TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular and pharmacological characterization of muscarinic receptor subtypes in a rat parotid gland cell line. T2 - Comparison with native parotid gland. AU - Bockman, Charles. AU - Bradley, Michael E.. AU - Dang, Herbert K.. AU - Zeng, Wanyun. AU - Scofield, Margaret A.. AU - Dowd, Frank J.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - The molecular and pharmacological characteristics of muscarinic receptor subtypes in the rat parotid acinar cell line, PAR-C5, were determined and compared with native rat parotid glands to evaluate the PAR-C5 cell line as a model to study receptor-mediated secretion. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) identified mRNAs for M3, M4, and M5 receptor subtypes in both PAR-C5 cells and parotid glands. Specific [N-methyl-3H]scopolamine binding in PAR-C5 and parotid membranes was to a single class of sites with mean KD values of 0.38 and 0.64 nM, respectively. Binding affinities (KI values) of muscarinic receptor subtype-selective drugs were ...
The parotid gland is a major salivary gland in many animals. In humans, the two parotid glands are present on either side of the mouth and in front of both ears. They are the largest of the salivary glands. Each parotid is wrapped around the mandibular ramus, and secretes serous saliva through the parotid duct into the mouth, to facilitate mastication and swallowing and to begin the digestion of starches. The word parotid (paraotic) literally means "beside the ear". The parotid glands are a pair of mainly serous salivary glands located below and in front of each ear canal, draining their secretions into the vestibule of the mouth through the parotid duct. Each gland lies behind the mandibular ramus and in front of the mastoid process of the temporal bone. The gland can be felt on either side, by feeling in front of each ear, along the cheek, and below the angle of the mandible. The gland is roughly wedge-shaped when seen from the surface. The parotid duct, a long excretory duct, emerges from the ...
The effects of extracellular ATP on ion fluxes and the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were examined using a suspension of rat parotid acinar cells and were contrasted with the effects of the muscarinic agonist carbachol. Although ATP and carbachol both rapidly increased [Ca2+]i about threefold above the resting level (200-250 nM), the effect of ATP was due primarily to an influx of Ca2+ across the plasma membrane, while the initial response to carbachol was due to a release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Within 10 s, ATP (1 mM) and carbachol (20 microM) reduced the cellular Cl- content by 39-50% and cell volume by 15-25%. Both stimuli reduced the cytosolic K+ content by 57-65%, but there were marked differences in the rate and pattern of net K+ movement as well as the effects of K+ channel inhibitors on the effluxes initiated by the two stimuli. The maximum rate of the ATP-stimulated K+ efflux (approximately 2,200 nmol K+/mg protein per min) was about two-thirds that of the ...
In rat parotid acinar cells prelabelled with [3H]inositol, substance P (100 nM) induced the formation of [3H]inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3]. Ins(1,4,5)P3 reached a maximum 7 s after substance P stimulation, and thereafter decreased and reached a stable value at 60 s. When the cells were exposed to substance P for 10, 30, 60, or 300 s, washed, and re-exposed to this peptide, the formation of [3H]inositol trisphosphate (InsP3) was attenuated in a time-dependent manner. In the cells pretreated as described above, the number of [3H]substance-P-binding sites (Bmax) was also decreased. Possible role(s) of Ca2+ and protein kinase (protein kinase C) control mechanisms in regulating substance P responses were investigated. Desensitization of substance P-induced InsP3 was not affected by the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin, nor was it dependent on Ca2+ mobilization. On the other hand, in the presence of 4 beta-phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-4 beta-phorbol 13-acetate, known ...
In the pig parotid gland, ATPDase was mainly associated with duct epithelium, with very little, if any, immunoreactivity on acinar cells. Myoepithelial cells dispersed among acini produced a significant signal. There have been reports of Ca2+-dependent ATPases associated with isolated parotid acinar cells, but as judged by their biochemical properties, these ATPases are different from ATPDases. However, a nucleoside triphosphatase described by Sato et al. (29) in bovine parotid gland and an apyrase described by Valenzuela et al. (34) in a microsomal fraction of rat salivary gland appear to correspond to the ATPDase described in this study and hence could well be associated with ductal epithelial and myoepithelial cells. In agreement with these findings, some studies on rat parotid acini show very little ecto-ATPase activity (9). Some P2Zpurinoceptors have been described on rat parotid acinar cells, which respond to ATP and mediate a Ca2+increase caused by both an influx and a mobilization from ...
