Epicardial derivatives, including vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiac fibroblasts, are crucial for proper development of the coronary vasculature and cardiac fibrous matrix, both of which support myocardial integrity and function in the normal heart. Epicardial formation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and epicardium-derived cell (EPDC) differentiation are precisely regulated by complex interactions among signaling molecules and transcription factors. Here we review the roles of critical transcription factors that are required for specific aspects of epicardial development, EMT, and EPDC lineage specification in development and disease. Epicardial cells and subepicardial EPDCs express transcription factors including Wt1, Tcf21, Tbx18, and Nfatc1. As EPDCs invade the myocardium, epicardial progenitor transcription factors such as Wt1 are downregulated. EPDC differentiation into SMC and fibroblast lineages is precisely regulated by a complex network of transcription factors, including
The epicardium is derived from the proepicardial organ, a source of multipotent progenitor cells. Epicardium contribution to the developing coronary vasculature and to cardiac interstitial cells has been established. Studies over the past several years have suggested that epicardium-derived cells can adopt cardiomyocyte and vascular smooth muscle fates and can contribute to cardiac repair when activated by injury.1,2 Recently, Chong et al3 have provided a detailed characterization of a population of epicardium-derived multipotent cardiac progenitor cells (cCFU-Fs). These cells, which do not arise from the bone marrow, neural crest, or myocardium, resemble mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and may participate in cardiac development, homeostasis, and repair.3. During early cardiac development, cells derived from the proepicardial organ (a cluster of cells located dorsal and adjacent to the looped heart tube) migrate over the myocardium to form the epicardium. Subsequently, epicardium-derived ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adiponectin expression in human epicardial adipose tissue in vivo is lower in patients with coronary artery disease. AU - Iacobellis, Gianluca. AU - Pistilli, Daniela. AU - Gucciardo, Marco. AU - Leonetti, Frida. AU - Miraldi, Fabio. AU - Brancaccio, Gianluca. AU - Gallo, Pietro. AU - Tiziana Di Gioia, Cira Rosaria. PY - 2005/3/21. Y1 - 2005/3/21. N2 - Background: Intra-peritoneal adipose tissue is recognized as a predictor of metabolic syndrome and may contribute to the risk for cardiovascular disease by the production of adipocytokines, including adiponectin. Nevertheless, there is no knowledge on whether other visceral depots of adipose tissue, including the epicardial fat, have any metabolically active role, including production of adiponectin. Aim of the study: We sought to evaluate adiponectin protein expression in epicardial adipose tissue in vivo both in patients with severe coronary artery disease (CAD) and in subjects without CAD. Methods: Twenty-two patients were ...
Epicardial fat is true visceral fat deposited around sub epicardial coronary vessels; it has been implicated in the development of coronary atherosclerosis. Epicardial fat has been also associated with insulin resistance. Trans thoracic echocardiography provides a reliable measurement of epicardial fat thickness. Objective: To evaluate the association between epicardial fat thickness with metabolic syndrome and anthropometric parameters of adiposity. Methods: We assessed 70 patients who underwent echocardiography; the epicardial fat thickness on the free wall of the right ventricle was measured at end-diastole from the parasternal long-axis views of 3 cardiac cycles with Aloka Alfa 6 equipment (Japan), by 2 cardiologists who were unaware of the clinical data. Metabolic syndrome was defined according with the International Diabetes Federation criteria. The association between epicardial fat thicknesses with metabolic syndrome was evaluated with the fisher exact test, whereas its correlation with body
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The name Pericardium comes from Latin Peri (around) and Cardium (heart). Often translated from Chinese as "Heart Protector", "Spirit Protector", or "Circulation/Sex" the Pericardium is associated with the Fire element and the Heart. The Pericardium protects the Heart from emotional trauma, constricts the chest to protect the Heart, and helps to express the Joy of the Heart. The pericardium helps regulate circulation in the major blood vessels running in and out of the heart. The network of the Pericardium includes the pericardial sac, the Pericardium meridian, the small intestine, and parts of the brain associated with the Pericardium channel.. Pericardium Psycho-spiritual qualities: One could say the function of the Pericardium is primarily psychological, as it rules our relationships and the emotional issues around them. Emotionally, pericardium energy is related to the loving feelings