Abstract:RNA chain elongation through assembled transcription complexes was uneven but relatively rapid: at 20°C with 1 mM NTPs, the fastest RNA chains elongated at an average rate of 29 nucleotides (nt)/second, and the median RNA chains elongated at 21 to 22 nt/second on average. An average RNA chain elongation rate of 21 to 22 nt/second at 1 mM NTPs could be derived for the median RNA chain from Figure 2(d), as already mentioned, and an extrapolated value of 7.2 nt/second at 100µM NTPs from Figure 2(c). [Investigators] have found that RNA chain elongation by Pol III is also uneven. The yeast Pol III in vitro system has a relatively high rate of chain elongation: at 20°C, with 1 mM NTPs, the fastest chains elongate at 29 nt/seconds and the median elongation rate is 21 to 22 nt/seconds ...
Reticulocalbin 1 is a calcium-binding protein that belongs to the elongation factor (EF) family and is located in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In humans, reticulocalbin 1 is encoded by the RCN1 gene. It contains six conserved regions with similarity to a high-affinity calcium-binding motif known as the EF hand. Other functions besides calcium binding have been proposed for reticulocalbin 1 in mouse, but its role is not clear. Expression of reticulocalbin 1 in human endothelial and prostate cancer cell lines demonstrates its localization to the plasma membrane. Reticulocalbin 1 is also known as reticulocalbin 1, EF-hand calcium binding domain; RCN, RCAL, proliferation-inducing gene 20 (PIG20), and FLJ370411.. ...
The biosynthesis and activity of the translational apparatus, encompassing rRNA, ribosomal proteins, tRNA, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, translation factors, and modifying enzymes, represent a major investment of cellular resources. This chapter summarizes available information about translational gene organization and expression in Bacillus subtilis and other gram-positive organisms, incorporating new information from the B. subtilis genome sequence, and provides comparisons to the extensive information available about these systems in Escherichia coli. Additional ribosomal protein genes are scattered around the genome, either alone or in small groups. All are transcribed in the same direction as DNA replication, with the exception of rpsD, rpsT, and rpmB. Translation elongation requires elongation factor (EF)-Tu to bring aminoacylated tRNA into the A site of the elongating ribosome, EF-Ts to recycle EF-Tu from its inactive GDP-bound state to the GTP-bound state required for tRNA binding, and EFG, which
The Department of Energys (DOEs) new energy efficiency mandates, which take effect April 16, 2015, will require higher energy factor (EF) ratings on virtually all residential gas, electric, oil, and tankless gas water heaters. These changes will impact how water heaters are manufactured, distributed, and installed.. ...
Here we show that most macromolecular biosynthesis reactions in growing bacteria are sub-saturated with substrate. The experiments should in part test predictions from a previously proposed model (Jen
Studies on the high molecular weight form of polypeptide chain elongation factor-1 from pig liver. III. Temperature-dependent dissociation into subunits in the presence of GTP.:III. Temperature-Dependent Dissociation into Subunits in the Presence of GTP (1983 ...
On-road measurement of black carbon (BC), NOx and particle number (PN) emission factors (EF) by chasing vehicles is the first such study where BC EFs of many individual diesel cars were determined in real-world conditions. Median BC EF of diesel and gasoline cars in use for ...
The report generally describes methyl 14-methylhexadecanoate, examines its uses, production methods, patents. METHYL 14-METHYLHEXADECANOATE market situation
Ribosomal translocation is a step in both: Eukaryotic elongation and Prokaryotic elongation during translation of messenger RNA into ...
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether radiolabeled iodoerythronitroimidazole (IETNIM) could predict the radiosensitization effect on tumors. Tumor-bearing mice were irradiated at a dose of 25, 31 and 37 Gy after the injection of IETNIM. They were also exposed to 37 Gy radiation at 35, 70, 140 and 240 min after the i.p. injection of IETNIM. After the irradiation, tumor growth assays were conducted and the effect of IETNIM as a radiosensitizer was estimated as enhancement factor (EF). Tumor uptake was measured at 35, 70, 140 and 240 min after i.p. injection of [131I]IETNIM, which were the same intervals used in the radiosensitization study. EF of IETNIM in mice treated with 25, 30 and 37 Gy irradiation was 0.72, 0.98 and 1.28, respectively. EF of IETNIM in mice irradiated at 35, 70, 140 and 240 min after the injection was 1.50, 1.69, 1.46 and 1.08, which corresponded to the tumor uptake and blood clearance of [131I]IETNIM. [131I]IETNIM may be a suitable radiopharmaceutical to predict the ...
