Few studies have explicitly explored the impacts of the extensive adjustment (with a lag period of more than one week) of temperature and humidity on the association between ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and cardiovascular mortality. In a time stratified case-crossover study, we used a distributed lag nonlinear model to assess the impacts of extensive adjustments of temperature and humidity for longer lag periods (for 7, 14, 21, 28 and 40 days) on effects of PM2.5 on total cardiovascular mortality and mortality of cerebrovascular and ischemic heart disease and corresponding exposure-response relationships in Beijing, China, between 2008 and 2011. Compared with results only controlled for temperature and humidity for 2 days, the estimated effects of PM2.5 were smaller and magnitudes of exposure-response curves were decreased when longer lag periods of temperature and relative humidity were included for adjustments, but these changes varied across subpopulation, with marked decreases occurring
Tomczak, A.; Miller, A.B.; Weichenthal, S.A.; To, T.; Wall, C.; van Donkelaar, A.; Martin, R.V.; Crouse, D.Lawson.; Villeneuve, P.J., 2016: Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution and the risk of lung cancer among participants of the Canadian National Breast Screening Study
Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, Centre for Air Quality and Health Research and Evaluation (CAR) Review of the health impacts of emission sources, types and levels of particulate matter air pollution
Dec. 12, 2017--Children exposed to coarse particulate matter may be more likely to develop asthma and to be treated in an ER or be hospitalized for the condition, according to new research published online in the American Thoracic Societys American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.. In Long-term Coarse PM Exposure Is Associated with Asthma Among Children in Medicaid, researchers report that coarse particulate matter, the kind of air pollution created by physical processes such as tire and break wear, agricultural tilling, salt spray and dust created in manufacturing, appears to put children at greater risk for asthma, independent of exposure to fine particulate pollution. Coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5) measures from 2.5 to 10 micrometers; fine particulate pollution (PM2.5) measure 2.5 micrometers or smaller. By comparison, a human hair is between 50-70 micrometers thick. The authors noted that there is substantial evidence that PM2.5 impacts respiratory and ...
Background: It is unknown if ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with lower renal function, a cardiovascular risk factor. Objective: We investigated whether long-term PM2.5 exposure was associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a cohort of older men living in the Boston Metropolitan area. Methods: This longitudinal analysis included 669 participants from the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study with up to four visits between 2000 and 2011 (n = 1,715 visits). Serum creatinine was measured at each visit, and eGFR was calculated according to the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation. One-year exposure to PM2.5 prior to each visit was assessed using a validated spatiotemporal model that utilized satellite remote-sensing aerosol optical depth data. eGFR was modeled in a time-varying linear mixed-effects regression model as a continuous function of 1-year PM2.5, adjusting for important covariates. Results: One-year PM2.5 exposure was ...
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Several epidemiologic studies have shown an association between short-term increases in ambient particulate matter and short-term increases in morbidity and mortality, especially in people with cardiovascular disease. The biological mechanisms by which particulate matter may affect cardiovascular events are not well understood, however. Dr Christine Nadziejko of the New York University School of Medicine hypothesized that exposure of healthy rats to ambient particles may cause changes in blood coagulation parameters. The investigators objective is to prove the hypothesis that particulate matter may exert its adverse health effects by altering blood coagulation parameters. This objective is biologically relevant because clots may precipitate cardiac arrest, especially in people with cardiovascular disease. ...
Andrysik Z, Vondráček J, Marvanová S, Ciganek M, Neča J, Pěnčíková K, et al. 2011. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor is the major toxic mode of action of an organic extract of a reference urban dust particulate matter mixture: the role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Mutat Res 714:53-62.. Baccarelli A, Bollati V. 2009. Epigenetics and environmental chemicals. Curr Opin Pediatr 21:243-251.. Baccarelli A, Wright RO, Bollati V, Tarantini L, Litonjua AA, Suh HH, et al. 2009. Rapid DNA methylation changes after exposure to traffic particles. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 179:572-578.. Bell B, Rose CL, Damon A. 1972. The Normative Aging Study: an interdisciplinary and longitudinal study of health and aging. Int J Aging Hum Dev 3:4-17.. Benjamini Y, Hochberg Y. 1995. Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing. J R Stat Soc Series B Stat Methodol 57:289-300.. Bind MA, Lepeule J, Zanobetti A, Gasparrini A, Baccarelli A, Coull BA, et al. ...
