Visual short-term memory (VSTM) provides an on-line mental space for incoming sensory information to be temporally maintained to carry out complex behavioral tasks. Despite its essential functions, the capacity at which VSTM could maintain sensory information is limited (i.e., VSTM can hold only about three to four visual items at once). Moreover, the quality of sensory representation (i.e., precision) degrades as more information has to be maintained in VSTM. Correlational evidence suggests that the level and the pattern of neural activity measured in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) track both VSTM capacity and precision. However, the causal contributions of the PPC to these different VSTM operations are unclear. Here, we tested whether stimulating the PPC with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could increase VSTM capacity or precision. We found that stimulating the PPC in male and female human participants selectively enhanced VSTM capacity when the number of memory items ...
Three regions of the macaque inferior parietal lobule and adjacent lateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS) are distinguished by the relative strengths of their connections with the superior colliculus, parahippocampal gyrus, and ventral premotor cortex. It was hypothesized that connectivity information could therefore be used to identify similar areas in the human parietal cortex using diffusion-weighted imaging and probabilistic tractography. Unusually, the subcortical routes of the 3 projections have been reported in the macaque, so it was possible to compare not only the terminations of connections but also their course. The medial IPS had the highest probability of connection with the superior colliculus. The projection pathway resembled that connecting parietal cortex and superior colliculus in the macaque. The posterior angular gyrus and the adjacent superior occipital gyrus had a high probability of connection with the parahippocampal gyrus. The projection pathway resembled the macaque inferior
In sensorimotor integration, sensory input and motor output signals are combined to provide an internal estimate of the state of both the world and ones own body. Although a single perceptual and motor snapshot can provide information about the current state, computational models show that the state can be optimally estimated by a recursive process in which an internal estimate is maintained and updated by the current sensory and motor signals. These models predict that an internal state estimate is maintained or stored in the brain. Here we report a patient with a lesion of the superior parietal lobe who shows both sensory and motor deficits consistent with an inability to maintain such an internal representation between updates. Our findings suggest that the superior parietal lobe is critical for sensorimotor integration, by maintaining an internal representation of the bodys state.
Purified Cynomolgus monkey Parietal Lobe Lysate from Creative Biomart. Cynomolgus monkey Parietal Lobe Lysate can be used for research.
We studied a patient (J.J.) with bilateral damage to those regions of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) thought to be involved in prism adaptation. We demonstrated, for the first time in a parietal patient, that J.J. was unable to adapt to the visual perturbation induced by the optical prisms with either hand within four times the number of trials required by healthy adult subjects. We offer a novel account for the role of the PPC in prism adaptation: that the reach direction to the veridical target location specified in extrinsic limb-based coordinates must be de-coupled from the gaze direction to the perceived target location specified by intrinsic oculocentric coordinates in order to produce spatially accurate movements. This spatial discrepancy between gaze direction and reach direction may provide the necessary training signal required by the cerebellum to update the current internal model used to maintain spatial congruency between visual and proprioceptive maps of peripersonal space. The
The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) plays a crucial role in relation to motor planning based on sensory information. Human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments and electrophysiological recordings in nonhuman primates have shown that the PPC is neither sensory nor motor purely, but it is an area that encodes cognitive functions related to action1,2. The presence of sensory and motor specific representations together with high-level cognitive signals suggests that the PPC plays an important role for decision making related to action2. Such representations are elementary components in the preparation and adjustment of a motor act and they take part in the integration among different and specialized centers in the final movement production3. This process occurs through sensorimotor integration, when sensory information is integrated by central nervous system to attend to motor programs. Catching an object is a complex movement which involves not only programming but also ...
