of strial pericytes were observed with a whole‑cell patch‑clamp technique. Alterations in the outward current of cochlear pericytes in the stria vascularis of guinea pigs were examined following the application of K+ channel retardants. The effects of aspirin on pericyte K+ channels were also evaluated with the whole‑cell patch‑clamp technique. The results demonstrated that pericytes were desmin positive, and their nuclei were large and surrounded by a small proportion of the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic processes gradually declined in size as branches grew parallel to the capillary axis. Thus, capillaries were surrounded by tips. The electrophysiological properties of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Voltage-gated divalent currents in descending vasa recta pericytes. AU - Zhang, Zhong. AU - Lin, Hai. AU - Cao, Chunhua. AU - Khurana, Sandeep. AU - Pallone, Thomas L.. PY - 2010/10/1. Y1 - 2010/10/1. N2 - Multiple voltage-gated Ca2+ channel (CaV) subtypes have been reported to participate in control of the juxtamedullary glomerular arterioles of the kidney. Using the patch-clamp technique, we examined whole cell CaV currents of pericytes that contract descending vasa recta (DVR). The dihydropyridine CaV agonist FPL64176 (FPL) stimulated inward Ca2+ and Ba2+ currents that activated with threshold depolarizations to -40 mV and maximized between -20 and -10 mV. These currents were blocked by nifedipine (1 μM) and Ni2+ (100 and 1,000 μM), exhibited slow inactivation, and conducted Ba2+ , Ca 2+ at a ratio of 2.3:1, consistent with "long-lasting" L-type CaV. In FPL, with 1 mM Ca2+ as charge carrier, Boltzmann fits yielded half-maximal activation potential (V1/2) and slope factors of ...
The expression profiles of normal human brain and retinal pericytes are shared with respect to several cytoskeletal, cellular adhesion and proinflammatory biomarkers. This suggests that pericytes from different vascular beds within the CNS are similar and that their physiology may be governed by their respective microenvironments. We found that brain and retinal pericytes were equally permissive for HCMV lytic replication by both laboratory adapted and clinical strains of virus. In IBRB, retinal pericytes were most permissive for HCMV infection when compared to retinal microvascular endothelial cells and Müller cells. HCMV infection elicited an angiogenic and proinflammatory cytokine response in pericytes after infection. From these studies we proposed a disease model (Figure 11) for HCMV dissemination across the IBRB into the retina that is similar to the model we proposed for HCMV dissemination across the BBB into the brain [20]. Our working model is that as HCMV traffics the IBRB initially, ...
Retinal circulation is made up of various-sized vessels that deliver, exchange, and return a constant stream of metabolites and nutrients to the inner retina. The smallest of these vessels are the capillaries, which provide both metabolite exchange and act as the primary barrier between blood and surrounding tissue. Capillaries are composed of a thin tube of endothelial cells ensheathed by a vascular-associated cell type: the pericyte. Pericytes are a heterogeneous population of cells that send out long, dendritiform processes that ensheathe the endothelial tube. Although pericytes are believed to belong to the same cell lineage as vascular smooth muscle cells, their intimate association with the endothelial basement membrane makes them phenotypically distinct from smooth muscle cells. 1 They distinctively are embedded in the vascular basement membrane of endothelial cells and contribute to the integrity of the blood retinal barrier. 2 Pericytes are found throughout the microvasculature of the ...