associated with sex, thereby linking the physical and emotional aspects of sexual activity. It does this by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantification of epicardial adipose tissue in patients undergoing hybrid ablation for atrial fibrillation. AU - Vroomen, Mindy. AU - Olsthoorn, Jules R.. AU - Maesen, Bart. AU - LEspoir, Vladimir. AU - La Meir, Mark. AU - Das, Marco. AU - Maessen, Jos G.. AU - Crijns, Harry J. G. M.. AU - Verheule, Sander. AU - Pison, Laurent. PY - 2019/7. Y1 - 2019/7. KW - Atrial fibrillation. KW - Epicardial adipose tissue. KW - Epicardial fat. KW - Hybrid ablation. KW - Outcome. KW - PERICARDIAL FAT. KW - CATHETER. U2 - 10.1093/ejcts/ezy472. DO - 10.1093/ejcts/ezy472. M3 - Article. VL - 56. SP - 79. EP - 86. JO - European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. JF - European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. SN - 1010-7940. IS - 1. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impact of location of epicardial adipose tissue, measured by coronary artery calcium-scoring computed tomography on obstructive coronary artery disease. AU - Wu, Fu Zong. AU - Huang, Yi Luan. AU - Wang, Yen Chi. AU - Lin, Huey Shyan. AU - Chen, Chien Shung. AU - Ju, Yu Jen. AU - Chiou, Kuan Rau. AU - Cheng, Chin Chang. AU - Wu, Ming Ting. PY - 2013/10/1. Y1 - 2013/10/1. N2 - Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is considered to play a role in the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis. However, whether total EAT volume or location-specific EAT thickness may be a better predictor of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) is inconclusive. We investigated whether the total volume or location-specific thickness of EAT measured on computed tomography (CT) could be a useful marker of CAD on top of clinical risk factors and Agatston score. Two hundred eight consecutive subjects with clinical suspicion of CAD receiving coronary arterial calcium (CAC)-scoring CT and CT coronary ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Epicardial Adipose Tissue Removal Potentiates Outward Remodeling and Arrests Coronary Atherogenesis. AU - McKenney-Drake, Mikaela L.. AU - Rodenbeck, Stacey D.. AU - Bruning, Rebecca S.. AU - Kole, Ayeeshik. AU - Yancey, Kyle W.. AU - Alloosh, Mouhamad. AU - Sacks, Harold S.. AU - Sturek, Michael. PY - 2017/5. Y1 - 2017/5. N2 - Background Pericoronary epicardial adipose tissue (cEAT) serves as a metabolic and paracrine organ that contributes to inflammation and is associated with macrovascular coronary artery disease (CAD) development. Although there is a strong correlation in humans between cEAT volume and CAD severity, there remains a paucity of experimental data demonstrating a causal link of cEAT to CAD. The current study tested the hypothesis that surgical resection of cEAT attenuates inflammation and CAD progression. Methods Female Ossabaw miniature swine (n = 12) were fed an atherogenic diet for 8 months and randomly allocated into sham (n = 5) or adipectomy (n = 7) ...
In this study there was a positive correlation between improvement of left ventricular function and decrease of pericardial fat around heart. This improvement of left ventricular function happened rapidly, after only eight weeks on VLCD. However, the mechanism behind this phenomenon is unknown.. Pericardial fat is located between visceral and parietal pericardium. The anatomical close connection between excess fat around the heart might increase the weight of the left ventricle thus increasing the effort of involved in pumping.. Epicardial fat and pericardial fat are embryologically different. Vascularization is also different between these two layers. Vascularization for the epicardial adipose tissue is supplied by branches of the coronary arteries. Pericardial adipose tissue gets its Vascularization from non-coronary sources. At least one part of epicardial fat is physiological. However, excess epicardial fat that is seen in many obese persons may be harmful on heart function.. The fat around ...
This gene is a member of the caudal-related homeobox transcription factor family. The encoded DNA-binding protein regulates intestine-specific gene expression and enterocyte differentiation. It has been shown to induce expression of the intestinal alkaline phosphatase gene, and inhibit beta-catenin/T-cell factor transcriptional activity.[2] CDX1 has also been shown to play an important role in embryonic epicardial development. It has been demonstrated that CDX proteins suppress cardiac differentiation in both zebrafish and mouse embryonic stem cells, but the overall mechanism for how this happens is poorly understood.[5] However, CDX1 has been shown to be transiently expressed in the embryonic heart 11.5 days post coitum (dpc). This transient expression is thought to induce epicardial epithelial-to-mesynchemal transition and thus proper cardiovascular formation. It has been shown that low-dose CDX1 induction caused enhanced migration and differentiation of epicardium-derived cells into vascular ...