Mitochondrial GTPase that mediates the disassembly of ribosomes from messenger RNA at the termination of mitochondrial protein biosynthesis. Acts in collaboration with MRRF. GTP hydrolysis follows the ribosome disassembly and probably occurs on the ribosome large subunit. Not involved in the GTP-dependent ribosomal translocation step during translation elongation.
A recent biological study has demonstrated that the gene expression pattern entrains to a periodically varying abundance of tRNA molecules. This motivates developing mathematical tools for analyzing entrainment of translation elongation to intra-cellular signals such as tRNAs levels and other factors affecting translation. We consider a recent deterministic mathematical model for translation called the Ribosome Flow Model (RFM). We analyze this model under the assumption that the elongation rate of the tRNA genes and/or the initiation rate are periodic functions with a common period T. We show that the protein synthesis pattern indeed converges to a unique periodic trajectory with period T. The analysis is based on introducing a novel property of dynamical systems, called contraction after a short transient (CAST), that may be of independent interest. We provide a sufficient condition for CAST and use it to prove that the RFM is CAST, and that this implies entrainment. Our results support the ...
SORMANI R. , DELANNOY E. , LAGEIX S. , BITTON F. , LANET E. , SAEZ-VASQUEZ J. , DERAGON J. M. , RENOU J. P. , ROBAGLIA C. Plant and Cell Physiology 52(2), 436-447, 2011-02-01 References (48) ...
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Catalyzes the GTP-dependent ribosomal translocation step during translation elongation. During this step, the ribosome changes from the pre-translocational (PRE) to the post-translocational (POST) state as the newly formed A-site-bound peptidyl-tRNA and P-site-bound deacylated tRNA move to the P and E sites, respectively. Catalyzes the coordinated movement of the two tRNA molecules, the mRNA and conformational changes in the ribosome ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Participation of guanine nucleotides in nucleation and elongation steps of microtubule assembly.. AU - Karr, T. L.. AU - Podrasky, A. E.. AU - Purich, D. L.. PY - 1979/11. Y1 - 1979/11. N2 - Critical concentrations for formation of microtubules from subunits with GTP and its beta, gamma-imido and beta, gamma-methylene analogs are similar when adequate time is given for equilibration. Dilution of microtubules into GTP and GDP yielded values of 0.1 and 0.19 mg/ml for the critical concentration, results similar to those reported by Carlier and Pantaloni [Carlier, M. & Pantaloni, D. (1978) Biochemistry 17, 1908-1915]. GDP is capable of supporting elongation of preformed microtubules, but it efficiently poisons the nucleation events. Reported experiments also demonstrate that the critical tubulin concentration of the tubulin-GDP complex can be accurately measured in both the assembly and disassembly directions. Evidence is presented that GTP is involved in early nucleation events but ...
Codon-specific Markov process for translation elongation based on 12 ribosomal states for each codon .The elongation cycle starts in state 0 corresponding to a
The assignment of specific ribosomal functions toindividual ribosomal proteins is difficult due to the enormous cooperativity of the ribosome; however, important roles for distinct ribosomal proteins are becoming evident
COORDINATES OF S12, L11 PROTEINS AND E-SITE TRNA FROM 70S CRYSTAL STRUCTURE SEPARATELY FITTED INTO THE CRYO-EM MAP OF E.COLI 70S.EF-G.GDPNP COMPLEX. THE ATOMIC COORDINATES ORIGINALLY FROM THE E-SITE TRNA WERE FITTED IN THE POSITION OF THE HYBRID P/E-SITE TRNA. ...