Pericytes, perivascular cells embedded in the microvascular wall, are crucial for vascular homeostasis. These cells also play diverse roles in tissue development and regeneration as multi-lineage progenitors, immunomodulatory cells and as sources of trophic factors. Here, we establish that pericytes are renin producing cells in the human kidney. Renin was localized by immunohistochemistry in CD146 and NG2 expressing pericytes, surrounding juxtaglomerular and afferent arterioles. Similar to pericytes from other organs, CD146(+)CD34(-)CD45(-)CD56(-) renal fetal pericytes, sorted by flow cytometry, exhibited tri-lineage mesodermal differentiation potential in vitro. Additionally, renin expression was triggered in cultured kidney pericytes by cyclic AMP as confirmed by immuno-electron microscopy, and secretion of enzymatically functional renin, capable of generating angiotensin I. Pericytes derived from second trimester human placenta also expressed renin in an inducible fashion although the renin activity
Pericytes are found around precapillary arteries, capillaries, and postcapillary venules, and they occupy a strategic position at the interface between circulating blood and interstitial space and are at close proximity to ECs and SMCs. Herein, to the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time increased pericyte coverage of distal pulmonary arteries in experimental and human PAH. In PAH, we obtained evidences that pulmonary endothelial-derived FGF-2 and IL-6 partly contributes to this vascular abnormality. We found that both FGF-2 and IL-6 enhanced pulmonary pericyte migration in culture and that FGF-2 was a pericyte mitogen. In addition, we showed that exogenous FGF-2 or IL-6 increased the vascular pericyte coverage in a mouse model of retinal angiogenesis. Finally, using iPAH human and NG2DsRedBAC mouse lung tissues, we demonstrated that this increased pericyte coverage contributes to pulmonary vascular remodeling as a source of SM-like cells. Furthermore, we found that FGF-2, IL-6, ...
Pericytes are cells that reside on the wall of the blood vessels and their primary function is to maintain the vessel integrity. Recently, it has been realized that pericytes have a much greater role than just the maintenance of vessel integrity essential for the development and formation of a vascular network. Pericytes also have stem cell-like properties and are seemingly able to differentiate into adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts and granulocytes, leading them to be identified as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). More recently it has been suggested that pericytes play a key role in wound healing, whereas the beneficial effects of MSCs in accelerating the wound healing response has been recognized for some time. In this review, we collate the most recent data on pericytes, particularly their role in vessel formation and how they can affect the wound healing process.
Pericytes, surrounding the endothelium, fulfill diverse functions that are crucial for vascular homeostasis. The loss of pericytes is associated with pathologies, such as diabetic retinopathy and Alzheimers disease. Thus, there exists a need for an experimental system that combines pharmacologic manipulation and quantification of pericyte coverage during sprouting angiogenesis. Here, we describe an in vitro angiogenesis assay that develops lumenized vascular sprouts composed of endothelial cells enveloped by pericytes, with the additional ability to comparatively screen the effect of multiple small molecules simultaneously. For automated analysis, we also present an ImageJ plugin tool we developed to quantify sprout morphology and pericyte coverage. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human brain vascular pericytes were coated on microcarrier beads and embedded in fibrin gels in a 96-well plate to form lumenized vascular sprouts. After treatment with pharmacologic compounds, sprouts were fixed,
Description: Cortical function is impaired in various disorders of the central nervous system including Alzheimers disease, autism and schizophrenia. Some of these disorders are speculated to be associated with insults in early brain development. Pericytes have been shown to regulate neurovascular integrity in development, health and disease. Hence, precisely controlled mechanisms must have evolved in evolution to operate pericyte proliferation, repair and cell fate within the neurovascular unit (NVU). It is well established that pericyte deficiency leads to NVU injury resulting in cognitive decline and neuroinflammation in cortical layers. However, little is known about the role of pericytes in pathophysiological processes of the developing cortex. Here we introduce an in vitro model that enables to precisely study pericytes in the immature cortex and show that moderate inflammation and hypoxia result in caspase-3 mediated pericyte loss. Using heterozygous EYFP-NG2 mouse mutants we performed ...
