TY - JOUR. T1 - Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism and systemic lupus erythematosus. T2 - A metaanalysis. AU - Lee, Young Ho. AU - Rho, Young Hee. AU - Choi, Seong Jae. AU - Ji, Jong Dae. AU - Song, Gwan Gyu. PY - 2006/4. Y1 - 2006/4. N2 - Objective. To explore whether insertion (1) and deletion (D) polymorphisms within intron 16 of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene confer susceptibility to systemic lupus erylhematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis (LN). Methods. We surveyed studies of ACE 1/D polymorphism and SLE using Medline and manual searches. We conducted a metaanalysis of the DD genotype (recessive effect). DD and D1 genotype (dominant effect), and D allele of the ACE overall and in each ethnic population. We performed a meta-analysis of ACE 1/D polymorphism in SLE and LN. Results. Thirteen comparison studies were included in our metaanalysis consisting of 1411 patients with SLE and 1551 controls. We found no association of ACE 1/D polymorphism with SLE ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of the ACE gene insertion/deletion polymorphism on insulin sensitivity and impaired glucose tolerance in healthy subjects. AU - Bonnet, Fabrice. AU - Patel, Sheila. AU - Laville, Martine. AU - Balkau, Beverley. AU - Favuzzi, Angela. AU - Monti, Lucilla D.. AU - Lalic, Nebojsa. AU - Walker, Mark. PY - 2008/4. Y1 - 2008/4. N2 - OBJECTIVE- Recent studies suggested that the blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may be associated with metabolic benefits. However, data about the potential influence of the ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) genotype on insulin resistance have been contradictory with studies of limited sample sizes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the ACE gene I/D polymorphism and both insulin sensitivity and glucose intolerance in a large cohort of healthy subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS- A total of 1,286 participants in the Relationship Between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Study had a 75-g ...
Results of the present study of white children confirm the previously described association of the ACE gene I/D polymorphism with serum ACE observed in white adults7 : The level of ACE activity was significantly higher in the white children with D alleles than with I alleles, whereas the level of ACE activity was intermediate in those who were heterozygous. On the other hand, in the black children, no association of the I/D polymorphism with serum ACE activity was found. There was thus a distinctly different association of the ACE gene polymorphism with the regulation of serum ACE activity in white and black children. Although in the present study there were fewer black subjects, especially in the II group, for the following reasons we feel that the absence of a significant association in blacks was not secondary to the smaller number of subjects. First, there was a significant interaction of race with the relationship of genotype to serum ACE activity (P=.02). Second, a power analysis indicated ...
Blood-borne angiotensin II is generated from angiotensinogen via cleavage by renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), an enzymatic cascade known as the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Several lines of evidence indicate that ACE, beyond its classical role of mediating blood pressure regulation, might contribute to the etiology of substance addictions by influencing dopaminergic signaling. A functional insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene was associated with risk for being a smoker among individuals with depression and with smoking severity in studies comprising patients with depression and healthy controls. Several reports have described significantly increased ACE activity in cerebrospinal fluid and serum among MS patients. Furthermore, in our previous work with MS patients from Croatian and Slovenian populations, we demonstrated that the ACE-I/D polymorphism contributes to an elevated MS risk among male patients. Here we investigated whether the ACE-I/D polymorphism might ...
The deletion allele of the insertion/deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene has been suggested to be an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction, particularly in subjects judged to be low-risk by the criteria of lipid status and body mass index. In a prospective, matched case-control study, we have investigated the role of this polymorphism as a risk factor for myocardial infarction in 173 newly-diagnosed British Caucasian non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects taken from the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study who subsequently developed myocardial infarction and 297 control subjects from the same study population matched for known cardiovascular risk factors including age at diagnosis of diabetes, gender, blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and smoking habit. A trend towards increased risk conferred by homozygosity for the deletion allele was observed in cases (odds ratio 1.63, p = 0.09). When
Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), which plays an important role in blood pressure regulation, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) involved in homocysteine metabolism belong to a large group of polypeptides which may be potential risk factors for atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD). To assess whether polymorphisms of the genes encoding these peptides are associated with CAD in Silesian we conducted a study among 68 individuals suffering from CAD (including 52 cases after myocardial infarction), 51 subjects with positive family history of CAD and 111 controls. We analysed the distribution of genotypes and allele frequencies of the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in the ACE gene using PCR amplification, and the C677→T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene using PCR-RFLP analysis. We found that D allele frequency was significantly higher in CAD patients (61%) than in controls (43%) (P = 0.001, OR = 2.06). The D allele carriers (DD + ID genotypes) were more frequent in ...