The aim of this study was to investigate the association of epicardial (EAT) and pericardial (PAT) adipose tissues with myocardial function in type 2 diabetes (T2D). EAT and PAT were measured by ultrasound in 770 patients with T2D and 234 age- and sex-matched non-diabetic controls. Echocardiography was performed, including tissue Doppler imaging and 2D speckle tracking. Patients with T2D versus controls had increased EAT (4.6 ± 1.8 mm vs. 3.4 ± 1.2 mm, P , 0.0001) and PAT (6.3 ± 2.8 mm vs. 5.3 ± 2.4 mm, P , 0.0001). EAT and PAT were associated with structural cardiac measures both in T2D patients and controls (all P , 0.043), but only in T2D patients with functional measures: PAT was associated with impaired global longitudinal strain [beta coefficient (SE)] [0.11% (0.04), P = 0.002], while EAT was associated with reduced diastolic function by lateral early diastolic myocardial velocity (e lat ) [-0.31 (0.05) cm/s, P = 0.001], mitral inflow velocities: peak early (E)/peak atrial (A) ratio ...
Surface of the heart pericardium, coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). The pericardium is a double-walled, membranous sac surrounding the heart. The pericardium has a tough outer fibrous layer (fibrous pericardium) and a delicate serous layer (serous pericardium). Shown here is the outer surface of the fibrous pericardium that is composed of connective tissue (fibronectin, collagen and laminin). Flattened squamous epithelial cells (from the upper serous layer) can be seen protruding through the fibrous pericardial layer. The inner serous pericardial layer is the wall adjacent to the heart (not seen). It is split into two layers, the epicardium (just above the heart) and the parietal layer. Between the two layers is the pericardial cavity, which contains serous fluid. The serous pericardium lubricates the heart, preventing friction. Magnification: x5,000 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/0593
Epicardial adipose tissue is a source of pro-inflammatory cytokines and has been linked to the development of coronary artery disease. No study has systematically assessed the relationship between local epicardial fat volume (EFV) and myocardial perf
A method for treating the heart and associated vessels and tissues, by controlling the temperature of the pericardial space and/or introducing therapeutic agents, drugs or the like thereto, includes providing a fluid, liquid(s), gas(es) or mixtures thereof, with or without therapeutic agents, drugs or the like, and heating and/or cooling, this fluid. At a time proximate to the heating and/or cooling of the fluid, the pericardial space is accessed by pericardiocentesis, such that the pericardium is punctured and the pericardial space is instrumentized at a location, and in particular, a location where treatment is desired. The heated and/or cooled fluid is then delivered to the pericardial space. At a time after delivery, the fluid is withdrawn from the pericardium, through either the same catheter, or through another catheter at different point along the pericardium, that was also instrumentized (catheterized) by standard pericardiocentesis procedures. This delivery and withdrawal of the fluid may be
BACKGROUND: Exercise reduces the amount of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. The underlying mechanisms responsible for these exercise-induced adaptations are unclear, but they may involve lipolytic actions of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Contracting skeletal muscles secrete IL-6, leading to increased circulating IL-6 levels in response to exercise. The aim of this study is to investigate whether IL-6 is involved in mediating the effects of exercise on visceral and epicardial adipose tissue volume and glycaemic control.. METHODS/DESIGN: Seventy-five physically inactive males and females aged , 18 years with a waist-to-height ratio , 0.5 and/or waist circumference ≥ 88 cm (females) or ≥ 102 cm (males) are being recruited to participate in a 12-week intervention study. Participants are randomly allocated to one of five groups (1:1:1:1:1). Two groups consist of supervised endurance exercise training combined with the IL-6 blocker tocilizumab (ET) or saline used as ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phenol topically applied to canine left ventricular epicardium interrupts sympathetic but not vagal afferents. AU - Barber, M. J.. AU - Mueller, T. M.. AU - Davies, B. G.. AU - Zipes, D. P.. PY - 1984/1/1. Y1 - 1984/1/1. N2 - The intracardiac pathways carrying the cardiovascular reflex responses mediated by cardiac sympathetic and vagal afferent fibers were examined in this study. We investigated the response to epicardial applications of bradykinin (5 μg) and nicotine (50 μg) before and after regional epicardial applications of 85% phenol in chloralose anesthetized open-chest dogs. Bradykinin stimulated sympathetic afferents, while nicotine stimulated vagal afferents. Topical applications of phenol were used to interrupt these pathways. Before phenol encircling, bradykinin significantly increased - whereas nicotine significantly decreased - mean arterial blood pressure when applied at the same sites. After phenol, nicotine applied to all sites within and outside the phenol ...