Pericytes are contractile vascular mural cells overlying capillary endothelium, and they have been implicated in a variety of functions including regulation of cerebral blood flow. Recent work has suggested that both in vivo and ex vivo, ischaemia causes pericytes to constrict and die, which has implications for microvascular reperfusion. Assessing pericyte contractility in tissue slices and in vivo is technically challenging, while in vitro techniques remain unreliable. Here, we used isolated cultures of human brain vascular pericytes to examine their contractile potential in vitro using the iCelligence electrical impedance system. Contraction was induced using the vasoactive peptide endothelin-1, and relaxation was demonstrated using adenosine and sodium nitroprusside. Endothelin-1 treatment also resulted in increased proliferation, which we were able to monitor in the same cell population from which we recorded contractile responses. Finally, the observation of pericyte contraction in stroke was
Pericytes are mural cells of blood microvessels which play a crucial role at the neurovascular interface of the central nervous system. They are involved i
The tielcz stainings revealed up-regulated TIE1 expression in PDGF-B −/− brain capillary endothelium compared with that in PDGF-B +/+ and +/− embryos (Fig. 4). TIE1 up-regulation was also seen in capillaries in the PDGF-B −/− lung, heart, and adipose tissue, that is, at sites where pericyte loss was noticed (14). At other locations such as in small arterial endothelium and in capillary plexa, TIE1 expression was indistinguishable in PDGF-B −/−, +/−, and +/+ embryos [Fig. 4 and (14)].. Our data show that pericytes depend on PDGF-B for their development. PDGF-Rβ is expressed in developing pericytes. Without PDGF-B, pericytes fail to develop in capillaries formed through angiogenesis. Pericytes originate from progenitors in arterial walls and vascular plexa and migrate along capillary sprouts that express PDGF-B. Thus, PDGF-B stimulates PDGF-Rβ-positive vascular wall progenitors, which may result in both migration and proliferation. It is less likely that pericytes develop in situ ...
Pericytes are associated with the smallest diameter blood vessels (arterioles, capillaries, and venules) and share their basal membrane with the endothelium. Pericytes are either solitarily associated with the endothelial cell tube or form a single, often discontinuous, cell layer around it ...
In response to Dr. Grutzendlers comments, we would like to emphasize that two recent exceptional papers (Mishra et al., 2016; Biesecker et al., 2016) from two different groups have independently confirmed the role of pericytes in neurovascular coupling, as we also showed. These two papers demonstrated that astrocytic calcium regulates neurovascular coupling to pericytes, but not to arteriolar smooth muscle cells. Moreover, a recent single-cell RNA-seq study demonstrated expression of several contractile proteins in pericytes derived from mouse cortex or hippocampus including skeletal muscle actin, vimentin, desmin, calponin, non-muscle myosin variants, and a low SMA (smooth muscle actin) expression (Zeisel et al., 2015). This study confirmed earlier findings showing expression of contractile proteins in pericytes using immunocytochemical staining and immunogold labeling at the ultrastructural level. Additionally, two recent optogenetic studies, both presented at the Society for Neuroscience ...
BackgroundTransforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) is strongly induced following brain injury and polarises microglia to an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Augmentation of TGFβ1 responses may therefore be beneficial in preventing inflammation in neurological disorders including stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. However, several other cell types display immunogenic potential and identifying the effect of TGFβ1 on these cells is required to more fully understand its effects on brain inflammation. Pericytes are multifunctional cells which ensheath the brain vasculature and have garnered recent attention with respect to their immunomodulatory potential. Here, we sought to investigate the inflammatory phenotype adopted by TGFβ1-stimulated human brain pericytes.MethodsMicroarray analysis was performed to examine transcriptome-wide changes in TGFβ1-stimulated pericytes, and results were validated by qRT-PCR and cytometric bead arrays. Flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry and LDH/Alamar Blue® viability
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Ann Plast Surg. 2015 Feb;74(2):230-6. doi: 10.1097/SAP.0000000000000080. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
He notes that its not yet clear whether endothelial cells, which line blood vessels throughout the body, have IL-6 receptors in other environs. The new grant is enabling the MCG scientists to further explore in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes the effects of trans-signaling on the endothelial cells as well as pericytes in the eye. Pericytes are contractile cells that wrap around endothelial cells, enhancing the strength of the smallest blood vessels, like where the arterial system and venous system come together so oxygen- and nutrient-rich blood can nourish the eye then depleted blood can exit. In diabetic retinopathy, pericytes are damaged and destroyed; blood vessels walls unnaturally thicken; and blood passageways narrow. Eventually, endothelial cells also die. The eyes will attempt to grow new blood vessels as a fix, but the new vessels are ultimately dysfunctional and leaky and instead further destroy vision. The scientists also are looking to see if the powerful sgp130-Fc can help. In ...