According to the World Health Organization, infertility, associated with metabolic syndrome, has become a global issue with a 10%-20% incidence worldwide. An accumulating body of evidence has shown that the renin-angiotensin system is involved in the fertility problems observed in some populations. Moreover, alterations in the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme-1, angiotensin-converting enzyme-2, and angiotensin-converting enzyme-3 might be one of the most important mechanisms underlying both female and male infertility. However, as a pseudogene in humans, further studies are needed to explore whether the abnormal angiotensin-converting enzyme-3 gene could result in the problems of human reproduction. In this review, the relationship between angiotensin-converting enzymes and fertile ability is summarized, and a new procedure for the treatment of infertility is discussed.
According to the World Health Organization, infertility, associated with metabolic syndrome, has become a global issue with a 10%-20% incidence worldwide. An accumulating body of evidence has shown that the renin-angiotensin system is involved in the fertility problems observed in some populations. Moreover, alterations in the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme-1, angiotensin-converting enzyme-2, and angiotensin-converting enzyme-3 might be one of the most important mechanisms underlying both female and male infertility. However, as a pseudogene in humans, further studies are needed to explore whether the abnormal angiotensin-converting enzyme-3 gene could result in the problems of human reproduction. In this review, the relationship between angiotensin-converting enzymes and fertile ability is summarized, and a new procedure for the treatment of infertility is discussed.
Pharmacogenetic testing to individualize ACE inhibitor therapy remains controversial. We conducted a systematic review to assess the effect modification of the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene on any outcome in patients treated with ACE inhibitors for cardiovascular and/or renal disease. Our systematic review involved searching six electronic databases, then contacting the investigators (and pharmaceutical industry representatives) responsible for the creation of these databases. Two reviewers independently selected relevant randomized, placebo-controlled trials and abstracted from each study details on characteristics and quality. Eleven studies met our inclusion criteria. Despite repeated efforts to contact authors, only four of the eleven studies provided sufficient data to quantify the effect modification by genotypes. We observed a trend towards better response to ACE inhibitors in Caucasian DD carriers compared to II carriers, in terms of blood pressure, proteinuria,
Background The insertion/deletion (ID) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been associated with increased coronary heart disease (CHD), although the mechanism of this association is not apparent. We tested the hypothesis that the deletion allele of the ACE gene is associated with insulin resistance. Methods and Results We related ACE genotype to components of the insulin-resistance syndrome in 103 non-insulin-dependent diabetic (NIDDM) and 533 nondiabetic white subjects. NIDDM subjects with the DD genotype had significantly lower levels of specific insulin (DD 38.6, ID 57.1, and II 87.4 pmol · L−1 by ANOVA, P=.011). Non-insulin-treated subjects with the DD genotype had increased insulin sensitivity by HOMA % (DD 56.4%, II 29.4%, P=.027) and lower levels of des 31,32 proinsulin (DD 3.3, II 7.6 pmol · L−1, P=.012) compared with II subjects. There were no differences in prevalence of CHD or levels of blood pressure, serum lipids, or plasminogen activator ...