The oral cavity is a demanding and dynamic environment for healing, which is why pericardium products are considered the gold standard in protecting the delicate tissues of the teeth, gums and jaw following oral surgery.. Pericardium is a pliant, sterile membrane which naturally weathers the moisture and mechanical stresses of the mouth as dental surgery heals. A variety of dental implant procedures indicate the use of pericardium as a cornerstone of aftercare, and leading surgeons rely on its strength and versatility in a variety of settings.. At Surgikor, our pericardium products are easy to use and vetted against the most stringent standards in medical production. Click here or here to see pericardium in different sizes and price points, and feel free to contact us with any questions about other dental surgery materials... ...
What is the difference between Visceral and Parietal Pericardium? Pericardium is the inner layer of serous pericardium; parietal pericardium is the outer layer
An augmented cardiovascular risk is present in adrenal incidentalomas (AI), as in overt hypercortisolism. Recent studies recommended epicardial fat (EF) thickness as a new marker of visceral adiposity and an indicator of cardiometabolic risk.. In this study, we evaluated the possible relationship between EF thickness, indices of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and adipocytokines levels in AI.. We studied 26 patients with AI (62.3±10.3 years, BMI 27.2±3.3 kg/m2, mean±S.D.) and 21 controls matched for age and BMI (59.9±6.7 years, BMI 25.3±3.6 kg/m2). In all patients basal ACTH, cortisol, urinary free cortisol, IL-6 and resistin levels were measured. One mg dexamethasone test was performed. EF thickness and indices of LV hypertrophy were assessed by transthoracic echocardiography.. Four patients had a subclinical Cushing s syndrome (SCS) and 22 had non functioning masses. Overall, the prevalence of arterial hypertension was 69.2%, type 2 diabetes was 19.2%, dyslipidemia 26.9%, overweight 50% ...
Recently proposed concepts of pericardial surface pressure, as opposed to liquid pressure, have advanced our understanding of the relationship between pericardial and heart chamber pressures. However, the subsequent suggestion that right heart intracavitary pressure equals, or nearly equals, pericardial surface pressure is not strictly consistent with the physiology of pericardial constraint. If right heart pressure equals pericardial surface pressure, then transmural right heart pressure equals zero. Because of the difficulty in measuring pericardial pressure directly in the beating heart we designed an experiment in the recently arrested canine heart in situ to measure pericardial pressure indirectly and to test the hypothesis that right heart transmural pressure is zero under reasonably physiologic, static equilibrium conditions. According to a static equilibrium analysis of the pressures acting across the walls of the heart, at a given volume the change in right heart pressure caused by ...
What happens when the pericardium of the heart is removed - How does the pericardium improve the efficiency of the heart? By not interfering. A healthy pericardium is a very flexible, thin tissue that is "just there." it generally serves little purpose, other than to allow the chambers of the heart to expand outwards in a normal fashion, without resistance, as they fill with blood. If pericardium becomes inflamed, thickened or hardened, the heart loses this outward mobility, and pressure rises greatly as the heart tries to fill.
The regional distribution of adipose tissue (AT) is a major determinant of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. The mass of fat in the visceral area associates independently of obesity with the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases in a series of clinical and epidemiological studies.1 This led to the concept of a pathophysiological link between abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome. More recently, fat depots localized around the heart, highly variable among individuals, were proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of coronaropathy independently of other visceral depots (ie, in the omental and mesenteric area).2,3 The study by Greif et al3a in this issue of Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology highlights the association between pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) and the number of atherosclerotic plaques evaluated concomitantly by Dual source CT scan. This measurement was qualitatively interpretable in 264 consecutive patients with a large range of age, a ...