Capillary endothelia and pericytes form a close morphological arrangement allowing pericytes to regulate capillary blood flow, in addition to contributing to vascular development and support. Vascular changes associated with oxidative stress are implicated in important pathologies in developing whiter matter, but little is known about the vascular unit in white matter of the appropriate age or how it responds to oxidative stress. We show that the ultrastructural arrangement of post-natal day 10 (P10) capillaries involves the apposition of pericyte somata to the capillary inner basement membrane and penetration of pericyte processes onto the abluminal surface where they form close connections with endothelial cells. Some pericytes have an unusual stellate morphology, extending processes radially from the vessel. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were monitored with the ROS-sensitive dye 2,7-dichlorofluorescin (DCF) in the endothelial cells. Exposure to exogenous ROS (100 μm H(2) O(2) or ...
Background: Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) have been proposed as the cell of origin of sarcoma. In soft tissues, the microvascular pericyte has been recently shown to have MSC properties (Crisan et al, Cell Stem Cell 3:301). We have previously reported the isolation of benign mesenchymal cultures from sarcoma surgical samples. These cells have the immunophenotype (CD45‐CD31‐ CD73+CD105+CD90+) and in vitro differentiation potential characteristic of MSCs. We hypothesized that these sarcoma‐associated MSCs (SA‐MSCs) are derived from pericytes associated with the sarcoma vasculature.. Methods: We examined whether benign SA‐MSCs have surface markers characteristic of pericytes and cooperate with endothelial cells in tube formation assays. We also examined expression of CD146, a pericyte marker, and CD105, an MSC marker, in sarcoma archived tissue by IHC.. Results: Benign SA‐MSCs indeed demonstrated properties of pericytes, such as characteristic cytoplasmic projections at low density, ...
The present study newly shows the prolonged therapeutic benefit of SVPs from coronary artery disease patients in a mouse model of MI. Furthermore, we report for the first time that miR-132 is constitutively expressed and released by human SVPs and implicated in SVP proangiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. Hence, this is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of human PCs being therapeutically beneficial through an miR-132-mediated mechanism.. Recent findings from our laboratory indicate that human SVPs can build new vessels in ischemic limbs more efficiently than endothelial progenitor cells.20 The present study extends the application to a mouse model of MI and, in line with recommendations of advisory boards (Somatic Cell Therapy for Cardiac Disease, http://www.fda.gov), establishes the optimal dosage and long-term therapeutic benefit of SVP transplantation on clinical, hemodynamic, and mechanistic endpoints. At variance with MSCs, which reportedly differentiate into multiple cell ...
Recruitment from the bone marrow, EMT and EndMT appear to rely on transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-B1) to differentiate into myofibroblasts.. Pericytes are not involved. Some earlier descriptive studies implicated pericytes - connective, contractile cells that surround blood vessels - in the creation of myofibroblasts. The researchers tested pericytes via fate-mapping and found that theyre not involved in myofibroblast generation.. Deleting pericytes did not improve kidney fibrosis or change the recruitment of myofibroblasts.. While their research focused on kidney fibrosis, the scientists believe their findings will be applicable to other types of fibrosis.. "Recruitment of fibroblasts is heterogonous. The sources are likely to be the same for lung or liver fibrosis, but the ratios may be different," Kalluri said. "Now we need to go into those other organs and establish a baseline of what were facing like we did in kidney fibrosis.". Kalluri holds the Rebecca Meyer Brown and Joseph ...
J. Neurosci. 30, 13110-13115. PMID: 20881129 [PDF]. Lavine JA and Attie AD. (2010) Gastrointestinal hormones and the regulation of beta-cell mass. Ann NY Acad Sci. 12,41-58. [PDF]. Neto EC, Keller MP, Attie AD, and Yandell BS. (2010) Causal graphical models in systems genetics: A unified framework for joint inference of causal network and genetic architecture for correlated phenotypes. Ann Appl Stat. 4(1):320-339. [PDF]. Newgard CB, Attie AD. (2010) Getting biological about the genetics of diabetes. Nat Med. 16(4):388-91. [PDF]. Richards OC, Raines SM, Attie AD. (2010) The role of blood vessels, endothelial cells, and vascular pericytes in insulin secretion and peripheral insulin action. Endocr Rev. 31(3):343-63. [PDF] supplemental: [PDF]. Zhao E, Keller MP, Rabaglia ME, Oler AT, Stapleton DS, Schueler KL, Neto EC, Moon JY, Wang P, Wang IM, Lum PY, Ivanovska I, Cleary M, Greenawalt D, Tsang J, Choi YJ, Kleinhanz R, Shang J, Zhou YP, Howard AD, Zhang BB, Kendziorski C, Thornberry NA, Yandell BS, ...