Cycling and other forms of active transportation provide health benefits via increased physical activity. However, direct evidence of the extent to which these benefits may be offset by exposure and intake of traffic-related air pollution is limited. The purpose of this study is to measure changes in endothelial function, measures of oxidative stress and inflammation, and lung function in healthy participants before and after cycling along a high- and low- traffic route. Participants (n = 38) bicycled for 1 h along a Downtown and a Residential designated bicycle route in a randomized crossover trial. Heart rate, power output, particulate matter air pollution (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) and particle number concentration (PNC) were measured. Lung function, endothelial function (reactive hyperemia index, RHI), C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine were assessed within one hour pre- and post-trial. Geometric mean PNC exposures and intakes were higher along the Downtown (exposure =
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of non-protein-type amino acids of fine particulate matter on E-cadherin and inflammatory responses in mice. AU - Chuang, Hsiao Chi. AU - Ho, Kin Fai. AU - Cao, Jun Ji. AU - Chuang, Kai Jen. AU - Ho, Steven Sai Hang. AU - Feng, Po Hao. AU - Tian, Linwei. AU - Lee, Chii Hong. AU - Han, Yong Ming. AU - Lee, Chun-Nin. AU - Cheng, Tsun Jen. PY - 2015/9/7. Y1 - 2015/9/7. N2 - Exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5μm (PM2.5) in size is an urgent issue for the protection of human health. Chemicals with PM2.5 collected during a period of intensive haze episodes in Beijing (BJ), Xian (XA) and Hong Kong (HK) were characterised for organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), total carbon (TC) and free amino acids. BALB/c mice underwent aspiration exposure of 50 or 150μg of PM2.5/mouse (BJ, XA and HK) on days 1 and 7 and were euthanised on day 14. The effects of these exposures on E-cadherin and inflammatory responses in the mouse lungs were analysed. The PM2.5 chemicals ...
Exposure to coarse particulate matter (PM), i.e., particles with an aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10μm (PM10-2.5), is of increasing interest due to the potential for health effects including asthma, allergy and respiratory symptoms. Limited information is available on indoor and outdoor coarse PM and associated endotoxin exposures. Seven consecutive 24-h samples of indoor and outdoor coarse PM were collected during winter and summer 2010 using Harvard Coarse Impactors in a total of 74 Edmonton homes where no reported smoking took place. Coarse PM filters were subsequently analyzed for endotoxin content. Data were also collected on indoor and outdoor temperature, relative humidity, air exchange rate, housing characteristics and occupants activities. During winter, outdoor concentrations of coarse PM (median=6.7μg/m3, interquartile range, IQR=3.4-12μg/m3) were found to be higher than indoor concentrations (median 3.4μg/m3, IQR=1.6-5.7μg/m3); while summer levels of indoor and outdoor
Involvement of oxidative stress and calcium signaling in airborne particulate matter-induced damages in human pulmonary artery endothelial ...
The aim of this thesis is to enhance the knowledge on exposure to size fractions of airborne particulate matter and their components and to find more intensive information on sources of indoor and outdoor size fractionated particles. In the first part of the study, the physical and chemical characteristics of indoor, outdoor, and personal quasi-ultrafine ...
During a period of two years, organic and inorganic suspended particulate matter and phytoplankton biomass was frequently measured in Lake Erken, a moderately deep, eutrophic lake in south-eastern Sweden. Regression analyses of these data were used to differentiate and quantify newly produced planktonic particulate matter (zooplankton + phytoplankton + bacteria) and different types of resuspended particulate matter (organic, inorganic). Resuspended particulate matter was frequently dominant in the water column (yearly mean 59% of suspended particulate matter), and resuspended particulate organic matter ranged from 11 to 99% of suspended particulate organic matter (yearly mean: 40%). The high amount of resuspended particulate matter originates from erosion/transportation bottoms which are located at water depths above 16 m and which cover 93% of the lake area. Resuspended particulate matter was significantly related to diatom biomass but not to any other type of planktonic biomass. Consequently, ...