64:-How many conformational changes occurs to ribosomes, coupled with GTP hydrolysis during each cycle of chain elongation in translation ? ...
The kinase eEF2K [eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) kinase] controls the rate of peptide chain elongation by phosphorylating eEF2, the protein that mediates the movement of the ribosome along the mRNA by promoting translocation of the transfer RNA from the A to the P site in the ribosome. eEF2K-mediated phosphorylation of eEF2 on threonine 56 (Thr56) decreases its affinity for the ribosome, thereby inhibiting elongation. Here, we show that in response to genotoxic stress, eEF2K was activated by AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase)-mediated phosphorylation on serine 398. Activated eEF2K phosphorylated eEF2 and induced a temporary ribosomal slowdown at the stage of elongation. Subsequently, during DNA damage checkpoint silencing, a process required to allow cell cycle reentry, eEF2K was degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system through the ubiquitin ligase SCFβTrCP (Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein, β-transducin repeat-containing protein) to enable rapid resumption of translation ...
Understanding the mechanisms behind translation and its rate-limiting steps is crucial for both the development of drug targets and improvement of heterologous protein production with many biotechnological applications, such as in pharmaceutical and biofuel industries. Despite many advances in the knowledge of the ribosome structure and function, there is still much discussion around the determinants of translation elongation with experiments and computational studies pointing in different directions. Here, we use a stochastic framework to simulate the process of translation in the context of an Escherichia coli cell by gathering the available biochemical data into a ribosome kinetics description. Our results from the study of translation in E. coli at different growth rates contradict the increase of mean elongation rate with growth rate established in the literature. We show that both the level of tRNA competition and the type of cognate binding interaction contribute to the modulation of ...
Peptide-bond formation is the enzymatic activity of the ribosome. The catalytic site is made up of ribosomal RNA, indicating that the ribosome is a ribozyme. This review summarizes the recent progress in understanding the mechanism of peptide bond formation. The results of biochemical and kinetic experiments, mutagenesis studies and ribosome crystallography suggest that the approx. 107-fold rate enhancement of peptide bond formation by the ribosome is mainly due to substrate positioning within the active site, rather than to chemical catalysis.. ...
apg:APA12_09310 K02358 elongation factor Tu , (GenBank) translation elongation factor Tu (EF-TU) (A) MAKAKFERNKPHCNIGTIGHVDHGKTSLTAAITKTLAKKGGAEFKAYDQIDAAPEERARG ITISTAHVEYETDNRHYAHVDCPGHADYVKNMITGAAQMDGAILVVSAADGPMPQTREHI LLARQVGVPALVVFLNKVDQVDDPELLELVEMEVRELLSSYQFPGDDVPIIKGSALVTLE DGDPEIGENRVRDLMDAVDSYIPQPERPVDRPFLMPIEDVFSISGRGTVVTGRVERGVIN VGDEIEIVGLKPTTKTTVTGVEMFRKLLDRGEAGDNIGALLRGTKREDVERGQVLAKPGS ITPHKKFKAEAYILTKEEGGRHTPFFTNYRPQFYFRTTDVTGVVHLPEGTEMVMPGDNCA MEVELIAPIAMDEGLRFAIREGGRTVGAGVVSSIIE ...
A unique polypeptide, called enhancing factor (EF), which enhances the binding of labeled epidermal growth factor (EGF) to cells, has been isolated. It has been purified to homogeneity from the acid-soluble proteins of mouse intestines. Earlier, EF was partially purified by two cycles of gel-permeation chromatography on Bio-Gel columns. We now report the final purification of EF on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), using a reverse-phase column (μBondapak C18). The purity of the protein was confirmed when a single peak was obtained in HPLC. Also, a single protein band was obtained in SDS-PAGE. Purified EF has the same properties in vitro as those reported earlier for partially purified EF. ...