Pericytes are cells that wrap around endothelial cells throughout the body. They regulate blood flow and maintain homeostasis within the body.
The findings from these studies expand our understanding of the role lung MPCs, and the pericytes derived from them, play during pulmonary microvascular homeostasis and adaptive angiogenesis following injury. We demonstrate that ABCG2+ MPCs directly influence lung microvascular function. Specifically, this work delineates that the coordinated regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in ABCG2+ mesenchymal pericyte progenitors, autonomously or downstream of BMPR/TGF-β signaling, is a key determinant of lung microvascular integrity and is intimately linked with the alveolar epithelium. Indeed, increased canonical Wnt signaling enhanced ABCG2+ MPC proliferation and promoted the specification of these cells to functionally deficient, proangiogenic pericytes, in lieu of their active contribution to myofibroblast accumulation with fibrosis (Figure 6). Importantly, these findings affirm that maintaining a proper balance of Wnt signaling in lung ABCG2+ MPCs promotes proper pericyte development for the ...
The Mathematical Modelling of Natural Phenomena (MMNP) is an international research journal, which publishes top-level original and review papers, short communications and proceedings on mathematical modelling in biology, medicine, chemistry, physics, and other areas.
Page 201 Kam agra. ) pericyte-like cells have been proposed to guide the endothelial sprouts in tumors 14,19. Regulier E et al (2002) Dose-dependent neuroprotective eВect of ciliary neu- rotrophic factor delivered Generc Cheap Generic Kamagra Jelly lentiviral vectors in the quinolinic acid rat model of Huntingtonвs disease. Studies in which questionnaires are validated by clinical interviews, which involve Ch eap numbers of homogenous groups of athletes, Cheap Generic Kamagra Jelly Jelly contain a control or reference group are limited in number.
One of the underlying features leading to neuroinflammation associated with HANDs is the breach of the cerebrovascular unit. Various reports implicate disruption of this unit during HIV-1 infection (Masiá et al., 2010; McArthur et al., 2010), with a prominent role of the viral protein HIV-1 Tat in this process (Banks et al., 2005). Although the information on endothelium and astrocyte dysfunction in HANDs is extant (Toborek et al., 2003; Eugenin et al., 2011; Ramirez et al., 2013), relatively little is known about the role of the pericytes, the less studied but a very important cell type of the cerebrovascular unit in this process. Pericytes play a crucial role in maintaining the functions of microvessels, controlling the capillary diameter, and in preserving the integrity of the BBB. More recently, an additional role of pericytes has been identified: that of promoting HIV replication (Nakagawa et al., 2012). Furthermore, similar to glial cell activation by inflammatory agents, pericytes have ...
Background: Endothelial cells (ECs) express IP (prostaglandin I2 (PGI2) specific receptor) and are playing important role in tumor angiogenesis. We have reported that the PGI2-IP system is necessary for vascular remodeling and angiogenesis. Additionally, we have reported that the knockdown of IP increases tumor metastasis in mouse models.. Objectives: In this study, we examined whether the activated PGI2-IP signaling could enhance EC-PC interactions and suppress tumor metastasis.. Materials & Methods: Mouse-derived Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells were used for a mouse lung metastatic model, and were injected from the tail vein of mice (c57BL/6J). Beraprost sodium (BPS; PGI2 analog) was continuously administered for 3 weeks. Tumor metastasis to lung was assessed by using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The a-SMA and the NG2 as a pericyte marker and the endomucin as an endothelial cell marker were analyzed by immunofluorescence to evaluate angiogenesis in metastatic lung tumors. The structure of the ...