Perceptual learning is associated with experience-based changes in stimulus salience. Here, we use a novel procedure to show that learning a new association between a self-label and a neutral stimulus produces fast alterations in social salience measured by interference when targets associated with other people have to be selected in the presence of self-associated distractors. Participants associated neutral shapes with either themselves or a friend, over a short run of training trials. Subsequently, the shapes had to be identified in hierarchical (global-local) forms. The data show that giving a shape greater personal significance by associating it with the self had effects on visual selection equivalent to altering perceptual salience. Similar to previously observed effects linked to when perceptually salient distractors are ignored, effects of a self-associated distractor also increased activation in the left intraparietal cortex sulcus. The results show that self-associations to sensory stimuli
The term superior parietal lobule refers to one of four subdivisions of the parietal lobe identified by dissection in the human ( Carpenter-1983 ) and the macaque ( Martin-2000 ). Located on the dorsal margin of the cerebral hemisphere, it is, in the human, separated rostrally from the postcentral gyrus by the postcentral sulcus and a line extending from the upper end of that sulcus over the margin of the cerebral hemisphere to the cingulate sulcus, which separates it from the cingulate gyrus. Thus, it includes the caudal portion of the paracentral lobule. Caudally its boundary with the occipital lobe is an oblique plane through the parieto-occipital sulcus on the dorsomedial margin of the hemisphere and the preoccipital notch on the ventromedial margin.. Its boundary on the dorsolateral surface of the hemisphere is the intraparietal sulcus, which separates it from the supramarginal gyrus and the angular gyrus of the inferior parietal lobule. The other three parts of the parietal lobe are the ...
inhibition of overt actions during action simulation. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., Program No. 307.9. 2009 Abstract Viewer/Itinerary Planner. 3. Savaki HE. Symposium: Cortical Networks in Action. Society for Neuroscience Meeting, 4. Raos V, Evangeliou MN, Savaki HE. Parietal cortical areas of the monkey brain engaged in visual and somatosensory guidance of reaching-to-grasp. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., Program No. 262.2. 2008 Abstract Viewer/Itinerary Planner. 5. Savaki H. E., Bakola S., Gregoriou G. G. & Moschovakis A. K. The lateral intraparietal cortex represents visual and motor space in segregated, albeit partially overlapping, regions. Federation of European Neuroscience Societies Meeting, July 2006 6. Bakola S., G.G. Gregoriou, A.K. Moschovakis, H.E. Savaki. Functional imaging of the intraparietal cortex during saccades to visual and memorized targets. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr., Program No 287. 2005 Abstract Viewer/Itinerary Planner. 7. Raos V, Evangeliou MN, Savaki HE. 2005. Observation of action: ...
An area of visual-motor cortex called the lateral intraparietal area encodes eye position signals that support visually-guided behaviors and image stabilization.
Visual extinction after right parietal damage involves a loss of awareness for stimuli in the contralesional field when presented concurrently with ipsilesional stimuli, although contralesional stimuli are still perceived if presented alone. However, extinguished stimuli can still receive some residual on-line processing, without awareness. Here we examined whether such residual processing of extinguished stimuli can produce implicit and/or explicit memory traces lasting many minutes. We tested four patients with right parietal damage and left extinction on two sessions, each including distinct study and subsequent test phases. At study, pictures of objects were shown briefly in the right, left, or both fields. Patients were asked to name them without memory instructions (Session 1) or to make an indoor/outdoor categorization and memorize them (Session 2). They extinguished most left stimuli on bilateral presentation. During the test (up to 48 min later), fragmented pictures of the previously exposed
The intraparietal sulcus, together with the post-central sulcus, is one of the two main sulci of the parietal lobe. It runs from the post-central sulcus towards the occipital pole, dividing the lateral parietal lobe into the superior and inferior...
Neural stem cells (NSCs) were obtained from newborn rats. We cloned the cDNA of human dopamine receptor 2 (hDRD2) by RT-PCR, and inserted it into the MCS of pcDNA3.1 positive plasmid. The NSCs were transfected with this recombinant plasmid mediated by the effective transfection reagent. RT-PCR, Western blot and immunocytochemistry were performed to detect the expression of hDRD2 in stem cells. NSCs were then labeled with BrdU the day before transplantation. Eight rats were divided into transplantation and control groups. All of them were subjected to focal traumatic brain injury in right parietal lobe. NSCs were transplanted into the right parietal lobe for the transplantation group, and saline were injected for the control group. Prior and post transplantation, microPET scans were performed to detect the expression of DRD2 molecule with 11C-NMSP and the regional glucose metabolism using18F-FDG. Two weeks after transplantation, the survival and gene expression of donor NSCs were analyzed by ...