csh:Closa_3780 K02358 elongation factor Tu , (GenBank) translation elongation factor Tu (A) MAKAKFERNKTHCNIGTIGHVDHGKTTLTAAITKTLHERLGTGQAVAFENIDKAPEERER GITISTSHVEYETEKRHYAHVDCPGHADYVKNMITGAAQMDGAILVVAATDGVMAQTREH ILLSRQVGVPYIVVFMNKCDMVDDAELLELVDMEIRELLNEYEFPGDDTPIIQGSALKAL EDPSSSWGDKVLELMAAVDEWIPDPVRETDKPFLMPIEDVFSITGRGTVATGRVERGTLH VSDEVEIVGIHEETRKVVVTGIEMFRKLLDEAQAGDNIGALLRGVQRTEIERGQCLVKPG SVKCHKKFTAQVYVLTKDEGGRHTPFFNNYRPQFYFRTTDVTGVCDLPAGTEMCMPGDNV EMSVELIHPVAMEQGLRFAIREGGRTVGSGRVVTIVE ...
Ribosomal protein P2 alpha, a component of the ribosomal stalk, which is involved in the interaction between translational elongation factors and the ...
Ribosomal protein P2 beta, a component of the ribosomal stalk, which is involved in the interaction between translational elongation factors and the ...
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Protein biosynthesis information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
Catalyzes the GTP-dependent ribosomal translocation step during translation elongation. During this step, the ribosome changes from the pre-translocational (PRE) to the post-translocational (POST) state as the newly formed A-site-bound peptidyl-tRNA and P-site-bound deacylated tRNA move to the P and E sites, respectively. Catalyzes the coordinated movement of the two tRNA molecules, the mRNA and conformational changes in the ribosome (By similarity).
Regulation of gene expression is one of the most important problems analyzed in systems biology. It involves, among other, interactions of mRNA with miRNA - a small (21-25 nt) single-stranded non-coding RNA molecule. Its main function is post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression leading to gene silencing. It is achieved either by inhibition of translation or by degradation of mRNA. The detailed mechanisms employed include inhibition of attaching the 60s ribosomal subunit, premature ribosome drop-off or inhibition of protein elongation process, cleavage of mRNA or destabilization of mRNA. Another mechanism of regulation of gene expression involves reactive oxygen species (ROS - radical and non-radical oxygen species formed by the partial reduction of oxygen) which, being released from mitochondrium cytochrome C and inducing DNA damage, induce the apoptosis pathway. ROS level can be regulated by antioxidant systems existing in a cell. This paper presents analysis of a model of gene ...
Bacterial protein synthesis is intricately connected to metabolic rate. One of the ways in which bacteria respond to environmental stress is through posttranslational modifications of translation factors. Translation elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) is methylated and phosphorylated in response to nutrient starvation upon entering stationary phase, and its phosphorylation is a crucial step in the pathway toward sporulation. We analyze how phosphorylation leads to inactivation of EF-Tu. We provide structural and biophysical evidence that phosphorylation of EF-Tu at T382 acts as an efficient switch that turns off protein synthesis by decoupling nucleotide binding from the EF-Tu conformational cycle. Direct modifications of the EF-Tu switch I region or modifications in other regions stabilizing the β-hairpin state of switch I result in an effective allosteric trap that restricts the normal dynamics of EF-Tu and enables the evasion of the control exerted by nucleotides on G proteins. These results ...
Ribosomes are the particles that catalyse mRNA-directed protein synthesis in all organisms. The codons of the mRNA are exposed on the ribosome to allow tRNA binding. This leads to the incorporation of amino acids into the growing polypeptide chain in accordance with the genetic information. Incoming amino acid monomers enter the ribosomal A site in the form of aminoacyl-tRNAs complexed with elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and GTP. The growing polypeptide chain, situated in the P site as peptidyl-tRNA, is then transferred to aminoacyl-tRNA and the new peptidyl-tRNA, extended by one residue, is translocated to the P site with the aid the elongation factor G (EF-G) and GTP as the deacylated tRNA is released from the ribosome through one or more exit sites [PUBMED:11297922, PUBMED:11290319]. About 2/3 of the mass of the ribosome consists of RNA and 1/3 of protein. The proteins are named in accordance with the subunit of the ribosome which they belong to - the small (S1 to S31) and the large (L1 to ...