Polymorphism in TCF7L2, a component of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, has a strong association with β-cell dysfunction and type 2 diabetes through a yet to be defined mechanism. β-Cells rely on cells in their microenvironment, including pericytes, for their proper function. Here, we show that Tcf7l2 activity in pancreatic pericytes is required for β-cell function. Transgenic mice in which Tcf7l2 was selectively inactivated in their pancreatic pericytes exhibited impaired glucose tolerance due to compromised β-cell function and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Inactivation of pericytic Tcf7l2 was associated with impaired expression of genes required for β-cell function and maturity in isolated islets. In addition, we identified Tcf7l2-dependent pericytic expression of secreted factors shown to promote β-cell function, including BMP4. Finally, we show that exogenous BMP4 is sufficient to rescue the impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion of transgenic mice, pointing to a ...
An elongated, contractile cell found wrapped about precapillary arterioles outside the basement membrane. Pericytes are present in capillaries where proper adventitial and muscle layer are missing (thus distinguishing this cell type from adventitial cells). They are relatively undifferentiated and may become fibroblasts, macrophages, or smooth muscle cells. (4 ...
Determine maximal passage number - posted in Tissue and Cell Culture: Hey guys, I am doing some cell culture work right now and we have different cell lines (human pericytes, astrocytes and endothelial cells). My supervisor told me I should not culture them more then passage number 10 or 11. How would you determine the maximal passage number for a specific cell line? Thank you for your help
The study, led by Professor Paolo Madeddu, Chair of Experimental Cardiovascular Medicine in the School of Clinical Sciences at the University of Bristol and Professor Costanza Emanueli, co-author, who is leading on microRNA research in the Bristol Heart Institute, is published online in Circulation Research: Journal of the American Heart Association.. The study, funded by the British Heart Foundation (BHF) and a National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) grant, looked at whether human mural cells, known to scientists as pericytes, cells that stay around, can stabilise blood vessels after a heart attack.. The researchers, using a mouse model, have demonstrated for the first time that pericytes expanded from redundant human leg veins are able to stimulate new blood vessels (neovascularization) and help with the recovery after a heart attack.. The study found that upon transplantation pericytes relocate around the vessels of the peri-infarct zone and establish with them physical contacts ...
As in our previous studies, 1 3 4 cells with P2X7 pores were detected using YO-PRO-1 (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR), which is a 629-Da propidium di-iodide dye that passes through these pores 2 and produces detectable fluorescence when it binds to nuclear DNA. Unless stated otherwise, a microvessel-containing coverslip was initially exposed for 30 minutes to solution A supplemented with 5 μM YO-PRO-1 and then positioned in a chamber located on the stage of a microscope (Eclipse E600 FN; Nikon, Tokyo, Japan) equipped with ×10 and ×40 objectives for fluorescence and bright-field microscopy. Fluorescence was detected with excitation and emission wavelengths of 488 and 510 nm, respectively; the light source was a xenon arc system (Lambda-LS; Sutter Instruments, Novato, CA). Digitized images were obtained and stored using a system that included an intensified charge-coupled device camera with a 12-bit dynamic range (CoolSnap HQ; Photometrics, Tucson, AZ) and software (MetaMorph; Molecular Devices, ...
Angiogenesis is a multicellular morphogenesis process that expands vascular networks in tissue. Various biological components concertedly contribute to angiogenic morphogenesis. The most important cellular component is endothelial cells, which we use to reconstruct 3D angiogenic process in a extracellular matrix in response to angiogenic growth factors. In addition, perivascular pericytes, blood flow and extravascular tissue importantly serve as (sub)components that allow constructing more sophisticated vascular networks. However, a mechanistic understanding of how the individual components contribute to various angiogenic processes is largely missing. In this seminar, I will introduce a reconstitution angiogenesis assay system with a microfluidic device that allows dissecting the phenomenon in a bottom-up way by adding individual components to the essential one. I will discuss the roles of pericyte and intraluminal pressure on angiogenic morphogenesis based on recent unpublished data obtained ...