Airborne particulate matter (PM) consists of solid and liquid particles suspended in air. PM causes many negative health effects when inhaled like exacerbations of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and premature death. The health impacts of PM depend on the physical size and chemical composition of the inhaled particles. Particles less than 2.5 micrometers can penetrate the deep lung and enter the bloodstream. Understanding the composition of PM helps study human exposures and evaluate PM sources to support control and mitigation strategies. This thesis examines PM in power plant emissions, in ambient air, and in homes, with an emphasis on characterizing hazardous metals. PM emissions from the University of Iowa power plant were examined during a transition away from coal. Biomass is a renewable fuel and when used in place of or co-fired alongside coal it directly reduces emissions of fossil CO2 and PM to the atmosphere. PM emissions were examined under two scenarios: the first was a
Air pollution exposure during pregnancy has been associated with impaired fetal growth and postnatal weight gain, but few studies have examined the effect on weight growth trajectories. We examine the association between validated 1 km|sup|2|/sup| resolution particulate matter (PM|sub|2.5|/sub|) con …
The mutagenicity of airborne particulate matter collected in 17 towns of Italy in 1990 was assessed using the Ames test. The mutagenicity of crude extract correlated with amount of lead, suggesting the direct contribution of gasoline car exhausts. Mo
Free Books | Nonfiction | Politics | General | Research Priorities For Airborne Particulate Matter: I. Immediate Priorities And A Long-range Research Portfolio
Population-weighted average level of exposure to concentrations of suspended particles measuring less than 2.5 microns in diameter. Exposure is measured in micrograms per cubic metre (µg/m³).
Abstract Emissions from indoor biomass burning are a major public health concern in developing areas of the world. Less is known about indoor air quality, particularly airborne endotoxin, in homes burning biomass fuel in residential wood stoves in higher income countries. A filter-based sampler was used to evaluate wintertime indoor coarse particulate matter (PM₁₀₋₂.₅) and…
Recent presentation at the research center on findings in year one, of a 3 year study evaluating particulate matter air quality in Borrego Springs and the surrounding area by Morgan Gorris.. Video of the presentation is below and you can also download http://bit.ly/2op6JoU the powerpoint presentation pdf file (2 Mb) allowing you to view the slides better while viewing the video presentation.. ...
Health Canada has completed a detailed risk assessment focusing on the potential health impacts of coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5).
Children exposed to coarse particulate matter may be more likely to develop asthma and to be treated in an ER or be hospitalized for the condition, according to new research published online in the American Thoracic Societys American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.
Background: Several studies have demonstrated associations between daily mortality and ambient particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (fine particles or PM2.5). Few, however, have examined the relative toxicities of PM2.5 constituents, including elemental carbon and organic carbon (EC and OC, respectively), nitrates and transition metals. There is also little information about whether associations between PM2.5 constituents and mortality are modified by socioeconomic and demographic factors.. Aim: To examine associations of daily cardiovascular mortality with PM2.5 and its constituents after stratification by gender, race/ethnicity and education, using data from six California counties during 2000 to 2003.. Methods: The association of daily counts of cardiovascular mortality with PM2.5 components was analysed using time-series regression analyses. Poisson models with natural splines were used to control for time-varying covariates such as season and weather. Separate models were ...
Background: Observational studies and controlled experiments have provided evidence that airborne particulate matter (PM) is capable of acutely increasing blood pressure (BP) in certain scenarios. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether and to what extent obesity and community location affect relationships between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and blood pressure (BP) measures.. Methods: Using data from a stratified random sample survey of adults conducted in 2002-3 in Detroit, Michigan, we tested body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WCIR) in separate models as effect modifiers of the relationship between PM2.5 exposure and BP. We also tested interactions with community location. Models were adjusted for covariates with established pro-hypertensive effects.. Results: PM2.5 exposure was positively associated with increased pulse pressure (PP) for those categorised as obese (BMI⩾30) across lags 2 (β 4.16, p,0.05) and 3 days (β 2.55, p,0.05) prior to BP measure. WCIR similarly ...