Given the complexity of Notch receptor and ligand expression during development of the epicardium and the coronary system, we assumed that redundancy between receptors and ligands, respectively, may necessitate the simultaneous removal of 2 or more genes to assign a Notch signaling requirement to these processes. We therefore decided to analyze the phenotypic consequences of removal of Rbpj that encodes a unique intracellular mediator of (canonical) Notch signaling.14 Because Rbpj-deficiency results in early embryonic lethality in mice,15 we used a tissue-specific inactivation approach using a Tbx18cre line generated in our laboratory and a floxed Rbpj allele to analyze Notch signaling function in the PEO and epicardium.10,12 The T-box transcription factor gene Tbx18 is strongly expressed in the PEO at E9.5, and in the epicardium until E16.5. Other cardiac expression domains include the sinus horn mesenchyme/myocardium, and the myocardium of the left ventricle and the interventricular septum ...
Resorbable Membranes Pericardium Pericardium membrane comes from the sac surrounding the heart. Pericardium functions as a thin pliable membrane that will lay flat on the grafting site. Select from dropdown. Choose from: DP101 | Size 1.0 x 1.0cm DP152 | Size 1.5 x 2.0cm DP203 | Size 2.0 x 3.0cm
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Our mathematical simulation and experimental data complement each other and provide evidence in support of the hypothesis that intrinsic heterogeneity exists within the ventricular myocardium and that this electrical heterogeneity is amplified when the normal direction of activation of the ventricular wall is reversed. Epicardial activation augments TDR because the epicardial action potential activates and repolarizes earlier and the M cells with the longest APD located in the deep subendocardium activate and repolarize later compared with endocardial activation of the ventricular wall. The additional conduction delay encountered between epicardial and M regions during epicardial stimulation contributes to the amplification of TDR. The extra delay in conduction between epicardium and the M region is likely due to the increased tissue resistivity in the deep subepicardium of the canine heart previously described by our group.15 Conduction time is briefer in the endocardial to epicardial ...
Context: Visceral adipose tissue (AT) is known to confer a significantly higher risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Epicardial AT has been shown to be related to cardiovascular disease and myocardial function through unidentified mechanisms. Epicardial AT expresses an inflammatory profile of proteins; however, the mechanisms responsible are yet to be elucidated. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to: 1) examine key mediators of the nuclear factor-B (NFB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways in paired epicardial and gluteofemoral (thigh) AT from coronary artery disease (CAD) and control patients and 2) investigate circulating endotoxin levels in CAD and control subjects. Design: Serums and AT biopsies (epicardial and thigh) were obtained from CAD (n = 16) and non-CAD (n = 18) patients. Inflammation was assessed in tissue and serum samples through Western blot, real-time PCR, ELISAs, and activity studies. Results: Western blotting showed epicardial AT had ...
Although Patel et al. (13) have discovered an important role for epicardial adipose tissue and ACE2/Ang 1-7 deficiency in obesity-related cardiomyopathy, there are some aspects that warrant further consideration. First, although it is clearly shown that in the absence of ACE2, epicardial adipose tissue differentiates into a proinflammatory phenotype, the authors do not reveal whether other adipose depots and organs also become inflamed in the model studied. This is important because it may be possible that ubiquitous ACE2 knockout leads to a generalized inflammatory response, including in the myocardium, which could directly impact on cardiac dysfunction independently of epicardial inflammation. However, cross talk between inflamed epicardial adipocytes and cardiomyocytes/fibroblasts may amplify underlying cardiac injury in ACE2 knockout mice. Such cross talk is evidenced by the findings that epicardial inflammation is linked to aberrant myocardial AMPK signaling and insulin resistance (13). To ...
Thin cap fibroatheromas (TCFAs) are thought to be the most common underlying substrate in patients suffering acute coronary thrombotic events. Recently, an interesting association between TCFAs and a particular depot of visceral fat called epicardial
41044-12-6 manufacture only pack-years (B?=?0.6, 95% CI: 0.5C1.3), BMI (B?=?7.8, 95% CI: 5.7C9.9) and 6 MWD (B?=??0.2, 95% CI: ?0.3C?0.1), predicted EAT volume. Conclusions EAT volume is usually increased in COPD patients and is independently associated with smoking history, BMI and exercise capacity, all modifiable risk factors of future cardiovascular events. EAT volume could be a non-invasive marker of COPD patients at high risk for future cardiovascular events. Introduction Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are two of the top causes of death worldwide [1]. COPD has been described as an independent risk factor for CVD (2) and the latter is a major cause of mortality in COPD, particularly in patients with moderate to moderate disease [3]C[5]. Non-invasive CVD markers may be important to identify COPD patients who are at high risk to develop future cardiovascular events. Beyond the traditional non-invasive CVD risk factors, several other have been ...