Predicted to have DNA-binding transcription factor activity and sequence-specific DNA binding activity. Involved in pericyte cell differentiation and vascular smooth muscle cell development. Predicted to localize to the nucleus. Is expressed in head mesenchyme; pharyngeal arch 1; and pharyngeal arch 2. Orthologous to human FOXF2 (forkhead box F2 ...
The development of the vertebrate vascular system involves a highly ordered series of molecular events that can be divided into two distinct processes: vasculogenesis and angiogenesis (reviewed in Carmeliet, 2000; Risau, 1997). Vasculogenesis is a process that involves the in situ differentiation of primitive precursor cells called angioblasts into endothelial cells that then assemble into the primitive primary capillary network. After this, the primitive capillary network grows and remodels into a complex network of mature blood vessels by the differential growth and sprouting of endothelial tubes and recruitment and differentiation of mesenchymal cells into VSMCs and pericytes. Communication between the endothelium and mesenchyme is critical for normal vasculogenesis and it has been shown that endothelial cells induce the differentiation of pericytes and VSMCs (Hellstrom et al., 1999; Hellstrom et al., 2001; Hirschi et al., 1999; Li et al., 1999). In fact, a recent study indicates that a ...
The induction of angiogenesis in solid tumors initiates with the stimulation of proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. A pivotal role has been implicated for VEGF and its receptors in these early stages of vascular sprouting (26) . However, recent studies suggested that the role of VEGF is not completed with the establishment of a primary endothelial plexus and the initiation of perfusion. In fact, VEGF is essential for maintaining the viability and functionality of endothelial cells in these immature vessels, and acute withdrawal of VEGF results in endothelial programmed cell death and vascular collapse, as reported previously (2 , 3 , 10 , 17) and shown here.. Stabilization of the vascular bed is achieved by recruitment of pericytes and smooth muscle cells. Vascular maturation has long been recognized as an integral component of angiogenesis (5 , 27) . Some of the molecular signals that can promote vascular maturation have been revealed recently. For example, platelet-derived growth ...
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Vessel maturation involves recruitment of mural cells. Laminar shear stress is a major trigger for vessel maturation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which shear stress affects recruitment of pericytes are unclear. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs, which post-transcriptionally control gene expression. Since shear stress regulates various miRs, we hypothesize that flow-induced miRs inhibit repulsive cues and facilitate mural cell coverage.. Laminar shear stress for 72h induces the up-regulation of miR-27b (2.8±0.24-fold vs static, p,0.05) in cultured endothelial cells (ECs) and in mouse femoral artery segments that were exposed to physiological shear stress ex vivo (1.5±0.14-fold vs no flow, p,0.05). Predicted targets for miR-27b include members of the semaphorin (SEMA) family (known to regulate repulsive signaling) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang2), which causes vessel destabilization. MiR-27b overexpression reduces SEMA6A (63.5±13.5%), SEMA6D (58±26%), and Ang2 (51.5±11%) ...
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In vitro models of the blood-brain barrier (B-BB) generally utilise murine or porcine brain endothelium and rat astrocytes which are commonly grown in foetal calf serum supplemented conditions which modulate cell growth rates. Consequently, results gained from these experimental models can be difficult to extrapolate to the human in vivo situation since they are not of human origin. The proposed in vitro Transwell model of the B-BB is a multi-culture human cell system. It requires reconstruction of the human derived B-BB components in vitro (cerebral microvascular endothelial cells, astrocytes, and brain vascular pericytes) in a three-dimensional (3D) configuration based on Transwell filters. Different cell permutations (mono-, co-, and tri-cultivation) were investigated to find the most effective model in terms of tight junction resistance of the human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells. The B-BB model permutations comprised of human astrocytes (CC-2565 and SC-1810), human brain vascular ...