OBJECTIVES Evidence of the cardiovascular health effects of both acute and chronic exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM) has continued to accumulate in epidemiologic and experimental studies, without a demonstrated coherent pathophysiologic explanation. At the same time, the role of endothelial homeostasis in the development and triggering of cardiovascular disease has become more clear and compelling. Importantly, oxidative stress has emerged as a potential link between these two developments: Oxidative stress is known to play a role in endothelial dysfunction and is exerted by components of PM, especially of PM from combustion products. Based on this we propose an overall hypothesis: Inhalation of combustion-derived particles impact cardiovascular health by impairing endothelial function, through mechanisms mediated by increased oxidative stress.. Diesel exhaust particulate (DEP), an important contributor to ambient fine PM, has been demonstrated to exert oxidative stress in ...
Raghunathan: Exposure to airborne particulate matter has been linked to cardiovascular events. Whether this finding reflects an effect of particulate matter exposu...
The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between fine particulate matter and ischaemic heart disease. A literature search was conducted using six electronic databases (Embase, Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library and Web of Science) and the University of Queenslands online library. A list of important sources was compiled and reviewed, and the ten best resources selected, based on their focus on Chinese cities and the administrative city of Hong Kong. The other criterion used to select the articles was that they must address and contain at least one outcome of the relationship between particulate matter and ischaemic heart disease. The result of the review indicates that both types of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) have a strong association with ischaemic heart disease. Low and high concentrations of particulate matter have unhealthy effects on ischaemic heart disease mortality, morbidity, emergency visits and hospital admissions. Elderly subjects appear more ...
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have associated long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter with increased mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. Systemic inflammation is a plausible biological mechanism behind this association. However, it is unclear how the chemical composition of PM affects inflammatory responses. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between long-term exposure to elemental components of PM and the inflammatory blood markers high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and fibrinogen as part of the European ESCAPE and TRANSPHORM multi-center projects. METHODS: In total, 21,558 hsCRP measurements and 17,428 fibrinogen measurements from cross-sections of five and four cohort studies were available, respectively. Residential long-term concentrations of particulate matter ,10μm (PM10) and ,2.5μm (PM2.5) in diameter and selected elemental components (copper, iron, potassium, nickel, sulfur, silicon, vanadium, zinc) were estimated based on land-use ...
Online and offline measurements of ambient particulate matter (PM) near the urban and industrial Houston Ship Channel in Houston, Texas, USA, during May 2015 were utilized to characterize its chemical composition and to evaluate the relative contributions of primary, secondary, biogenic, and anthropogenic sources. Aerosol mass spectrometry (AMS) on nonrefractory PM1 (PM ≤ 1µm) indicated major contributions from sulfate (averaging 50% by mass), organic aerosol (OA, 40%), and ammonium (14%). Positive matrix factorization (PMF) of AMS data categorized OA on average as 22% hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA), 29% cooking-influenced less-oxidized oxygenated organic aerosol (CI-LO-OOA), and 48% more-oxidized oxygenated organic aerosol (MO-OOA), with the latter two sources indicative of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Chemical analysis of PM2.5 (PM ≤ 2.5µm) filter samples agreed that organic matter (35%) and sulfate (21%) were the most abundant components. Organic speciation of PM2.5 organic ...
Exposure to ambient particulate air pollution is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however the link between occupational particulate exposures and adverse cardiovascular events is less clear. We conducted a systematic review, including meta-analysis where appropriate, of the epidemiologic association between occupational exposure to particulate matter and cardiovascular disease. Out of 697 articles meeting our initial criteria, 37 articles published from January 1990 to April 2009 (12 mortality; 5 morbidity; and 20 intermediate cardiovascular endpoints) were included. Results suggest a possible association between occupational particulate exposures and ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality as well as non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), and stronger evidence of associations with heart rate variability and systemic inflammation, potential intermediates between occupational PM exposure and IHD. In meta-analysis of mortality studies, a significant increase in IHD was observed (meta-IRR
The possibility of air pollution particles transporting viruses is connected with an overarching query about how the novel coronavirus is spread. Big virus-filled droplets from infected peoples coughs and sneezes may collapse within a few metres distance. Smaller droplets, however, those less than 5 microns in diameter, could remain suspended in the air for minutes and even hours and advance further, the Guardian report said.. Experts are unsure if these small airborne droplets can indeed cause Covid-19 infections, but they are aware of how the 2003 SARS coronavirus was transmitted through air.. Scientists say the possibility of airborne transmission, and the role of pollution particles, should not be dismissed without proof. Prof Jonathan Reid at Bristol University in the UK is studying airborne transmission of coronavirus told the Guardian: It is perhaps not surprising that while suspended in air, the small droplets could combine with background urban particles and be carried ...