This gene encodes a multifunctional protein that localizes to both the cytoplasm and nucleus. In the cytoplasm, the encoded protein is an auxiliary component of the macromolecular aminoacyl-tRNA synthase complex. However, its mouse homolog has been shown to translocate to the nucleus in response to DNA damage, and it plays a positive role in ATM/ATR-mediated p53 activation. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Read-through transcription also exists between this gene and the neighboring downstream MUTED (muted homolog) gene. An EEF1E1-related pseudogene has been identified on chromosome 2.
At crucial points in the metabolism of all organisms, a protein with the unwieldy name of Translation Elongation Factor P (EF-P, for short) takes center stage. What it actually does during protein synthesis has only now been elucidated - by researchers at LMU.. The research group led by Kirsten Jung, Professor of Microbiology at LMU, actually focused on how bacteria cope with stress, for example how the receptor meolecule CadC monitors the acidity in the environment and alerts the cell to take countermeasures to protect itself. However, one day Kirsten Jung found herself asking questions about protein synthesis, the core biosynthetic process that makes all metabolism possible. This arose because she discovered that, in the absence of Elongation Factor P, the cell doesn´t make enough CadC to carry out its job effectively.. Recovering from a stall. How then does EF-P regulate protein synthesis in general, and, in particular, the synthesis of CadC? In collaboration with Daniel Wilson´s group at ...
eEF-2 kinase, an adverse regulator of health proteins functionality as a result of terminating peptide elongation, can be overexpressed in different sorts of neoplasms such as malignant glioma plus cancers of the breast. Hang-up of eEF-2 kinase generates a dropped viability of unknown growth tissue. Previous scientific studies from the set as well as others get established that eEF-2 kinase participates in the induction connected with autophagy responding to several mobile phone tensions, underscoring the value of eEF-2 kinase like a regulator regarding autophagy. Given that Akt is regarded as an effective therapeutic aim for intended for melanoma treatment method, we wished to learn no matter if eEF-2 kinase had been mixed up in the account activation connected with autophagy caused by Akt hang-up. Most people found out that silencing of eEF-2 kinase prevents a autophagic effect activated simply by Akt hang-up frequently by means of MK-2206 or even by means of RNA interference throughout people ...
Potential respiration is a better respiratory predictor than biomass in young Artemia salina. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
TABLE-US-00004 TABLE 4 Mechanical properties of cured and uncured film samples. Compar- Compar- Compar- Film ative ative ative Properties 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Molding 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 350 Temp, F. Before UV crosslinking Stress at 668 1424 1360 1433 1444 1118 1275 1446 1390 1462 1476 1254 2133 1751 Break, psi Elongation at 871 1350 1289 1263 1307 1181 1246 1364 1343 1342 1419 1416 1356 1420 break, (%) 100% Mod. 240 244 228 244 234 227 233 223 214 235 256 222 344 484 (MPa) Energy at 5.3 12.1 11.5 11.9 12.1 9.2 10.6 12.7 11.8 12.6 14.5 12.3 20.2 20 Break, in*lbf UV crosslinked Speed of 65 ft/min the belt (65 ft/min) Number of One passes (One) Stress at 1388 1330 sample 1516 1229 1474 1387 1020 1194 1250 1419 1409 11943 2200 Break, psi lost Elongation at 1273 1214 during 1309 1253 1255 1263 1100 1232 1203 1358 1439 1216 1483 break, (%) UV test 100% Mod., 249 255 234 229 242 243 228 220 241 244 228 342 331 psi Energy at 11.8 10.9 12.3 10.3 12.1 11.7 8.3 ...
Polyglutamase which preferentially modifies alpha-tubulin. Involved in the side-chain elongation step of the polyglutamylation reaction rather than in the initiation step (By similarity). Required for CCSAP localization to both spindle and cilia microtubules (PubMed:22493317). Generates long side-chains (By similarity ...
Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering, edited by A Nather & JCH Goh, pp. 263-265. Singapore: National University of Singapore, 3 December 1997. (Paper presented at 9th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering, 3-6 December 1997, Mandarin Hotel, Singapore). Subject: ...