In this international, large-scale, multicenter study from three European populations, we combined a family-based approach and a case-control analysis to analyze the role of several polymorphisms in ACE on DN. We found that DN in patients with type 1 diabetes was associated with the studied polymorphisms in this gene. This association was not limited to the ACE I/D polymorphism. Univariate and haplotype analysis suggested that this association was mainly related to the haplotype that carries the ACE_ID D allele.. In the European Rational Approach for the Genetics of Diabetic Complications (EURAGEDIC) program, we used a research strategy that consists of a candidate gene approach with a case-control design combined with a familial transmission analysis. This strategy to analyze trios with DN probands but also trios with non-DN probands was recently presented as relevant for diabetic kidney disease (30). In the studied populations, the risk for any founder effect is small as a result of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - ACE gene polymorphism and progression of diabetic nephropathy in Korean type 2 diabetic patients. T2 - Effect of ACE gene DD on the progression of diabetic nephropathy. AU - Ha, Sung Kyu. AU - Park, Hyeong Cheon. AU - Park, Hong Su. AU - Kang, Byung Seung. AU - Lee, Tae Hee. AU - Hwang, Hak Jin. AU - Kim, Seung Jung. AU - Kim, Do Hun. AU - Kang, Shin Wook. AU - Choi, Kyu Hun. AU - Lee, Ho Yung. AU - Han, Dae Suk. PY - 2003/5/1. Y1 - 2003/5/1. N2 - Background: Pathophysiological causes of the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy are not well known, but the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene polymorphism has been proposed to be involved in its development and progression. Methods: The impact of insertion/deletion (I/D) genotypes on the progression of diabetic nephropathy in 239 Korean patients with type 2 diabetes (99 patients with stable renal function, group 1; 140 patients with declining renal function, group 2) was investigated by retrospective review of ...
Introduction: Uterine leiomyomas arise from the proliferation of smooth muscle cells. ACE gene encodes a convertase enzyme mainly secreted in vascular endothelial cells which is involved in the renin–angiotensin system and blood pressure controlling. This gene has an insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism correlates to serum and tissue ACE levels. The aim of ...
In the present article we report that deletion polymorphism in the ACE gene is associated with an impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilation in a group of newly discovered, never-treated hypertensive patients. Our patients who were homozygous for deletion (DD) are characterized by significantly less endothelium-dependent vasodilation compared with subjects who were homozygous for insertion (II) and heterozygous (ID). Furthermore, the present data demonstrate that normotensive controls with a DD genotype had similar endothelium-dependent vascular responses when compared with these normotensive individuals with the non-DD genotype. Similarly, although the DD genotype among hypertensive patients was associated with further impairment of endothelium-dependent vasodilation, it must be noted that hypertensive patients with the non-DD genotype also had significantly impaired endothelium responses compared with normotensive controls. Thus, it is clear that it is hypertension and not the ACE ...
Saha, N.,Tay, J.S.H.,Basair, J.,Talmud, P.J.,Humphries, S.E. (1996). Lack of association of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Gene insertion/deletion polymorphism with CAD in two Asian populations. Clinical Genetics 50 (3) : 121-125. [email protected] Repository ...
Objectives: The aims of the study were to identify associations between ACE I/D and MTHFR C677T and AAA. Methods: A retrospective case-control study in which polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology was employed to identify associations between ACE I/D and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms and AAA. DNA was extracted from reasonably matched cases and controls after suitable screening for group assignment. There were a total of 1352 subjects genotyped for the MTHFR C677T polymorphism comprising 674 controls and 678 cases. Comparative figures for ACE I/D polymorphism genotyping were 812 and 1107, respectively. All statistical analyses were conducted using R programming software with user-written codes. Results: The ACE II, ID and DD genotype distributions in controls (177, 410 and 225) and cases (218, 529 and 270) were in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE), P=0.21.There was no difference in allele ("I" and "D") distributions between cases and controls (odds ratio(OR),1.001; 95% CI, 0.88-1.14; P =0.98). ...
Year. Nester-Anderson-Roberts: I IV. Infectious Diseases I 26. Nervous System I I © The McGraw-Hill. Microbiology, A Human Infections Companies, 2003. Perspective, Fourth Edition. Table 26.1 Meningococcal Meningitis. 26.2 Bacterial Nervous System Infections 669. © Neisseria meningitidis inhaled, infects upper airways.. @ Bacteria enter the bloodstream and are circulated throughout the body.. © The bacteria lodge in the skin and cause petechiae.. @ Bacteria on the meninges causes meningitis.. © Lysing bacteria in the circulation release endotoxin, producing shock.. © Inflammatory response in meninges can damage nerves of hearing causing deafness and obstruct the flow of cerebrospinal fluid causing increased pressure inside the brain.. @ Bacteria exit with respiratory secretions.. Symptoms. Incubation period Causative agent. Pathogenesis. Epidemiology. Prevention and treatment. Mild cold followed by headache, fever, pain, stiff neck and back, vomiting, petechiae 1 to 7 days. Neisseria ...