This unpublished report describes a two-year study to evaluate the effect of exposure to particulate matter and ozone on immune function in nonhuman primates (infant rhesus macaques) during early life. The investigators conducted a panel study that took advantage of natural exposures in the outdoor nonhuman primate colony maintained at the California National Primate Center, a research unit of the University of California-Davis.
Introduction: Recent work has suggested that there is some association between acute exposures to fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5) and ischemic stroke; however, the evidence is conflicting. Thus, we assessed whether PM2.5 was associated with ischemic stroke in participants in the Reasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort.. Methods: We used a time-stratified case-crossover design to determine if exposure to PM2.5 was associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. We fit conditional logistic regression models to determine the odds ratio of ischemic stroke for those exposed to moderate (PM2.5 15-40 μg/m3) relative to good (PM2.5 ≤ 15 μg/m3) levels of PM2.5. We adjusted for temperature at the time of exposure, and assessed whether the association differed by region of residence (stroke belt vs. non-belt regions).. Results: Among 442 participants who experienced an incident ischemic stroke in ...
Background: Secondhand smoke (SHS) and ambient air pollution (AAP) exposures have been associated with increased prevalence and severity of asthma and DNA modifications of immune cells. In the current study, we examined the association between SHS and AAP with DNA methylation and expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3) in T cell populations. Methods: Subjects 7-18 years old were recruited from Fresno (high AAP; n = 62) and Stanford, CA (low AAP; n = 40) and divided into SHS-exposed (Fresno: n = 31, Stanford: n = 6) and non-SHS-exposed (nSHS; Fresno: n = 31, Stanford: n = 34) groups. T cells purified from peripheral blood were assessed for levels of DNA methylation and expression of IFN-γ (in effector T cells) or Foxp3 (in regulatory T cells). Results: Analysis showed a significant increase in mean % CpG methylation of IFN-γ and Foxp3 associated with SHS exposure (IFN-γ: FSHS 62.10%, FnSHS 41.29%, p | 0.05; SSHS 46.67%, SnSHS 24.85%, p | 0.05; Foxp3: FSHS 74.60%,
Kiran Dev Pandey, David Wheeler, Bart Ostro, Uwe Deichmann, and Kirk Hamilton, Katie Bolt, Ambient Particulate Matter Concentrations in Residential and Pollution Hotspot areas of World Cities: New Estimates based on the Global Model of Ambient Particulates (GMAPS), The World Bank Development Economics Research Group and the Environment Department Working Paper (forthcoming 2006), The World Bank, Washington DC.. Polluted air is a major health hazard in developing countries. Improvements in pollution monitoring and statistical techniques during the last several decades have steadily enhanced the ability to measure the health effects of air pollution. Current methods can detect significant increases in the incidence of cardiopulmonary and respiratory diseases, coughing, bronchitis, and lung cancer, as well as premature deaths from these diseases resulting from elevated concentrations of ambient Particulate Matter (Holgate 1999). Scarce public resources have limited the monitoring of atmospheric ...