Primary Mesothelioma of the Pericardium BY JOHN THOMAS, M.Dl., AND JAMES M. IPHYTHYO,1X, M.D. MIesotheliomas of the pericardium are one of the causes of sanguineous pericardial effusion. C(linical and
Epicardium describes the outer layer of heart tissue (from Greek; epi- outer, cardium heart). When considered as a part of the pericardium, it is the inner layer, or visceral pericardium. Its largest constituent is connective tissue and functions as a protective layer. The visceral pericardium apparently produces the pericardial fluid, which lubricates motion between the inner and outer layers of the pericardium. During ventricular contraction, the wave of depolarization moves from endocardial to epicardial surface. ...
Email , Print SKU: PC0404SNBIO. SUPPLE PERI-GUARD Pericardium Patch is prepared from bovine pericardium which is cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. SUPPLE PERI-GUARD Pericardium Patch is chemically sterilized using ethanol and propylene oxide. SUPPLE PERI-GUARD Pericardium Patch is packaged in a container filled with sterile, non-pyrogenic water containing propylene oxide. The contents of the unopened, undamaged container are sterile. SUPPLE PERI-GUARD Pericardium Patch is available in four sizes. ...
The intrapericardial lead includes a lead body having a proximal portion and a flexible, pre-curved distal end portion. The distal end portion carries at least one electrode assembly containing an electrode adapted to engage pericardial tissue. The distal end portion further carries a pre-curved flexible wire member having ends attached to spaced apart points along the distal end portion of the lead body, the flexible wire member having a normally expanded state wherein an intermediate portion of the wire member is spaced apart from the distal end portion, and a generally straightened state wherein the wire member and the distal end portion are disposed in a more parallel, adjacent relationship so as to present a small frontal area to facilitate delivery into the pericardial space. The wire member re-expands to its normal state after delivery into the percaridal space to anchor the distal end portion of the lead body relative to the pericardial tissue.
The intrapericardial lead includes a lead body having a proximal portion and a flexible, pre-curved distal end portion. The distal end portion carries at least one electrode assembly containing an electrode adapted to engage pericardial tissue. The distal end portion further carries a pre-curved flexible wire member having ends attached to spaced apart points along the distal end portion of the lead body, the flexible wire member having a normally expanded state wherein an intermediate portion of the wire member is spaced apart from the distal end portion, and a generally straightened state wherein the wire member and the distal end portion are disposed in a more parallel, adjacent relationship so as to present a small frontal area to facilitate delivery into the pericardial space. The wire member re-expands to its normal state after delivery into the percaridal space to anchor the distal end portion of the lead body relative to the pericardial tissue.
Dusp6 is an important regulator of Ras/MAPK signaling, and this pathway is utilized to control epicardial cell activation, cardiomyocyte proliferation and angiogenesis. Previous reports based on in situ hybridization staining have revealed dusp6 expression within cardiomyocytes and in the epicardial layer (Han et al., 2014; Itou et al., 2012b). Here, using double-transgenic zebrafish, we found that the dusp6 promoter can drive memGFP expression in endothelial cells of the compact myocardium in uninjured hearts and, after amputation, that memGFP is induced in the nascent vessels in the injury area. This expression in endothelial cells is compelling given a recent study that showed nrg1 induction in perivascular cells and the rapid appearance of vessels soon after injury (Gemberling et al., 2015; Marin-Juez et al., 2016). Thus, dusp6 is expressed in the epicardium and cardiomyocytes and, after cardiac injury, is induced in endothelial cells at sites juxtaposed to cells expressing nrg1. Marin-Juez ...