Proteomics is a rapidly emerging set of key technologies that are of major importance for proteins and drug development process, especially when mass spectrometry (MS) is being used for high-throughput characterization and identification of proteins. Since the safer and healthier angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are extremely concerned, many research groups have combed for novel ACE inhibitors from food components by different approaches. Here, shotgun proteomics technology aided with structure-activity analysis was applied to screen ACE inhibitory peptides from hydrolyzed red deer plasma. The peptides were analysed by mass spectrometry after primary separation with Sephadex G-25 chromatography. 36 peptides were identified by searching red deer database and 165 peptide sequences derived were identified in mammalian database. Amino acid sequences of peptide and bioactivity relationship have been developed as a faster and useful way to predict and screen new inhibitors. Depending ...
The effect of the D allele of ACE has been discussed within the context of IHD. A recent review16 that applied meta-analysis in examining the cause-and-effect relation between ACE I/D polymorphism and cardiovascular-renal risk among 49 959 subjects could not identify a significant association with hypertension but suggested its role as a marker of atherosclerotic cardiovascular complications and diabetic nephropathy. On the other hand, a large case-referent study that used the Copenhagen City Heart Study of 10 150 individuals did not detect any significant association in the development of myocardial infarction or any other manifestations of IHD.17 The previous study20 of a New Zealand population showed that increased risk for IHD is associated with the AGT T235 but not the ACE DD. In contrast, 2 recent reports8 9 that found an association between the ACE locus and essential hypertension suggest a unique sex-specific effect of ACE on hypertension.. We determined the ACE genotype of ,5000 ...
Several studies have shown that the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) I allele is associated with enhanced physical performance. We investigated whether this phenomenon is observed in a cohort of 67 Chinese men in Singapore. Angiotensin-converting enzyme ID polymorphism was typed with PCR method and maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) of the DD, ID, and II genotypes was compared. Analysis of covariance revealed that VO(2max) was significantly higher (p|0.05) for the DD genotype (57.86 +/- 3.5 ml.kg.(-1)min(-1)) versus the ID (50.58 +/- 1.80 ml.kg.(-1)min(-1)) or II (50.48 +/- 1.58 ml.kg.(-1) min(-1)) genotype. Our findings suggest that the ACE DD genotype in young adult Chinese males is associated with higher levels of VO(2max).
Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) hydrolyzes numerous peptides and is a critical participant in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. Elevated tissue ACE levels are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. Blood ACE concentrations are determined by proteolytic cleavage of ACE from the endothelial cell surface, a process that remains incompletely understood. In this study, we identified a novel ACE gene mutation (Arg532Trp substitution in the N domain of somatic ACE) that increases blood ACE activity 7-fold and interrogated the mechanism by which this mutation significantly increases blood ACE levels. We hypothesized that this ACE mutation disrupts the binding site for blood components which may stabilize ACE conformation and diminish ACE shedding. We identified the ACE-binding protein in the blood as lysozyme and also a Low Molecular Weight (LMW) ACE effector, bilirubin, which act in concert to regulate ACE conformation and thereby influence ACE
The RAS is activated during lung injury and plays a role in several pathological processes. In addition to the pulmonary endothelium, respiratory epithelium also possesses significant ACE activity. Fas-induced alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis is dependent on local AT-II production and interaction with it receptor.[10, 11] Further, AT-II is mitogenic for lung fibroblasts and aberrant AT-II production has been linked with some forms of pulmonary fibrosis[12, 18, 28-30]. Inhibition of AT-II with type 1 angiotensin receptor antagonists delayed the onset of ARDS and inhibited neutrophil influx into the lung in experimental models[14]. In adults, there is an increase in bronchoalveolar lavage ACE activity and AT-II during ALI, however the contribution of activation of the RAS to neonatal lung injury has received little study[6, 13].. The frequency of the D allele in our study population was not different than reported in our local population or for other groups[16, 24, 31]. The ACE D allele is ...
Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) hydrolyzes numerous peptides and is a critical participant in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. Elevated tissue ACE levels are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. Blood ACE concentrations are determined by proteolytic cleavage of ACE from the endothelial cell surface, a process that remains incompletely understood. In this study, we identified a novel ACE gene mutation (Arg532Trp substitution in the N domain of somatic ACE) that increases blood ACE activity 7-fold and interrogated the mechanism by which this mutation significantly increases blood ACE levels. We hypothesized that this ACE mutation disrupts the binding site for blood components which may stabilize ACE conformation and diminish ACE shedding. We identified the ACE-binding protein in the blood as lysozyme and also a Low Molecular Weight (LMW) ACE effector, bilirubin, which act in concert to regulate ACE conformation and thereby influence ...
1. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genotypes in hypertensive patients were studied in order to delineate their cardiovascular risk due to the ACE gene. We hypothesized that the distribution of ACE genotypes may change with age because of the risk of myocardial infarction associated with the homozygous deletional (DD) genotype. 2. A total of 223 subjects were recruited from the Hypertension Outpatient Clinic of the Sai Ying Pun Hospital with consent. They consisted of 75 patients with newly diagnosed or documented hypertension, 46 patients with ischaemic heart disease and 102 normal controls. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral leucocytes and amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Insertion (I) or deletion (D) alleles were identified after electrophoresis. The frequencies of ACE genotypes and alleles were measured in three age groups: | 50 years, 50-59 years and | or = 60 years. 3. A significant correlation between ACE genotype and age was found (P = 0.03). The relative frequency of the D
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is characterized by early diastolic and vascular dysfunction, which progresses into systolic dysfunction, resulting in heart failure.1-5 The RAS plays a central role in diabetic cardiomyopathy, and pharmacological inhibitors of the RAS are cornerstone to minimizing the cardiovascular complications. In an effort to determine the role of ACE2, we created ACE2-deficient Akita mice to determine the role of ACE2 in diabetic cardiomyopathy. The Akita murine model is a well-validated model of human diabetes16,22 and also displays features compatible with type 2 diabetes, including insulin resistance.23 Our study defines a critical role of ACE2 in suppressing the activation of the RAS in the heart such that loss of ACE2 results in increased Ang II/AT1 receptor signaling, adverse myocardial remodeling resulting in systolic dysfunction, vascular oxidative stress, and impaired flow-mediated dilation. In addition to its effects on the heart, Ang II affects virtually all vascular ...
The major finding of the present study was that ACE2 overexpression in vitro decreased HG-induced Ang-II production and collagen and TGF-β expression in cardiac fibroblasts, and ACE2 overexpression in vivo attenuated myocyte hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, and LV remodeling and improved LV systolic and diastolic function. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report the therapeutic effects of ACE2 overexpression in an animal model of DCM.. The most important pathological feature of DCM is the accumulation of ECM proteins, particularly in collagen, and DCM is different from other types of cardiomyopathy in the lack of an inflammatory response (8). Available evidence indicates that accumulation of ECM is mediated by hyperglycemia, and the RAS plays an important role in collagen production in DCM (6). Several studies have demonstrated that Ang-II increases collagen production in cultured cardiac fibroblasts in vitro. Recently, Singh et al. (7) observed that inhibition of ...
Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) expressed on the surface of endothelial cells is responsible for the last step in the synthesis of circulating angiotensin II and the inactivation of bradykinin. Mammalian ACE is also expressed in the prostate with other components of the renin-angiotensin system, and in developing spermatids, where the peptidase activity is known to be critical for normal sperm function. The importance of an ACE gene to male fertility has also been demonstrated in Drosophila melanogaster, where Ance is expressed in spermatids, and hypomorphic alleles of Ance cause a defect in spermiogenesis. Here we show that ANCE, which shares many enzymatic properties with mammalian ACE, is also a product of the male accessory gland of D. melanogaster. It is expressed in the secondary cells and is associated with the electron dense granule within the large vesicles of these cells. ACE proteolytic activity is lost from the accessory glands during mating, consistent with transfer to the ...