Exposure to particulate matter has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. We evaluated the ecological correlation between standardized hospital discharges with diabetes in Italian provinces and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) adjusting for common risk factors, socioeconomic factors and differences in hospitalization appropriateness. We used cross sectional data aggregated at the province level and available from official institutional databases for years 2008-2010. Covariates included prevalence of adult overweight, obese, smokers, physically inactive, education and income (as average gross domestic product per person, GDP). We reduced the number of covariates to a smaller number of factors for the subsequent statistical model by extracting meaningful components using principal component analysis (PCA). Log-linear multiple regression analysis was used to model diabetes hospital discharges with PCA components and PM2.5 levels and hospitalization appropriateness
Air pollution emissions from major ports around the world contribute to airborne particulate matter (PM) exposure in surrounding communities. The Port of Oakland is one of three major shipping ports in California that collectively account for 39% of all the goods movement in the United States. The current study is the first to perform relatively complete chemical speciation on the real-world reduction in primary PM emissions from heavy-duty trucks at a major shipping port during the implementation of a retrofit and replacement program. Measurements of fine PM composition at the Port were analyzed by using positive matrix factorization (PMF) to identify five dominant PM sources: shipping, port truck traffic, distant on-road traffic, background sea spray, and road dust. Changes to port truck traffic-related PM concentration on days with similar meteorological conditions during and after implementation of the controls were used as a direct indication of emissions reductions. Primary PM mass ...
Inhalation of fine particulate matter (< 2.5 mu m; fine PM) has been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular events. In this letter, we reappraise the role of tissue factor (TF) antigen and we also summarize changes in measured coagulation proteins in humans and rodents by other studies with fine PM. By considering all studies including ours, we conclude that monitoring the overall coagulation state by measuring capacity assays such as thrombin generation, and quantification of TF activity would be more suitable than determining single coagulation proteins (such as TF antigen) in order to better assess the systemic prothrombotic effects of fine PM. ...
Effective January 1, 2013, the PM2.5 monitoring method was changed in Ontario. For more information, visit Frequently Asked Questions ...
Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) related mild inflammation, altered autonomic control of cardiovascular function, and changes to cell function have been observed in controlled human exposure studies. To measure the systemic and cardiopulmonary impacts of low-level PM exposure, we exposed 20 healthy, young volunteers to PM2.5, in the form of concentrated ambient particles (mean: 37.8 μg/m3, SD 6.5), and filtered air (mean: 2.1 μg/m3, SD 2.6). In this double-blind, crossover study the exposure order was randomized. During the 4 h exposure, volunteers (7 females and 13 males) underwent light intensity exercise to regulate ventilation rate. We measured pulmonary, cardiac, and hematologic end points before exposure, 1 h after exposure, and again 20 h after exposure. Low-level PM2.5 resulted in both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary changes characterized by alterations in systematic inflammation markers, cardiac repolarization, and decreased pulmonary function. A mean increase in PM2.5 concentration (37.8 μg/m3
Play media Play media Atmospheric aerosol particles, also known as atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM), particulates, or suspended particulate matter (SPM) are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in Earths atmosphere. The term aerosol commonly refers to the particulate/air mixture, as opposed to the particulate matter alone. Sources of particulate matter can be natural or anthropogenic. They have impacts on climate and precipitation that adversely affect human health. Subtypes of atmospheric particles include suspended particulate matter (SPM), thoracic and respirable particles, inhalable coarse particles, which are [coarse] particles with a diameter between 2.5 and 10 micrometers (μm) (PM10), fine particles with a diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5), ultrafine particles, and soot The IARC and WHO designate airborne particulates a Group 1 carcinogen. Particulates are the deadliest form of air pollution[citation needed] due to their ability to penetrate deep into ...
Traffic related particulate matter air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular events; however, the biological mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesize that diesel exhaust (DE) inhalation induces up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is known to contribute to vascular dysfunction, progression of atherosclerosis and ultimately cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Methods: ApoE knockout mice (30-week) were exposed to DE (at 200 {mu}g/m{sup 3} of particulate matter) or filtered-air (control) for 7 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). iNOS expression in the blood vessels and heart was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis. To examine iNOS activity, thoracic aortae were mounted in a wire myograph, and vasoconstriction stimulated by phenylephrine (PE) was measured with and without the presence of the specific inhibitor for iNOS (1400 W). NF-{kappa}B (p65) activity was examined by ELISA. The mRNA expression of iNOS and NF-{kappa}B (p65) was determined ...
The higher the level of fine particulate matter air pollution, the higher the risk of stroke in patients with a common heart rhythm disorder.