The most important and, in quantity, the most represented tissues in the heart are the myocardium, the adipose tissue and the pericardium. The greatest volume is also represented by the heart chambers and the coronary vessels, which are normally filled with blood. To enable the computer to distinguish between these main different tissues, they were painted with six different Windows system colours, including the surrounding space that was coloured white. A set of photographs of X-Y thorax cross-sections from the VHD was used to begin with. Adobe Photoshop 4.0 was used for the basic graphic manipulation of the slices. The pericardium was determined first, and painted black. Selection was made with the very useful wand tool, which selects all neighbouring pixels with similar colours. It was noticed from the photographs that it is practically impossible to distinguish between the epicardium and pericardium; therefore, we do not distinguish these two tissues. Then everything around the pericardium ...
48 hours postoperatively. One case remained after hospital discharge with monoplegia and dyslalia. One patient had peripheral vascular complications at the site of arterial cannulation with thrombosis, which required embolectomy and raffia with a bovine pericardial patch at the second day after surgery. These complications occurred only in cases of aortic valve replacement in patients with severe stenosis and calcification of annulus and leaflets.. One patient underwent reoperation for mitral stenosis, pulmonary hemorrhage on the fourth postoperative day, after discharge from the ICU and was managed, again in the ICU, with mechanical ventilation. Another patient had pulmonary hemorrhage on discharge from the operating room, probably secondary to complications of selective cannulation, which occurred at 3rd postoperative day. Five (4.8%) patients underwent reoperation for bleeding, all through smaller incisions, only with the help of videoendoscopy.. Five patients, all of the group GcCPB, died ...
The mechanics of respiration and the pericardium are discussed in this video. The clinical correlations include emphysema, and pericarditis.
Daar, E, Woods, E, Keddie, JL, Nisbet, A and Bradley, DA (2010) Effect of penetrating ionising radiation on the mechanical properties of pericardium In: 11th International Symposium on Radiation Physics, 2009-09-20 - 2009-09-25, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA. Full text not available from this repository ...
Play Operate Now: Pericardium Surgery for free online at Gamesgames.com! |p|Get down to the OR, Doc! This young patient is experiencing chest pains and he needs your help...|/p|
The structural response of collagen fibrils in pericardium and other tissues when subjected to strain and the effect of cross linking on those structural changes are not well understood. Specifically, there is uncertainty about whether natural cross links of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and synthetic cross links of glut
The pericardium is a cone-shaped, fibro-serous sac which surrounds the heart and contains a small amount of fluid [liquor pericardii]. Its apex is above at the root of the great vessels, and its base below, adherent to the diaphragm. Its connection w...
Poster: ESCR 2015 / P-0038 / MRI of the Pericardium: What do we have to know? What do we have to look for? by: C. Saborido Avila, M. Rodríguez Álvarez, A. M. Afonso Centeno, B. Nieto Baltar, S. Barreiro Villalustre; VIGO/ES
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Relationship between epicardial adipose tissue volume measured using coronary computed tomography angiography and atherosclerotic plaque characteristics in patients with severe coronary artery stenosis Journal Article published 17 Sep 2013 in Journal of International Medical Research volume 41 issue 5 on pages 1520 to 1531 Authors: Dan-Dan Dong, Kai Wang, Dan Wang, Tong Zhang, Ying-Feng Tu, Bao-Zhong Shen. ...
HGF/Met drives cardiac repair and regeneration Different pools of progenitor cells contribute to cardiac regeneration: resident CPCs and circulating progenitor cells of various origins. HGF is secreted by MSCs, multipotent BM-derived cells, EPCs and adipose stem cells. HGF stimulates mobilization, expansion and differentiation of CPCs into the three main cardiac populations: cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and VSMCs. HGF/Met co-operates with Notch1 receptor, which regulates the cell fate of CPCs. Another source of progenitor cells is the epicardium. Epicardial cells secrete HGF and undergo the process of EMT, producing epicardial progenitor cells, which differentiate into cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and VSMCs. HGF-IgG protein complexes and the subsequent Wnt receptor activation are probably the molecular mechanism involved in EMT induction after injury. Finally, HGF mobilizes various different sources of circulating progenitor cells, such as MSCs, haemopoietic progenitor cells, ...
Ex. 41 Structure of the Heart. Fibrous pericardium (outermost). Parietal pericardium . (inside lining of outer covering). Percardial cavity (space between). Epicardium (visceral pericardium). Myocardium (cardiac muscle). Intercalated disc*. Musculi pectinate. Papillary muscle. Slideshow 661820 by hue
The heart is located within the mediastinum, or area between the lungs. The pericardial sac encapsulates the heart and parts of the great vessels. The...