A complete separation of myo-inositol 1,4,5-[4,5-(32)P]trisphosphate prepared from human erythrocytes, and myo-[2-3H]inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate prepared from carbachol-stimulated rat parotid glands [Irvine, Letcher, Lander & Downes (1984) Biochem. J. 223, 237-243], was achieved by anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. This separation technique was then used to study the metabolism of these two isomers of inositol trisphosphate in carbachol-stimulated rat parotid glands. Fragments of glands were pre-labelled with myo-[2-3H]inositol, washed, and then stimulated with carbachol. At 5s after stimulation a clear increase in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate was detected, with no significant increase in inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate. After this initial lag however, inositol 1,3,4-phosphate rose rapidly; by 15s it predominated over inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and continued to rise so that after 15 min it was at 10-20 times the radiolabelling level of the 1,4,5-isomer. In contrast, after ...
OBJECTIVES. Primary Objective:. Feasibility will be defined as 80% of volunteers achieving detectable signal changes in pre/post salivary MR images (in either the IVIM or the DCE scans).. BACKGROUND INFORMATION AND RATIONALE. It is well known that loss of salivary function in the parotid glands leads to an elevated risk of chronically dry-mouth. Xerostomia is thought to result from salivary function loss due to damage of the functional aspects of the (saliva-producing) parotid gland, but the precise nature is unknown. Recent reports have found regional dose susceptibility in rat parotid(1); delivering dose to one region of the parotid results in a different incidence of xerostomia than would that same dose to another region. Similarly, regional dose susceptibility of subjective xerostomia (i.e. patient-reported) has been noted in human parotid(2). It is presently unclear to what extent these findings relate to objective functional loss, recovery, or xerostomia in humans. With this motivation, ...
The parotid gland is the largest of the three major pairs of salivary glands. It is located anteriorly and inferiorly to the ear between the skin and the muscle of chewing, the masseter. The parotid duct carries its contents and drains into the mouth. It is the parotid gland that becomes swollen and infected with the mumps or parotitis.. ...
Patient may present with diffuse and ill defined swelling over the region of parotid gland. The sites of parotid swelling is tender to touch in acute case, stones may be palpable in the parotid duct and pus may be expressed form the parotid duct.
Parotid glands of experimental animals fed a liquid diet are reported to show atrophy (Hall and Schneyer 1964; Wilborn and Schneyer 1970; Hand and Ho 1981; Scott et al. 1990; Scott and Gunn 1991). To clarify whether apoptosis and proliferation of aci
Effect of Parotid Saliva Secretion on Dry Forage Intake in Goats - Parotid Saliva Secretion;Thirst Sensation;Dry Forage Intake;Goats;
Rat parotid glands express M2 and M3 mAChRs; the M3 mAChRs represent 90% of the total number of precipitable mAChRs (Ehlert et al., 1996). As shown in Fig. 1, M3 mAChR activation by ACh or pilocarpine increases AQP5 levels in the APM of rat parotid cells. The M3 mAChR-stimulated increases of AQP5 in the APM was inhibited by treatment of the tissues with U73122, TMB-8, and dantrolene (Ishikawa et al., 2000), indicating that M3 mAChRs activate PLC, increase the release of Ca2+ via the activation of IP3 and ryanodine receptors, and induce an increase in AQP5 levels in the APM. M3 mAChR stimulation also induces the generation of DAG and leads to PKC activation. The M3 mAChR-stimulated increase of AQP5 in the APM, however, was not inhibited by treatment with GF 109203X (Ishikawa et al., 2000), indicating that PKC did not regulate the amount of AQP5 in the APM. Intracellular Ca2+-dependent cellular process are regulated by the ubiquitous Ca2+-binding protein, CaM, which activates CaM-dependent protein ...
Furuno, I; Asami, K; and Matsudaira, H, "Inhibition by x-irradiation and antimetabolites of dna synthesis without affecting camp elevation in isoproterenol-stimulated mouse parotid gland." (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 2001 ...
The parotid glands are saliva-producing glands located just in front of the ears. They are the largest of the salivary glands, and...
Auton Neurosci. 2010 Apr 19;154(1-2):102-7. doi: 10.1016/j.autneu.2009.12.005. Epub 2010 Jan 21. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
A 75-year-old man presented with a left ear lobule melanoma and was found, on examination, to have a concurrent right parotid mass and bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy. A CT scan of the neck confirmed a 2-cm right superficial parotid mass containing both solid and cystic components without any pathognomonic characteristics, as well as bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy with multiple 2- to 3-cm lymph nodes. FNA biopsy of the parotid mass was consistent with carcinoma, whereas FNA samples from the cervical lymph nodes were non-diagnostic.. ...