Free Online Library: Cardiovascular outcomes and the physical and chemical properties of metal ions found in particulate matter air pollution: a QICAR study.(Research, Report) by Environmental Health Perspectives; Health, general Environmental issues Air pollution Chemical properties Health aspects Air pollution research Cardiovascular diseases Environmental aspects Heart attack Metal ions Particles Particulate matter
The proposed study addresses the need for the improved understanding of the impact of transient and longer- term exposure to particulate matter present in urban...
Brook, R. D. and Rajagopalan, S.: Particulate matter, air pollution, and blood pressure, J. Am. Soc. Hypertens, 3, 332-350, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jash.2009.08.005, 2009. Brook, R. D., Rajagopalan, S., Pope, C. A.,, Brook, J. R., Bhatnagar, A., Diez-Roux, A. V., Holguin, F., Hong, Y., Luepker, R. V., Mittleman, M. A., Peters, A., Siscovick, D., Smith, S. C., Whitsel, L., and Kaufman, J. D.: Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association, Circulation, 121, 2331-2378, https://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0b013e3181dbece1, 2010. Brunekreef, B. and Holgate, S. T.: Air pollution and health, Lancet, 360, 1233-1242, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11274-8, 2002. Burnett, R. T., Pope, C. A., Ezzati, M., Olives, C., Lim, S. S., Mehta, S., Shin, H. H., Singh, G., Hubbell, B., Brauer, M., Anderson, H. R., Smith, K. R., Balmes, J. R., Bruce, N. G., Kan, H. D., Laden, F., Pruss-Ustun, A., Michelle, C. T., Gapstur, S. M., ...
ABSTRACTAtmospheric particulate matter in two size fractions 2.5-10 μm and ≤ 2.5 μm were collected on nuclepore polycarbonate filter papers and were analyzed for elements using NAA and EDXRF. Varimax rotated factor analysis identified five major sources contributing to coarse and fine particulate mass. FA-MLR technique is applied to apportion the sources. Source apportionment studies showed maximum contribution of the coarse fraction was from sea salt (35%) and crustal (25%) sources. A considerable amount of the mass was also contributed from industrial (14%), vehicular (10%) and fugitive emissions (7%). These results also showed the percentage contribution of soil, two-stroke emission with fugitive dust, industrial emission, motor vehicles and sea salt to the average fine mass concentration was 3%, 18%, 23%, 29% and 9%, respectively. The contribution of each source to their constituent elements also has been determined using the same technique.
In this study we assessed the mixed exposure of highway maintenance workers to airborne particles, noise and gaseous co-pollutants. The aims were to provide a better understanding of the workers exposure to facilitate the evaluation of short-term effects on cardiovascular health endpoints. To quantify the workers exposure we monitored 18 subjects during 50 non-consecutive work shifts. Exposure assessment was based on personal and work site measurements and included fine particulate matter (PM2.5), particle number concentration (PNC), noise (Leq) and the gaseous co-pollutants: carbon monoxide, nitric dioxide and ozone. Mean work shift PM2.5 concentrations (gravimetric measurements) ranged from 20.3 µg/m3 to 321 µg/m3 (mean 62 µg/m3) and PNC were between 1.6×104 particles/cm3 and 4.1×105 particles/cm3 (8.9×104 particles/cm3). Noise levels were generally high with Leq over work-shifts from 73.3 dB[A] to 96.0 dB[A]; the averaged Leq over all work shifts was 87.2 dB[A]. The highest exposure to ...
The present study deals with sequential extraction of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) bound trace metals in an industrial area of Firozabad, India. During the study period, daily PM2.5 concentration ranged between 73.49 μg/m3 and 113.26 μg/m3 with poor air quality index of 196.37. In the present study, Ca recorded the highest while Co had the lowest concentration among all analysed metals. Mn, Ni, Pb, Co, and Cu had high bioavailability (34.80%-65.80%) than other elements. Cd, Pb, and Cu were found to be highly enriched (EF| 289-6516) by varied anthropogenic activities. Hazard Quotient (HQ) for Ni, Mn, and Cr and Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (ELCR) of Cr(VI) and Ni exceeded the respective safer limit (HQ|1 and ELCR≥ 10-6), thus implying serious risk to the receptors. All the metals had the highest concentration in less mobile and residual fraction except for Ni and Co, which inferred greater risk due to their high toxicity. Overall, the results present exposure and risk assessment of metal associated