Authors: JM Forbes, SR Thorpe, V Thallas-Bonke, J Pete, MC Thomas, ER Deemer, S Bassal, A El-Osta, DM Long, S Panagiotopoulos, G Jerums, TM Osicka, ME Cooper
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dose-response studies with idrapril in the rat heart during acute myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion. AU - Riva, Emma. AU - Traquandi, Cristina. PY - 1996/10/3. Y1 - 1996/10/3. N2 - We assessed the effects of idrapril, a novel angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and captopril in the isolated rat heart after ischaemia and reperfusion and measured angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in myocardial tissue. Hearts were perfused and subjected to global ischaemia and reperfusion. Idrapril (0.1, 1, 10, and 50 μg/ml), captopril (80 μg/ml) or vehicle were given before ischaemia and throughout reperfusion. Post-ischaemic recovery of coronary flow was significantly decreased with 50 μg/ml of idrapril (43 ± 9% compared to 64 ± 3% in controls) whereas heart rate was unaffected. Recovery of developed pressure and activity of cardiac angiotensin-converting enzyme were significantly reduced by idrapril in a dose-dependent manner. This study suggests that protection or lack of ...
Admiraal PJ, Derkx FH, Danser AH, Pieterman H, et al. (1990). Metabolism and production of angiotensin I in different vascular beds in subjects with hypertension. Hypertension 15: 44-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.HYP.15.1.44 PMid:2403979 Bai H, Liu X, Liu R, Liu Y, et al. (2002). Angiotensinogen and angiotensin-I converting enzyme gene variations in Chinese pregnancy induced hypertension. Hua Xi Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 33: 233-237. PMid:12575194 Bouba I, Makrydimas G, Kalaitzidis R, Lolis DE, et al. (2003). Interaction between the polymorphisms of the renin-angiotensin system in preeclampsia. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 110: 8-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0301-2115(03)00046-0 Chen B, Zhuo J and Zhou L (2006). Study on the polymorphism of angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene in pregnancy•induced hypertension syndrome. Iian Yan Yi Xue 21: 39-41. Deng W, Shi B, He X, Zhang Z, et al. (2004). Evolution and migration history of the Chinese population inferred from Chinese Y-chromosome ...
The central role of angiotensin I-converting enzyme in vertebrate pathophysiology.: Genomic epidemiologic data, increasingly supported by clinical outcomes resu
The objective of the study is to know the frequencies of insertion/deletion (I/D) allele and association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), I/D polymorphism in Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) populations in relation to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension (HTN). A total of 500 individuals were recruited for the present study. Out of these 500 individuals, 250 individuals had T2DM and HTN and 250 were healthy controls. Genotyping was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using allele specific oligonucleotide primers. The allele frequency for I allele and D allele was found to be 63% and 37% in patients with T2DM and HTN and 48% and 52% for healthy controls. Genotype frequency for homozygote insertion (II), heterozygote (ID) and homozygote deletion (DD) allele was in range of 99.23, 116.55 and 34.23 for patients with T2DM and HTN and 56.64, 124.71 and 68.64 for healthy controls. ID versus II+ID model for odds showed a significant association of ACE I/D polymorphism with T2DM and
Discuss the medication that may have caused him to deteriorate - What is the enzyme that converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II and where is this normally
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in the guinea pig fetal-placental unit was assessed at the different oxygen tensions found in utero, during labor, and at birth. To determine fetal-placental ACE activity, we separately perfused in situ term guinea pig fetuses and their placentas via the umbilical vessels under controlled conditions of flow, temperature, and pH. ACE activity was defined as the percent of angiotensin I (AO) or bradykinin (BK) in Krebs-Henseleit solution cleared by a single passage through the placenta or fetus. Peptide concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Using BK as substrate, we found that placental and fetal ACE activities were reflected by 45% (SD = 10) and 24% (SD = 7) clearances, respectively, at a perfusate PO2 of 29 mm Hg. Maternal hypoxia (PaO2 = 28 mm Hg) decreased placental ACE activity to 16% (SD = 8) and maternal hyperoxia (PaO2 = 191 mm Hg) increased placental ACE activity to 56% (SD = 9). Using a perfusate PO2 of 95 mm Hg, fetal and ...