.Objectives: To measure phosphorus metabolites in human parotid glands by 31P-MRS using three-dimensional chemical-shift imaging (3D-CSI), and ascertain whether this method can capture changes in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine (PCr) levels due to saliva secretion. Study Design: The parotid glands of 20 volunteers were assessed by 31P-MRS using 3D-CSI on 3T MRI. After obtaining a first (baseline) measurement, the participants took vitamin-C tablets and measurements were obtained twice more, in a continuous manner. The peak area ratios of PCr and β-ATP were evaluated. Results: A high proportion of PCr (0.26 ± 0.08) and ATP (α: 0.16 ± 0.06; β: 0.27 ± 0.06; γ: 0.21 ± 0.03) was noted at baseline. A significant decrease in β-ATP was observed between baseline (
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This video shows a surgery that is done to remove a growth, the surgery goes further to save the facial nerve during the parotid gland surgery.
... , a part of the human digestive system. Part of a series of pages about digestion and the digestive system of the Human Body (useful for students of biology courses, e.g. GCSE, AS, A2, A-Level, ITEC, food, diet, and nutrition courses, and and health sciences generally).
List of causes of Enlarged parotid gland and Palpitations and Paralysis symptoms, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
Looking for parotid space? Find out information about parotid space. 1. a. the region beyond the earths atmosphere containing the other planets of the solar system, stars, galaxies, etc.; universe b. : a space probe 2. Explanation of parotid space
Studies show that a dose response relationship in the salivary glands exists and that it may be possible to improve significantly post-radiation xerostomia and quality of life if radiation techniques can be devised that would spare the salivary glands while adequately treating the targets. A new treatment modality (computer-optimized IMRT) facilitates increased sparing of noninvolved tissue, specifically the sparing of both parotid glands, and more conformal high-dose delivery to the bilateral neck targets in patients with head and neck cancer. This study will evaluate the benefits regarding xerostomia-specific and general QOL in patients receiving head and neck RT using this modality. Assessment of swallowing dysfunction and aspiration will be made using videofluoroscopy. In addition, this study will evaluate the pattern of local/regional tumor recurrence, to assess whether sparing both parotid glands may cause tumor recurrence in spared neck areas ...
What does parotid duct stone indicate, causes and symptoms. The presence of calcified stones can lead to obstruction, pain, swelling and infection.
List of 7 disease causes of Viral causes of parotid enlargement in children, patient stories, diagnostic guides. Diagnostic checklist, medical tests, doctor questions, and related signs or symptoms for Viral causes of parotid enlargement in children.
List of disease causes of Infectious causes of parotid enlargement, patient stories, diagnostic guides. Diagnostic checklist, medical tests, doctor questions, and related signs or symptoms for Infectious causes of parotid enlargement.
Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats (200 ± 15 g) were used in the present work, they were divided into two main groups, the study group comprises fourteen animals and the control group comprises six animals.
I was diagnosed with a carcinoma of the parotid gland in December, 2013. parotid cancer. I submitted myself to surgery for removal of the gland and 37 radiation treatments in early 2014.. I complemented this conventional treatment with a range of alternative treatments including seaweed, mushrooms, juicing and an organic diet for several months. I also had colonic irrigation done twice a month.. I was given a CT Scan in September 2014 and declared clear of cancer.. However in March 2015, I developed a weakness in my right foot and within days was paralyzed from the waist down. An MRI and a biopsy revealed that the parotid cancer has spread to my brain and a tumour had developed in my T12 vertebrae causing the paralysis. brain tumor brain cancer Spinal ...
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A small group of secretory glands situated between the masseter and buccinator muscles and beneath the mucosa around the distal extremity of the duct of the parotid gland. Their ducts open into the mouth opposite the last molar tooth. ...
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Aortic endothelial cells, BAEC. Bile duct cells (epithelial). Brain microvessel (endothelial). Cardiomyocytes; cardiac (endothelium, progenitor cells). Colonocytes (epithelial). Dorsal root ganglia. Embryonic cortical neurons. Embryonic sympathetic neurons. Hepatocytes. Hippocampal neurons. HUVEC (endothelial). HVSMC. Keratinocytes. Mammary epithelial cells; breast cells (luminal, myoepithelial and endothelial). Microvascular, BME (endothelial). Mouse splenic T-Cells. Muscle cells, myoblasts, myogenic cells, myotubes. Oligodendrocytes (glial; precursors). Pancreatic islet, neonatal (3- to 5-day-old) rat islets of Langerhans. Parotid acinar cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Schwann cells (glial). Sertoli cells (spermogenic). Skeletal muscle cells (myocytes, myotubes). Smooth muscle cells (endothelial, vascular). Urothelial cells ...