Ribosomes are responsible for the synthesis of all cellular proteins. It was initially believed that translating nascent chains would not interact with the ribosome exit tunnel, however, a small but increasing number of proteins have been identified that interact with the exit tunnel to induce translational arrest. Escherichia coli (E.coli) secretion monitor (SecM) is one such stalling peptide. SecM monitors the SecYEG translocon export activity through its own translocation to the periplasm and upregulates translation of SecA, an ATPase involved in the SecYEG translocation machinery, when translocation is reduced. How stalling peptides interact with the ribosome exit tunnel is not fully understood, however, a key feature required is an essential amino acid arrest motif at their C-terminus, and additionally some peptides, including SecM, undergo compaction of the nascent chain within the exit tunnel upon stalling.. In this study analysis of SecM peptides with both alanine and conservative ...
Anthrax toxin. Anthrax is primarily a disease of herbivores caused by gram-positive, aerobic, spore-forming Bacillus anthracis. Humans are accidental hosts through the food of animal origin and animal products. Anthrax is prevelant in most parts of the globe, and cases of anthrax have been reported from almost every country. Three forms of the disease have been recognized: cutaneous (through skin), gastrointestinal (through alimentary tract), and pulmonary (by inhalation of spores). The major virulence factors of Bacillus anthracis are a poly-D glutamic acid capsule and a three-component protein exotoxin. The genes coding for the toxin and the enzymes responsible for capsule production are carried on plasmid pXO1 and pXO2, respectively. The three proteins of the exotoxin are protective antigen (PA, 83 kDa), lethal factor (LF, 90 kDa), and edema factor (EF, 89 kDa). The toxins follow the A-B model with PA being the B moeity and LF/EF, the alternative A moeities. LF and EF are individually ...
Molecular model of elongation factor complexed with GDP (guanosine diphosphate). This enzyme is involved in the elongation of polypeptide chains during translation, the production of a protein from an mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid) template. - Stock Image C025/1936
Complete information for EEF1A1P9 gene (Pseudogene), Eukaryotic Translation Elongation Factor 1 Alpha 1 Pseudogene 9, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for EEF1A1P10 gene (Pseudogene), Eukaryotic Translation Elongation Factor 1 Alpha 1 Pseudogene 10, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Xinya Hemu, Abbas El Sahili, Side Hu, Kaho Wong, Yu Chen, Yee Hwa Wong, Xiaohong Zhang, Aida Serra, Boon Chong Goh, Dina A. Darwis, Ming Wei Chen, Siu Kwan Sze, Chuan-Fa Liu, Julien Lescar, and James P. Tam. (2019). Structural determinants for peptide-bond formation by asparaginyl ligases. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), 116(24), 11737-11746 ...
10: Over the course of the experiment, TEF4 was repressed, it went from a yellow to light green color in the microarray. This correlates with its function in the cell, translation elongation or the building of proteins. As the cell runs low on glucose, it is going to run low on energy, and will stop or lower production of proteins which involves translation and expression of TEF4 ...
Binary toxins are among the most potent bacterial protein toxins performing a cooperative mode of translocation and exhibit fatal enzymatic activities in eukaryotic cells. Anthrax and C2 toxin are the most prominent examples for the AB(7/8) type of toxins. The B subunits bind both host cell receptors and the enzymatic A polypeptides to trigger their internalization and translocation into the host cell cytosol. C2 toxin is composed of an actin ADP-ribosyltransferase (C2I) and C2II binding subunits. Anthrax toxin is composed of adenylate cyclase (EF) and MAPKK protease (LF) enzymatic components associated to protective antigen (PA) binding subunit. The binding and translocation components anthrax protective antigen (PA(63)) and C2II of C2 toxin share a sequence homology of about 35%, suggesting that they might substitute for each other. Here we show by conducting in vitro measurements that PA(63) binds C2I and that C2II can bind both EF and LF. Anthrax edema factor (EF) and lethal factor (LF) have ...