Skeletal muscle fibres form by fusion of mesoderm progenitors called myoblasts. After birth, muscle fibres do not increase in number but continue to grow in size because of fusion of satellite cells, the postnatal myogenic cells, responsible for muscle growth and regeneration. Numerous studies suggest that, on transplantation, non-myogenic cells also may contribute to muscle regeneration. However, there is currently no evidence that such a contribution represents a natural developmental option of these non-myogenic cells, rather than a consequence of experimental manipulation resulting in cell fusion. Here we show that pericytes, transgenically labelled with an inducible Alkaline Phosphatase CreERT2, but not endothelial cells, fuse with developing myofibres and enter the satellite cell compartment during unperturbed postnatal development. This contribution increases significantly during acute injury or in chronically regenerating dystrophic muscle. These data show that pericytes, resident in ...
Massive tears of the rotator cuff (RC) are associated with chronic muscle degeneration due to fibrosis, fatty infiltration, and muscle atrophy. The microenvironment of diseased muscle often impairs efficient engraftment and regenerative activity of transplanted myogenic precursors. Accumulating myofibroblasts and fat cells disrupt the muscle stem cell niche and myogenic cell signaling and deposit excess disorganized connective tissue. Therefore, restoration of the damaged stromal niche with non-fibro-adipogenic cells is a prerequisite to successful repair of an injured RC. We generated from human embryonic stem cells (hES) a potentially novel subset of PDGFR-β+CD146+CD34-CD56- pericytes that lack expression of the fibro-adipogenic cell marker PDGFR-α. Accordingly, the PDGFR-β+PDGFR-α- phenotype typified non-fibro-adipogenic, non-myogenic, pericyte-like derivatives that maintained non-fibro-adipogenic properties when transplanted into chronically injured murine RCs. Although administered hES ...
Blood vessels in the tumor periphery have high pericyte coverage and are resistant to vascular disrupting agents (VDAs). VDA treatment resistance leads to a viable peripheral tumor rim that contributes to treatment failure and disease recurrence. Here, we provide evidence to support a hypothesis that shifting the target of VDAs from tumor vessel endothelial cells to pericytes disrupts tumor peripheral vessels and the viable rim, circumventing VDA treatment resistance. Through chemical engineering, we developed Z-GP-DAVLBH (from the tubulin-binding VDA desacetylvinblastine monohydrazide [DAVLBH]) as a prodrug that can be selectively activated by fibroblast activation protein α (FAPα) in tumor pericytes. Z-GP-DAVLBH selectively destroys the cytoskeleton of FAPα-expressing tumor pericytes, disrupting blood vessels both within the core and around the periphery of tumors. As a result, Z-GP-DAVLBH treatment eradicated the otherwise VDA-resistant tumor rim and led to complete regression of tumors in ...
Blood vessels in the tumor periphery have high pericyte coverage and are resistant to vascular disrupting agents (VDAs). VDA treatment resistance leads to a viable peripheral tumor rim that contributes to treatment failure and disease recurrence. Here, we provide evidence to support a hypothesis that shifting the target of VDAs from tumor vessel endothelial cells to pericytes disrupts tumor peripheral vessels and the viable rim, circumventing VDA treatment resistance. Through chemical engineering, we developed Z-GP-DAVLBH (from the tubulin-binding VDA desacetylvinblastine monohydrazide [DAVLBH]) as a prodrug that can be selectively activated by fibroblast activation protein α (FAPα) in tumor pericytes. Z-GP-DAVLBH selectively destroys the cytoskeleton of FAPα-expressing tumor pericytes, disrupting blood vessels both within the core and around the periphery of tumors. As a result, Z-GP-DAVLBH treatment eradicated the otherwise VDA-resistant tumor rim and led to complete regression of tumors in ...
Sims, D. E. (1982). Ultrastructure of fibroblasts and pericytes in the parenchyma of neonatal and mature bovine lungs. Dissertation Abstracts, 42(11), 4273-4274 ...
U. Muscle derived pericytes are easily cultured and expanded in vitro by routine techniques, they can therefore represent an alternative source of ezetimbie progenitor cells for possible mode daction ezetimibe therapeutic use in certain conditions.
Cancer of the blood vessel cells is a cancer originating from pericyte cells that support your cats blood vessels, also known as hemangiopericytoma. - Wag! (formerly Vetary)
A hemangiopericytoma is metastatic vascular tumor arising from the pericyte cells. Learn more about Dog Blood Cell Cancer at PetMd.com.