Aortic endothelial cells, BAEC. Bile duct cells (epithelial). Brain microvessel (endothelial). Cardiomyocytes; cardiac (endothelium, progenitor cells). Colonocytes (epithelial). Dorsal root ganglia. Embryonic cortical neurons. Embryonic sympathetic neurons. Hepatocytes. Hippocampal neurons. HUVEC (endothelial). HVSMC. Keratinocytes. Mammary epithelial cells; breast cells (luminal, myoepithelial and endothelial). Microvascular, BME (endothelial). Mouse splenic T-Cells. Muscle cells, myoblasts, myogenic cells, myotubes. Oligodendrocytes (glial; precursors). Pancreatic islet, neonatal (3- to 5-day-old) rat islets of Langerhans. Parotid acinar cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Schwann cells (glial). Sertoli cells (spermogenic). Skeletal muscle cells (myocytes, myotubes). Smooth muscle cells (endothelial, vascular). Urothelial cells. ...
The Beastie Boys Adam Yauch (aka MCA) has been confirmed dead today. There are no specifics available yet regarding Yauchs exact cause and time of death. The 47-year old rapper had been battling cancer in his parotid gland and lymph node for several years.. GlobalGrind.com reported Yauchs death just before 1 oclock this afternoon and other sources have since verified the news. Yauch, along with Mike D and Ad Roc, founded the Beastie Boys in 1979. He leaves behind a wife and a daughter.. ...
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CORRESPONDENCE. Hydatid cysts of the breast and parotid gland. To the Editor: We report 2 interesting cases of hydatid cysts in unusual sites: in the breast and the deep lobe of the parotid gland.. Hydatid cysts are an infectious disease caused by the larval stage of the cestode Echinococcus. Humans are mostly affected by E. granulosus as incidental intermediate hosts. The liver (70%) and lungs (25%) are most commonly affected, with the spleen, heart, kidneys, bone, nervous system and soft tissue less frequently affected.1 Even in endemic areas, hydatid disease of the head, neck and breast is extremely rare. The incidence of hydatid cyst in the breast has been reported as 0.27%.2 No parotid gland incidence figures are available.. A 24-year-old woman from Van Wyksvlei was referred to the surgical clinic with a lump in the superolateral quadrant of the left breast. Fine-needle aspiration was performed at a local clinic before referral to the surgical clinic; parasitic hooklets were observed, ...
Branchial cysts within the parotid salivary gland : Cystic lesions within the parotid gland are uncommon and clinically they are frequently misdiagnosed as tumours. Many theories have been proposed as to their embryological origin. A 20-year retrospective review was undertaken of all pathological codes (SNOMED) of all of patients presenting with any parotid lesions requiring surgery. After analysis seven subjects were found to have
Parotidectomy is a surgery performed to remove either a small portion or the entire parotid gland. The parotid glands are located under the skin in front of the ear overlying the jaw bone. Most commonly a parotidectomy is performed to remove a mass or lump within the gland, or to remove the gland in cases of recurrent stones or infections. The parotid gland is closely associated with the facial nerve which controls movements of the face such as raising the eyebrow and smiling. As such parotidectomy is a very challenging surgery, in which removal of the gland must be balanced with preserving the facial nerve. Prior to surgery a surgeon, in the case of a mass or lump, the surgeon may perform order a CT or MRI exam to help determine the anatomy of the parotid gland.. Parotidectomy is performed in the operating room under general anesthesia. A cut is made on the skin around the ear, similar to the incisions used during a face-lift. The facial nerve is identified as it enters the salivary gland and ...
A parotidectomy is the surgical excision (removal) of the parotid gland, the major and largest of the salivary glands. The procedure is most typically performed due to neoplasms (tumors), which are growths of rapidly and abnormally dividing cells. Neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The majority of parotid gland tumors are benign, however 20% of parotid tumors are found to be malignant. A parotidectomy is performed mostly by the oral and maxillofacial surgeons and otolaryngologist. There are two parotid glands in the human body. Each parotid gland is located high in the neck just below the ears. A salivary duct by which saliva is secreted (produced and released), runs through the inside of each cheek from each gland. Furthermore, the extratemporal (outside temporal bone) facial nerve and its subsidiaries run through the parotid gland and innervate (supply nerves to) the face. This nerve articulates the muscles for facial expression as well as more specific muscles ...
List of causes of Bilateral parotid gland enlargement and Angina, alternative diagnoses, rare causes, misdiagnoses, patient stories, and much more.