These experiments demonstrate that simple vibrotactile stimuli evoke robust BOLD fMRI responses in MST but not in MT. A potential source for vibrotactile responses in MST is a projection from the ventral intraparietal area (VIP). In nonhuman primates, VIP receives input from hand and arm regions of S2, and in turn VIP projects to MST (Lewis and Van Essen, 2000). Connections from macaque VIP to MT are much sparser than those from VIP to MST, perhaps reflecting the weaker vibrotactile responses in MT than MST observed in the present study. Although the connectivity of human MST is uncertain, studies using diffusion tensor tractography (Rushworth et al., 2006) and functional effective connectivity (Peltier et al., 2007) offer promising avenues of exploration. Additional support for VIP contributions to MST activation comes from a recent fMRI study, which proposed that the human homolog of VIP lies in the postcentral sulcus (Sereno and Huang, 2006). Consistent with this proposal, we observed a ...
Looking for intraparietal? Find out information about intraparietal. Within the wall of an organ or cavity. Within the parietal region of the cerebrum. Within the body wall Explanation of intraparietal
Parietal lobe: | | | |Parietal lobe| | | | | | ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
Democrat Senator Edward Kennedy has been diagnosed with Glioma, a kind of brain tumor. Tests carried out on the 76 -year old politician revealed a tumor on his left parietal lobe.
Neuronal activity in the lateral intraparietal cortex of monkeys reflects the passage of time and is sufficiently precise to explain timed eye movements.
The parietal lobe carries out some very specific functions. As a part of the cortex, it has a lot of responsibilities. Click for even more facts.
C. Koutsarnakis, MD F. Liakos, MD A. Kalyvas, MD, MSc E. Liouta, MSc J. Emelifeonwu, MD T. Kalamatianos, PhD D.E. Sakas, MD, PhD E. Johnson, PhD G. Stranjalis, MD, PhD. Approaching the Atrium Through the Intraparietal Sulcus: Mapping the Sulcal Morphology and Correlating the Surgical Corridor to Underlying Fiber Tracts Oper Neurosurg 13:503-516, 2017 ...
CT- Mixed density lesion within the posterior temporal and parietal lobes. MRI-Exophytic appearing lesion which has an intra axial component and enhances homoge
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The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is thought to play an important role in the sensorimotor transformations associated with reaching movements. In humans, damage to the PPC, particularly bilateral lesions, leads to impairments of visually guided reaching movements (optic ataxia). Recent accounts of optic ataxia based upon electrophysiological recordings in monkeys have proposed that this disorder arises because of a breakdown in the tuning fields of parietal neurons responsible for integrating spatially congruent retinal, eye, and hand position signals to produce coordinated eye and hand movements . We present neurological evidence that forces a reconceptualization of this view. We report a detailed case study of a patient with a limb-dependent form of optic ataxia who can accurately reach with either hand to objects that he can foveate (thereby demonstrating coordinated eye-hand movements) but who cannot effectively decouple reach direction from gaze direction for movements executed using his right
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reaching with the sixth sense. T2 - Vestibular contributions to voluntary motor control in the human right parietal cortex. AU - Reichenbach, Alexandra. AU - Bresciani, Jean-Pierre. AU - Bulthoff, Heinrich H.. AU - Thielscher, Axel. N1 - © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - The vestibular system constitutes the silent sixth sense: It automatically triggers a variety of vital reflexes to maintain postural and visual stability. Beyond their role in reflexive behavior, vestibular afferents contribute to several perceptual and cognitive functions and also support voluntary control of movements by complementing the other senses to accomplish the movement goal. Investigations into the neural correlates of vestibular contribution to voluntary action in humans are challenging and have progressed far less than research on corresponding visual and proprioceptive involvement. Here, we ...