Perticone and colleagues used forearm strain gauge plethysmography to assess endothelial function in patients with never-treated hypertension.3 They observed an association between the DD genotype and endothelial dysfunction. In the normotensive control group, however, no association was present. This led them to the conclusion that the ACE polymorphism did not provide the most important component of endothelial dysfunction. Contrary to these results were the findings of Butler and colleagues4 who demonstrated an association between the insertion/deletion and endothelial function in healthy young men.. To our knowledge there are no previous reports on the relation between ACE polymorphism and in vivo epicardial coronary endothelial function. Our results agree with the forearm findings of Butler and colleagues.4 We found an association between the DD genotype and deteriorated endothelial function in both normal and dilated coronary artery segments in patients with few risk factors. The dominant ...
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This study demonstrates that knockout of the ACE gene in mice caused a decrease in lipid peroxide content in their sera and peritoneal macrophages. Injection of Ang II into ACE+/− mice increased macrophage lipid peroxidation and the macrophages ability to oxidize LDL to levels similar to those found in ACE+/+ mice. Crossbreeding of E0 mice with the ACE+/− mice resulted in offspring homozygous for APOE and heterozygous for ACE, and these animals exhibited decreased atherogenesis compared with E0 mice. These mice demonstrated significant reduced serum, macrophage, and aortic oxidative stress compared with E0 mice. Most important, reduced oxidative stress in ACE+/−/E0 mice was associated with reduced atherosclerotic lesion area compared with age-matched, E0 mice.. In this study, we used a model of knockout mouse, the ACE-knockout mouse type-2,20 which expresses a truncated form of somatic ACE and thus, exhibits reduced plasma ACE activity but completely lacks tissue ACE. The use of ...
Because this piece has no abstract, we have provided for your benefit the first 3 sentences of the full text.. Sir: Nicotine abuse and dependence is a complex addictive disorder with a pronounced genetic background. In addition, it is one of the strongest risk factors for cardiovascular disorders (CVD). It has been extensively discussed whether the known high comorbidity between CVD and major depressive disorder (MDD) is more likely determined by biological, such as genetic, variables or by behavioral changes caused by depression, which in turn enhance cardiovascular risks. Functional polymorphisms of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene are susceptibility factors for MDD.​ ...
Novelty: Determination of glycosylation on SARS-CoV-2 S protein and human ACE2. The authors found that glycans conceal the vast majority of the S protein, which could help immune evasion. Similarly to SARS-CoV1, binding affinity between the S protein and ACE2 is not affected by glycosylation of the S protein and ACE2. The authors also found methylation and hydroxyproline in the S protein and ACE2. Standing in the field: The large coverage by glycans of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein and the binding affinity between the S protein and ACE2 are in agreement with the literature. Several other aspects of SARS-CoV-2 S protein, mostly oligomannose glycans, no or few sialic acid incorporation, no phosphorylation and acetylation, are in line with what have been observed for SARS-CoV1. Similarly, deglycosylation of ACE2 does not affect the binding affinity of the SARS-CoV1 spike protein. Appropriate statistics: Mention of duplicates, but actually only one sample was tested for some of the in vitro work. Should ...
Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2) is an exopeptidase that catalyses the conversion of angiotensin I to the nonapeptide angiotensin[1-9], or the conversion of angiotensin II to angiotensin 1-7. ACE 2 has direct effects on cardiac functiona, and is expressed predominantly in vascular endothelial cells of the heart and the kidneys. ACE 2 is the receptor for SARS virus. Renin-angiotensin system ACE inhibitors GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000130234 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000015405 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Donoghue M, Hsieh F, Baronas E, Godbout K, Gosselin M, Stagliano N, Donovan M, Woolf B, Robison K, Jeyaseelan R, Breitbart RE, Acton S (Sep 2000). "A novel angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9". Circulation Research. 87 (5): E1-9. doi:10.1161/01.res.87.5.e1. PMID 10969042. Keidar S, Kaplan M, Gamliel-Lazarovich A (Feb 2007). "ACE2 of the ...