Cyclic antidepressants are still a dominating group of psychotherapeutic drugs used in the treatment of depression. Dry mouth is one of their major side effects. In this study we analyzed the effects of the long-term administration of the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine and the reversibility of this treatment following a 15-day washout period on different parameters in parotid gland function in aging rats. We hypothesized that glandular function would be decreased, and recovery delayed with age. Drug treatment affected body weight, glandular weight, DNA synthesis, and the concentration of soluble and structural membrane proteins. Surprisingly, parotid flow rate was increased with desipramine in all ages. While the concentration of secreted proteins was generally decreased with treatment, total proteins secreted were quite stable. SDS/PAGE analysis revealed prominent changes with desipramine. Amylase activity was depressed with treatment, but only low residual cellular enzyme activity was ...
To assess the impact of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) versus conventional radiation on late xerostomia and Quality of Life aspects in head and neck cancer patients. Questionnaires on xerostomia in rest and during meals were sent to all patients treated between January 1999 and December 2003 with a T1-4, N0-2 M0 head and neck cancer, with parotid gland sparing IMRT or conventional bilateral neck irradiation to a dose of at least 60 Gy, who were progression free and had no disseminated disease (n = 192). Overall response was 85% (n = 163); 97% in the IMRT group (n = 75) and 77% in the control group (n = 88) the median follow-up was 2.6 years. The prevalence of complaints was compared between the two groups, correcting for all relevant factors at multivariate ordinal regression analysis. Patients treated with IMRT reported significantly less difficulty transporting and swallowing their food and needed less water for a dry mouth during day, night and meals. They also experienced fewer problems
Third, the tissues examined in the two studies differed: Delli et al used sequential parotid biopsies, whereas we performed labial MSG biopsies. Except for the group from Gröningen, very few groups worldwide routinely use parotid biopsy, which requires the intervention of a trained surgeon. The differences between these two tissue types is ill-defined.14 The presence of lymphoepithelial lesions is more commonly observed in parotid tissue than in labial MSG; parotid tissue may contain physiological lymphoid tissue between lobules, including lymphoid follicles even in healthy individuals; and parotid acini are purely serous whereas in labial MSG acini are both mucinous and serous. A theoretical advantage of parotid biopsy is that the same gland can be analysed sequentially. However, it seems that the analysis of sequential biopsies of the same gland is not reproducible over time, as illustrated by the apparent variability (in terms of number of lymphoepithelial lesions, relative area of ...
Chronic Abdominal Pain, Parotid Gland Surgery, Swelling of Thigh Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Nephrolithiasis, Ovarian Cyst, Hereditary Angioedema. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
Question - Heat in cheeks, excessive sweat, redness near ears. Surgery near parotid glands. Suggestion?. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Cetirizine, Ask an ENT Specialist
Definition of bed of parotid gland. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
Radiotherapy of malignancies in the head and neck often involves the major and minor salivary glands in the radiation field. Adverse effects, such as dry mouth symptoms, are common after such therapy. The aim of this thesis was to study longitudinal effects of fractionated irradiation to the head and neck on salivary gland function in man and in the rat and to test radioprotection from antioxidant vitamins (retinol, a-tocopherol and ^-carotene).. A sharp decrease in parotid saliva flow rate was seen after one week of irradiation in cancer patients, but in some patients recovery was seen two months after completed treatment. Loss and recovery of salivary gland function were dependent on the total dose given. Irradiation with doses of ,65 Gy to the parotid glands led to permanent loss of function in the majority of parotid glands, while recovery could be seen after irradiation with doses of ,52 Gy. Concentrations of some proteins and electrolytes in saliva were increased during irradiation but no ...
Non-contrast studies -- Coronal fat-suppressed FSE T2-weighted MR image reveals a well-circumscribed hyperintense mass lesion compared with surrounding parotid tissue, within the superficial lobe, ...
Non-contrast studies -- Sagittal SE T1-weighted MR image reveals a well-circumscribed hypointense mass lesion compared with surrounding parotid tissue, within the superficial lobe.
ERV can be put to physiological use by their hosts, either at the gene regulatory level or as proteins. Tissue-specific enhancers in the ERV LTR are an example of transcriptional control. All mammals express amylase in the pancreas, but rodents and Old World primates also express amylase in salivary glands. In both the cases, ERV elements play a role in salivary expression in remarkably convergent evolution. The activation of salivary amylase in the human parotid gland is controlled by a retroviral insertion, which occurred during Old World primate evolution [54]. Then gene triplication of the amylase gene and its LTR enhancer to further enhance amylase secretion occurred after hominids split from chimpanzees. It may have provided selective advantage to the hominid lineage when, like rodents, they adopted a diet containing complex carbohydrates.. Many years ago, it was noted that MLV is not transcriptionally active in murine embryonal carcinoma stem cells, but that during differentiation into ...