The present study examined the relations between the lesions linked to visual and tactile extinction (VE and TE), and those related to visual field defects and spatial neglect. Continuous variations in patients performance were used to assess the link between behavioural scores and integrity of both grey and white matter (GM and WM). We found both common and distinct neural substrates associated with extinction and neglect. Damage to angular and middle occipital gyri, superior temporal sulcus (STS) and insula were linked to VE. Lesions involving the supramarginal gyrus (SMG), intraparietal sulcus, middle frontal and superior temporal gyri (MFG and STG) were associated exclusively with spatial neglect. Lesions affecting the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), the middle temporal region, middle frontal area (BA46) as well as the insula and putamen were linked to both spatial neglect and VE. Analysis of the relations between VE and TE highlighted the TPJ as the common site for both modalities. These findings
It is well established that the premotor cortex has a central role in the selection of movements. The role of parts of the parietal cortex in movement control has proved more difficult to describe but appears to be related to the preparation and the redirection of movements and movement intentions. We have referred to some of these processes as motor attention. It has been known since the time of William James that covert motor attention can be directed to an upcoming movement just as visuospatial attention can be directed to a location in space. While some parietal regions, particularly in the right hemisphere, are concerned with covert orienting and the redirecting of covert orienting it may be useful to consider other parietal regions, in the anterior inferior parietal lobule and in the posterior superior parietal lobule, particularly in the left hemisphere, as contributing to motor attention. Such parts of the parietal lobe are activated in neuroimaging experiments when subjects covertly prepare
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have demonstrated a critical role for a cortical region in the right temporo-parietal junction (RTPJ) in theory of mind (ToM), or mental state reasoning. In other research, the RTPJ has been implicated in the deployment of attention to an unexpe …
What underlies differences in fluid intelligence? How are smart brains different from those that are merely average?. Brain imaging studies have pointed to several aspects. One is brain size. Although the history of simplistic comparisons of brain size has been turbulent (you cannot, for example, directly compare brain size without taking into account the size of the body its part of), nevertheless, overall brain size does count for something - 6.7% of individual variation in intelligence, its estimated. So, something, but not a huge amount.. Activity levels in the prefrontal cortex, research also suggests, account for another 5% of variation in individual intelligence. (Do keep in mind that these figures are not saying that, for example, prefrontal activity explains 5% of intelligence. We are talking about differences between individuals.). A new study points to a third important factor - one that, indeed, accounts for more than either of these other factors. The strength of the connections ...
This 807 word essay is about Cerebrum, Parietal lobe, Occipital lobe, Corpus callosum, Lateralization of brain function, Frontal lobe. Read the full essay now!
If you had MS and abnormal signals in your parietal lobe, what areas of your body/functions would it effect? Also, could a plaque location cause stiff/sore neck base (Still able to touch chest with ...
Results: Common sources for both P300 components were observed within a large frontoparietal network, including the frontal eye 﫿eld and dorsal parietal cortex (i.e. the attentional dorsal frontopari-etal network). More inferior parietal areas, prefrontal and cingulate cortices (i.e. the attentional ventral frontoparietal network) were also involved in the generation of target-elicited P300 ...
immune Uncategorized 671225-39-1 supplier, Rabbit Polyclonal to MAP3K8 (phospho-Ser400) Earlier work has proven a distinction between maintenance of two types of spatial information in operating memory (WM): spatial locations and spatial relations. vs. relationships. Maintaining a spot, in comparison to a connection, was connected with higher activity in normal spatial WM areas like posterior parietal cortex and prefrontal areas. Whereas keeping a connection, compared to a spot, was connected with higher activity in the parahippocampal gyrus and precuneus/retrosplenial cortex. Further, in Test 2 we manipulated WM fill and included tests where participants got to keep up three spatial places or relationships. Under this high fill condition, the areas delicate to places vs. relationships were unique of under low fill somewhat. We also determined areas which were delicate to fill for area or connection maintenance particularly, aswell as overlapping areas delicate to load even more generally. These ...
Well, at least from a neurological perspective.. This weeks image is a colourful MRI scan displaying the spectrum of happiness; found within the neural mechanisms of the research participants who took part in the Kyoto study. Researchers discovered that participants who scored highest in happiness surveys exhibited a greater mass of grey matter in the precuneus, a region in the medial parietal lobe.. So what leads to this physical manifestation of happiness? The team at Kyoto were able to link a larger precuneus to those who were generally more satisfied, and able to find more meaning in life. Interestingly, these people who felt happiness most intensely, and therefore had a larger precuneus, also experienced sadness less intensely ...
In every minute of our lives our bodies complete thousands if not millions of exchanges of information in order to keep us alive and maintain our health. Think of something as simple as picking up a hot cup of coffee. The signal about the hotness of the coffee travels along a complicated pathway ending in a portion of the brain called the parietal lobe where we form our sensory experiences. There are vast numbers of nerve cells each sending bits of information in order to process the awareness of temperature. There are many more cells involved in processing the touch and pressure sensations as well. This complicated processing results in the texture, shape and weight of the cup ...
BACKGROUND: Patients with asomatognosia generally describe parts of their body as missing or disappeared from corporeal awareness. This disturbance is generally attributed to damage in the right posterior parietal cortex. However, recent neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies suggest that corporeal awareness and embodiment of body parts are instead linked to the premotor cortex of both hemispheres. PATIENT: We describe a patient with asomatognosia of her left arm due to damage in the right premotor and motor cortices. The patients pathological embodiment for her left arm was associated with mild left somatosensory loss, mild frontal dysfunction, and a behavioral deficit in the mental imagery of human arms. CONCLUSION: Asomatognosia may also be associated with damage to the right premotor cortex.. ...
According to a recent study, semantic similarity between concrete entities correlates with the similarity of activity patterns in left middle IPS during category naming. We examined the replicability of this effect under passive viewing conditions, the potential role of visuoperceptual similarity, where the effect is situated compared to regions that have been previously implicated in visuospatial attention, and how it compares to effects of object identity and location. Forty-six subjects participated. Subjects passively viewed pictures from two categories, musical instruments and vehicles. Semantic similarity between entities was estimated based on a concept-feature matrix obtained in more than 1000 subjects. Visuoperceptual similarity was modelled based on the HMAX model, the AlexNet deep convolutional learning model, and, thirdly, based on subjective visuoperceptual similarity ratings. Among the IPS regions examined, only left middle IPS showed a semantic similarity effect. The effect was
The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) has been implicated in selective attention as well as visual short-term memory (VSTM). To contrast mechanisms of target selection, distracter filtering, and access to VSTM, we combined behavioral testing, computational modeling and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Sixteen healthy subjects participated in a change detection task in which we manipulated both target and distracter set sizes. We directly compared the IPS response as a function of the number of targets and distracters in the display and in VSTM. When distracters were not present, the posterior and middle segments of IPS showed the predicted asymptotic activity increase with an increasing target set size. When distracters were added to a single target, activity also increased as predicted. However, the addition of distracters to multiple targets suppressed both middle and posterior IPS activities, thereby displaying a significant interaction between the two factors. The interaction between target and
Recent studies in human neuroimaging, primate neurophysiology, and developmental neuropsychology indicate that the human ability for arithmetic has a tangible cerebral substrate. The human intraparietal sulcus is systematically activated in all number tasks and could host a central amodal representation of quantity. Areas of the precentral and inferior prefrontal cortex also activate when subjects engage in mental calculation. A monkey analogue of these parieto-frontal regions has recently been identified, and a neuronal population code for number has been characterized. Finally, pathologies of this system, leading to acalculia in adults or to developmental dyscalculia in children, are beginning to be understood, thus paving the way for brain-oriented intervention studies ...
Parietal and frontal cortical areas play important roles in the control of goal-oriented behaviour. This review examines how signal processing in the parietal and frontal eye fields is involved in coding and storing space, directing attention and processing the sensorimotor transformation for saccad …
Roberta Diaz Brinton, Arizona University, Tucson, reported on a completed Phase 1 trial of allopregnanolone, a naturally occurring neurosteroid that stimulates neurogenesis and dampens inflammation and Aβ production in mice. Brinton had previously shown partial results of this small trial (May 2017 conference news). It tested 12 weekly infusions of 2, 4 and 6 mg of allopregnanolone or placebo in 12 women and 12 men with mild cognitive impairment or early AD. The treatment continues to be safe across these doses; Brinton reported no adverse events, no ARIA, and clinical results in the normal range. When they ramped up dosing to find a maximum tolerated dose, women became sleepy at 10 mg, men at 6 mg.. Brinton also spotted some MRI and functional MRI signals associated with allopregnanolone. Compared with placebo, treatment slowed left hippocampal atrophy, and this effect was more pronounced in APOE4 carriers. High-dose treatment improved functional connectivity between the right parietal lobe ...
The area of the brain responsible of visuospatial processing data and more specifically the orientation of an object or image is located in parietal lobe, especially on the right side. A dysfunction of this region would result in a disorder of recognition of the orientation of objects and images that the investigators call orientation agnosia. Several isolated cases are reported in the literature but to the investigators knowledge deficit has never been systematically searched, or put into perspective compared to other neuropsychological deficits. Moreover, the precise location of the lesion responsible for such a disorder remains uncertain. The objectives of this study are (1) detect the existence of orientation agnosia in case of right parietal lesion, and (2) to improve the understanding of such a deficit allowing better management of this disorder ...
It is particularly important investigators examine the effect of RTP + tDCS on cortical modulation in order to understand the underlying mechanism of the intervention and determine whether RTP+ tDCS (parietal or primary motor cortex [M1]) promotes greater neural modulation than RTP alone. Traditionally, electrodes are placed on M1 to facilitate motor recovery and on the parietal lobe to facilitate attentional recovery, however this intervention is designed to target each of these impairments (motor, attention) and enhance cortical modulation of fronto-parietal networks. Therefore, investigators must also determine the optimal electrode montage and placement for pairing tDCS with RTP for individuals with neglect ...
The term intra-occipital sulcus refers to one of several small sulci bordering the superior occipital gyrus (human) ( Stedmans-2006 ). It is a caudal continuation of the intraparietal sulcus ( Duvernoy-1992 ). ...
Scans show that people who spend untold hours in prayer or meditation go dark in the parietal lobe, the brain area that helps create a sense of self. A researcher says these people may be rewriting the neural connections in their brains - altering how they see the world.
arshadk writes with this excerpt from the BBC about researchers at Oxford University who found that inducing a small current in a subjects parietal lobe boosted their capacity for numerical learning: The current could not be felt, and had no measurable effect on other brain functions. As it was tu...
tpj [CLOSED] - posted in Virus, Spyware, Malware Removal: Logfile of HijackThis v1.99.1Scan saved at 20:43:05, on 04/08/2005Platform: Windows XP SP2 (WinNT 5.01.2600)MSIE: Internet Explorer v6.00 SP2 (6.00.2900.2180)Running processes:C:\WINDOWS\System32\smss.exeC:\WINDOWS\system32\csrss.exeC:\WINDOWS\system32\winlogon.exeC:\WINDOWS\system32\services.exeC:\WINDOWS\system32\lsass.exeC:\WINDOWS\system32\...
Previous studies suggest that religious prayer can alter the experience of pain via expectation mechanisms. While brain processes related to other types of top-down modulation of pain have been studied extensively, no research has been conducted on the potential effects of active religious coping. Here, we aimed at investigating the neural mechanisms during pain modulation by prayer and their dependency on the opioidergic system.Twenty-eight devout Protestants performed religious prayer and a secular contrast prayer during painful electrical stimulation in two fMRI sessions. Naloxone or saline was administered prior to scanning. Results show that pain intensity was reduced by 11% and pain unpleasantness by 26% during religious prayer compared to secular prayer. Expectancy predicted large amounts (70-89%) of the variance in pain intensity. Neuroimaging results revealed reduced neural activity during religious prayer in a large parietofrontal network relative to the secular condition. Naloxone had no
Mirror neurons make these complex cells [that guide other functions like facial or manual recognition] look like numbskulls. Found in several areas of the brain - including the premotor cortex, the posterior parietal lobe, the superior temporal sulcus and the insula - they fire in response to chains of actions linked to intentions. Studies show that some mirror neurons fire when a person reaches for a glass or watches someone else reach for a glass; others fire when the person puts the glass down and still others fire when the person reaches for a toothbrush and so on. They respond when someone kicks a ball, sees a ball being kicked, hears a ball being kicked and says or hears the word "kick." "When you see me perform an action - such as picking up a baseball - you automatically simulate the action in your own brain," said Dr. Marco Iacoboni, a neuroscientist at the University of California, Los Angeles, who studies mirror neurons. "Circuits in your brain, which we do not yet entirely ...
Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to identify the neural systems involved in shifting spatial attention to visual stimuli in the left or right visual field along foveofugal or foveocentric directions. Psychophysical evidence indicated that stimuli at validly cued locations were responded to faster than stimuli at invalidly cued locations. Reaction times to invalid probes were faster when they were presented in the same than in the opposite direction of an ongoing attention movement. PET evidence indicated that superior parietal and superior frontal cortex were more active when attention was shifted to peripheral locations than when maintained at the center of gaze. Both regions encoded the visual field and not the direction of an attention shift. In the right superior parietal lobe, two distinct responses were localized for attention to left and right visual field. Finally, the superior parietal region was active when peripheral locations were selected on the basis of cognitive or ...
The term parieto-occipital sulcus refers to the groove in the cerebral cortex that separates the precuneus of the parietal lobe from the cuneus of the occipital lobe on the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere. It is found in the human ( Carpenter-1983 ) and the macaque ( Martin-2000 ). In the macaque it merges with the intraparietal sulcus, and the lunate sulcus of the macaque on the dorsal surface of the brain ( Kappers-1960 ). Equivalent structures are not found in the smooth cerebral cortex of the rat or mouse ( NeuroNames ). ...