Page 1 of 2 - Can Covid 19 And Human Ace2 Receptor Interaction Be Stopped By Lysine And Lysne Analouges - posted in Medical and Health Science: CAN LYSINE AND LYSINE ANALOUGES HAVE POTENTIAL ROLE IN PREVENTING VIRAL SPIKE PROTEIN AND ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME 2 (ACE2) ECTODOMAIN INTERACTION An OBSERVATION INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 or SARS COV 2, is a beta coronavirus, with a positive sense single stranded RNA, responsible for the current 2020 Coronavirus pandem...
This article, summarizing a paper just published in Developmental Cell, describes an interesting finding that fits with GEITPs theme of gene-environment interactions: the environmental signal is "smoking" and the genome response includes "up-regulation of the ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme-2) gene." These data would suggest that ACE2 is part of the AHR-CYP1 axis that governs the expression of dozens if not hundreds of genes that are turned on in response to specific environmental and endogenous signals. In fact, induced ACE2 expression likely is secondary to stimulation of the pro-inflammatory processes, mediated by lipid mediator [e.g. downstream of arachidonic acid (AA), eicosopentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) signaling] second-messenger pathways. [Reviewed in Progr Lipid Res 2017; 67: 38-57] DwN. Smoking May Exacerbate SARS-CoV-2 Infection by Increasing ACE2 Expression. May 20, 2020. Whether smokers have a harder time dealing with a COVID-19 infection remains, like ...
Several studies have suggested that Insertion/Deletion polymorphism of ApoB gene is associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD).
BACKGROUND: The Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) is one of the most important components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system controlling blood pressure and renal functions. Inhibitors of ACE are first line therapeutics used in the treatment of hypertension and related cardiovascular diseases. Somatic ACE consists of two homologous catalytic domains, the C- and N-domains. Recent findings have shown that although both domains are highly homologous in structure, they may have different physiological functions. The C-domain is primarily involved in the control of blood pressure, in contrast to the N-domain that is engaged in the regulation of hematopoietic stem cell proliferation. The currently available ACE inhibitors have some adverse effects that can be attributed to the non-selective inhibition of both domains. In addition, specific Ndomain inhibitors have emerged as potential antifibrotic drugs. Therefore, ACE is still an important drug target for the development of novel ...
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is a critical determinant in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases and in the control of male fertility. Multiple isoforms of ACE protein are present in body fluids and tissues, but their formation and functions in vivo remain to be investigated. To determine whether alternative splicing contributes to the formation of ACE isoforms, this study was designed to clone all possible spliced transcripts in rat. We found that the splicing of intron 13 in testicular ACE was species-dependent. Compared with human and mouse testicular ACE, rat testicular ACE (rtACE) retained intron 13 in its mature transcripts. The insertion of the intron 13 did not change or shift the reading frame. Cloning and characterization of the rtACE showed that, in addition to testicular tissue, it was wildly expressed in somatic tissues, such as lung, kidney, cardiac ventricle, and skeletal muscle from both genders. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the expression of rtACE was ...
ZEDER-LUTZ, Gabrielle, ZIDANE, F., LEGRANI, K., DARY, A., MICLO, L., ALTSCHUH, Danièle et CAKIR-KIEFER, C., 2014. Binding mechanism of pharmacological inhibitors and antihypertensive food peptides to human somatic angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). . avril 2014. 1 ...
an antihypertensive drug that blocks the formation of angiotensin II in the kidney, leading to relaxation of the arteries; promotes the excretion of salt and water by inhibiting the activity of the angiotensin converting enzyme; also used to treat congestive heart failure. ...
People with asthma and allergies have reduced angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) gene expression and this may offer protection against severe COVID-19 illness, a new study suggests.
Complete information for ACE gene (Protein Coding), Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for ACE gene (Protein Coding), Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium