Summary. A rat parathyroid cell line, with some differentiated properties of the parathyroid gland, synthesizes predominantly a heparan sulphate proteoglycan (HS-PG) typical of cell surface HS-PGs (core protein = ∼ 70 kDa, three to four HS chains of ∼ 30 kDa). A 10 min pulse-chase protocol was used to determine the metabolic fate of the HS-PGs for cells maintained in 2.1 mM-Ca2+ (high Ca) or in 0.05 mM-Ca2+ (low Ca). In low Ca, ∼ 60% of the labelled HS-PGs reach the cell surface (t1/2= ∼ 15 min) as determined by trypsin accessibility. This population of HS-PGs recycles (t1/2= ∼ 9 min) between the cell surface and an intracellular (presumably endosome) compartment. After ∼ 2 h, this population of HS-PGs is internalized and rapidly degraded in lysosomes. In high Ca, only ∼ 10% of the HS-PGs reach the cell surface, where they do not recycle. Changing from high to low Ca any time between 30-120 min of chase, rapidly (t1/2 less than 4 min) redistributes the HS-PGs to the cell surface ...
Parathyroid glands are small endocrine glands in the neck of humans and other tetrapods that produce parathyroid hormone. Humans usually have four parathyroid glands, variably located on the back of the thyroid gland. Parathyroid hormone and calcitonin (one of the hormones made by the thyroid gland) have key roles in regulating the amount of calcium in the blood and within the bones. Parathyroid glands share a similar blood supply, venous drainage, and lymphatic drainage to the thyroid glands. Parathyroid glands are derived from the epithelial lining of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches, with the superior glands arising from the fourth pouch, and the inferior glands arising from the higher third pouch. The relative position of the inferior and superior glands, which are named according to their final location, changes because of the migration of embryological tissues. Hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism, characterized by alterations in the blood calcium levels and bone metabolism, ...
Light micrograph of a normal parathyroid gland. There are usually 4 parathyroid glands which produce the parathyroid hormone to control the amount of calcium in the blood and bones. - Stock Image C025/2882
article{b4dd06dd-ccd1-448e-9856-ef0297979410, abstract = {,p,For preoperative localization of enlarged parathyroid glands, several imaging techniques have been used. In this study we demonstrate the feasibility of using ultrasonography with fine needle aspiration for parathyroid hormone assay as a preoperative localization procedure in 21 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. A single adenoma was found in 18 patients while 3 patients had multiglandular disease. Ultrasonically guided fine needle biopsy was possible in 11 cases. In 8 of these aspirates, a high parathyroid hormone content was found. In all 8 cases the localization was confirmed at surgery. We conclude that the efficiency to preoperatively localize enlarged parathyroid glands is enhanced by fine needle aspiration.,/p,}, author = {Bergenfelz, A and Forsberg, L and Hederström, Esbjörn and Ahrén, B}, issn = {0284-1851}, keyword = {Adult,Aged,Aged, 80 and over,Biopsy, Needle,Female,Humans,Hyperparathyroidism,Male,Middle ...
A parathyroid tumor is a growth inside a parathyroid gland. The parathyroid glands are four small glands located in the neck near the thyroid gland. They are part of the endocrine system that regulates hormones in the body. The parathyroid glands make parathyroid hormone that regulates the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the blood. Parathyroid tumors may cause increased levels of parathyroid hormones, leading to increased levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia). Most parathyroid tumors are benign (noncancerous) adenomas. Cancers of the parathyroid are very rare.. ...
A parathyroid tumor is a growth inside a parathyroid gland. The parathyroid glands are four small glands located in the neck near the thyroid gland. They are part of the endocrine system that regulates hormones in the body. The parathyroid glands make parathyroid hormone that regulates the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the blood. Parathyroid tumors may cause increased levels of parathyroid hormones, leading to increased levels of calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia). Most parathyroid tumors are benign (noncancerous) adenomas. Cancers of the parathyroid are very rare.. ...
Aim: To present a case of severe primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) manifested predominantly with polyuria.. Case: A 53 years old caucasian female presented to the emergency room with polyuria (5-6 l), and increasing during last 4 weeks dehydration, weight loss (10 kg), weakness, confusion. Diabetes mellitus and insipidus had been excluded. After hypercalcemia (3.6 3.9 mmol\l), Ca++ to 2.0 mmol\l and PTH of 616 pg\ml (11 62) were revealed acute PHPT was diagnosed. There were no bone changes and nephrolythiasis. Creatinine 65 mcmol\l (44 80), urine specific gravidity 1003 1015. D-dimers level ,20 mcg\ml (0 0.5) witnessed about disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Rehydration, calcitonin, magnesium, potassium, glucocorticoids, heparin were administered. USG: hyperplasia of inferior parathyroid glands (PG), adenoma not excluded. Transcutaneous biopsy: PG hyperplasia. Disease severity dictated necessity of surgical PG exploration without delay. Hyperplasia of all PGs was revealed, ...
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Background: Genetic mutations and upregulation of growth factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of hyperparathyroidism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Wilms tumour suppressor gene (WT-1) and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis in hyperparathyroidism. Methods: The expression of WT-1 and IGF components was examined by immunohistochemistry, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western immunoblotting in a panel of parathyroid specimens from both primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism. A human parathyroid cell culture model was established to examine the parathyroid response to IGF stimulation. Results: There was a significantly lower level of WT-1 expression in parathyroid tumours than in normal parathyroid glands. Most tumours expressed IGF-I and IGF-II receptors and responded to IGF stimulation. Only IGF-I was present in normal parathyroid glands, whereas IGF-II was expressed exclusively in parathyroid tumours. Conclusion: Abnormal expression of WT-1 ...
The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland that lies in front of the windpipe (trachea), just below the voice box (larynx). The thyroid gland uses iodine from food to make two thyroid hormones that regulate the way the body uses energy.. The parathyroid glands are four tiny glands located behind the thyroid gland. The parathyroid glands produce a substance (parathyroid hormone) that helps control the amount of calcium in the blood. ...
Your parathyroid glands control the level of calcium in your body by producing hormones. These four tiny glands sit near your thyroid gland but they function on their own and are not in any way related to your thyroid gland.. Normally your parathyroid glands are about the size of a grain of rice. Sometimes one of these glands becomes diseased - growing to an abnormal size and producing too much hormone. This is called hyperparathyroidism.. The symptoms of a diseased parathyroid gland vary. Some patients experience no symptoms. Others present with other conditions such as kidney stones (renal stones). Others experience more subtle symptoms like frequent headaches, fatigue, memory problems and depression.. These symptoms do not necessarily indicate a diseased parathyroid gland. A specialist consultant may order special blood tests to measure the level of calcium in your blood. They may order an MRI or CT scan or an ultrasound to confirm if your parathyroid glands are norm size.. If your consultant ...
The parathyroid hormone is responsible for regulating calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood, increasing blood calcium levels by causing calcium to be reabsorbed from bone. The parathyroid glands are small, hormone-secreting glands that are located on or near the thyroid glands. The term para- refers to adjacent or alongside, and thyroid refers to the actual thyroid gland; the thyroid and parathyroid glands are located side by side in the neck, near the windpipe or trachea. Hyperparathyroidism is a medical condition related to the parathyroid glands, in which over active parathyroid glands cause abnormally high levels of parathyroid hormone (also known as parathormone or PTH) to circulate in the blood.. ...
Calcimimetic compounds, which activate the parathyroid cell Ca2+ receptor (CaR) and inhibit parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion, are under experimental study as a treatment for hyperparathyroidism. This report describes the salient pharmacodynamic properties, using several test systems, of a new calcimimetic compound, cinacalcet HCl. Cinacalcet HCl increased the concentration of cytoplasmic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing the human parathyroid CaR. Cinacalcet HCl (EC50 = 51 nM) in the presence of 0.5 mM extracellular Ca2+ elicited increases in [Ca2+]i in a dose- and calcium-dependent manner. Similarly, in the presence of 0.5 mM extracellular Ca2+, cinacalcet HCl (IC50 = 28 nM) produced a concentration-dependent decrease in PTH secretion from cultured bovine parathyroid cells. Using rat medullary thyroid carcinoma 6-23 cells expressing the CaR, cinacalcet HCl (EC50 = 34 nM) produced a concentration-dependent increase in calcitonin secretion. In vivo studies in rats ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Calcium and phosphorus metabolism and the Parathyroid Gland. AU - Nwariaku, Ohwofiemu E. PY - 2006/1/1. Y1 - 2006/1/1. N2 - The parathyroid glands comprise a group of endocrine structures (usually 4 in number) that either hug the posterior surface of the thyroid gland or are in close proximity to it. Although exceedingly small in size, they play crucial roles in the maintenance of calcium and phosphorus balance. Their function spans a range of activities, including blood coagulation, modulation of membrane permeability, muscle contraction, neuromuscular excitability, and the regulation of various signal transduction processes within cells. Their importance to the surgeon is usually related to states of overactivity in which hypercalcemia may ensue. Occasionally, these glands also become important in surgical practices when a state of hypocalcemia results, as may occur after total thyroidectomy for goiter or neoplasia. The intricate control systems regulated by the parathyroid ...
In most people, the parathyroid glands sit directly behind the thyroid. However, about 15-20% of the population has what are known as ectopic parathyroid glands - meaning the glands are in abnormal locations.
Operating without evaluating all four parathyroid glands is cheating. All five of the cheating methods above are done for one of two reasons, 1) the surgeon does not feel comfortable with his/her ability to find all four parathyroid glands (they lack the skill and they know it!) or 2) the surgeon believes that a cure rate of 90% or less is OK, and believes that he/she can simply operate on you again in the future if you arent cured. How do we know this with such confidence? Because we used to be one of those surgeons who didnt think it was necessary to evaluate all four parathyroid glands. Up until 2002 we thought that we could tell which patients needed to have all four parathyroid glands evaluated, and which ones only needed 1 or two parathyroid glands evaluated. (see our publication citation at the bottom of this page). We gave up on that one-side operation because it doesnt work. We used to think that we could cure most people with a one-side unilateral operation, and that it was OK to ...
Operations on the parathyroid glands are very safe but sometimes there are complications.. The Voice: Intimately related to the thyroid gland and so sometimes the parathyroid glands are two nerves, one on each side of the neck. These recurrent laryngeal nerves provide the electricity for the movement of the vocal cords - which generate the voice. Injury to the nerve causes a weak and husky voice. Most injuries are a temporary bruising, with full recovery. However a permanent injury will result in a permanently weak voice. The risk of a permanent injury in parathyroid surgery is less than 1% (one in one hundred).. The Scar: Parathyroid surgery is undertaken through a 3 - 4cm scar that follows the natural creases in the neck. Usually it heals well leaving only a thin line. The stitches that are used are dissolvable and so there is no need for them to be removed. Application of Vitamin E to the wound greatly improves the cosmetic result.. ...
An authoritative and thoroughly illustrated atlas of the gross and histologic characteristics of the normal parathyroid glands and the tumors they may develop: the tumors of primary hyperparathyroidism; the changes associated with secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism and non-functional enlargement. A fundamental reference work indispensible for any library whose patrons have specialized interests in endocrinology. Halftones and color figures of high quality. ...
Cats parathyroid gland tumor - Tumours of the parathyroid glands - Cancer Information .... Thyromine is a natural thyroid health supplement that will help your thyroid function normally optimising your weight and overall health.
Hyperparathyroidism is medical condition in which abnormally high levels of parathyroid hormone (also known as parathormone or PTH) are circulating in the blood as the result of an overactive parathyroid gland. The parathyroid hormone is responsible for regulating calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood, increasing blood calcium levels by causing calcium to be reabsorbed from bone. The parathyroid glands are small, hormone-secreting glands that are located on or near the thyroid glands. The term para- refers to adjacent or alongside, and thyroid refers to the actual thyroid gland; the thyroid and parathyroid glands are located side by side in the neck, near the windpipe or trachea. ...
Hyperparathyroidism is a disorder in which the parathyroid glands in your neck produce too much parathyroid hormone (PTH). Most people have four pea-sized glands, called parathyroid glands, on the thyroid gland in the neck. Though their names are similar, the thyroid and parathyroid glands are completely different. The parathyroid glands make parathyroid hormone (PTH), which helps your body keep the … ...
The parathyroid glands are small endocrine glands found in all tetrapod (four-limbed) vertebrates (that is, except fish) and that produce parathyroid
Your doctor has discovered that one or several of your parathyroid glands are enlarged. This may be the cause of your primary hyperparathyroidism. The parathyroid glands control the calcium in your blood. Primary hyperparathyroidism causes increased levels of blood calcium (hypercalcemia). This can lead to a number of problems throughout your body. To treat primary hyperparathyroidism, the enlarged gland or glands are often removed with surgery.
Calcium removal from bone of the amphibian, R. catesbiana, was studied utilizing the technique of peritoneal lavage. Calcium changes in the lavage fluid were compared in parathyroidectomized and control frogs at two temperatures (4°C. and 22°C.). A histological comparison between parathyroid glands of lavaged animals and non-lavaged controls was made. In addition, the distribution and frequency of osteoclasts in the various bones of this frog were examined to relate their occurrence with the state of activity of the parathyroid glands. The results of these studies suggest that parathyroid function as related to its influence on bone follows the same pattern in the frog as has been reported previously for the rat. Both control and parathyroidectomized frogs were capable of supplying calcium from bone to peritoneal fluid as demonstrated by the lavage procedures. The frog could not, however, maintain this process indefinitely, for in all cases extremely erratic removal was noted after six hours ...
A peculiar characteristic of parathyroid tissue is the ability to spontaneously induce angiogenesis, to proliferate and to secrete PTH when autotransplanted in patients undergoing total parathyroidectomy. Since stem/progenitor cells have been involved in the process of tissue regeneration, we searched for putative parathyroid progenitors from human normal and tumoral parathyroids. By immunohistochemistry, FACS analysis and cell culture we identified parathyroid cells positive for the haematopoietic/endothelial marker CD34 which expressed surface antigens typical of endothelial progenitors, such as CD146 and CXCR4, but not the haematopoietic and mesenchymal markers, such as CD45, Thy-1/CD90, CD105 and CD117/c-kit. These cells were more abundant in tumoral than in normal parathyroids (4.4±1.2 and 2.2±0.9% respectively; P=0.05), without any difference in their immunophenotype except for the expression of nestin, a neural stem cell specific marker, which was almost exclusively restricted to the ...
Mr Amir Bhatti is a consultant general surgeon at Spire Washington Hospital. He specialises in a number of common procedures including breast lump removal and investigation, gallbladder and gallstone removal and hernia removal.. Amir is also one of the only consultants in the country to specialise in minimally invasive parathyroid surgery - also known as a parathyroidectomy - an operation to remove the parathyroid glands or parathyroid tumours.. He explains: "The four parathyroid glands are next to the thyroid gland in the neck. Each gland is about the size of a grain of rice, weighs approximately 30 milligrams and is three to four millimetres in diameter.. "These glands help your body control the calcium level in the blood and produce a hormone called parathyroid hormone or PTH.". In some instances, a parathyroid adenoma (a benign tumour) can cause high blood calcium; this produces excessive amounts of PTH, which in turn, increases the level of calcium in the blood to abnormal levels, causing ...
Parathyroid hormone administration to thyroparathyroidectomized rats resulted in a significant reduction in inorganic phosphate content of a variety of striated muscles. Most other organs were...
In the early development of the human embryo, a series of five pharyngeal arches and four pharyngeal pouches form that give rise to the face, neck, and surrounding structures. The pouches are numbered such that the first pouch is the closest to the top of the embryos head and the fourth is the furthest from it. The parathyroid glands originate from the interaction of the endoderm of the third and fourth pouch and neural crest mesenchyme.[5] The position of the glands reverses during embryological life. The pair of glands which is ultimately inferior develops from the third pouch with the thymus, whereas the pair of glands which is ultimately superior develops from the fourth pouch. During embryological development, the thymus migrates downwards, dragging the inferior glands with it. The superior pair are not dragged downwards by the fourth pouch to the same degree. The glands are named after their final, not embryological, positions.[9] Since the thymuss ultimate destination is in the ...
Learn about the veterinary topic of Overview of the Parathyroid Glands and Disorders of Calcium Metabolism. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the Merck Vet Manual.
June 15 2008 post. On Sherlocks wise recommendation, my most recent set of tests (April) included a set of osteoporosis ones. I have two good reasons to be on top of my bone health: 1. my mother, who is almost 80 years old, has osteoporosis, and 2. as we know, myeloma weakens and damages the bones, causing bone pain, fractures and hypercalcemia (too much calcium in the blood due to bone destruction). Bone pain, in fact, is the most common symptom of myeloma at the time of diagnosis.. Well, those results were all within normal limits except for one: my parathyroid hormone levels, paratormone in Italian, were a bit on the high side. Para-whaaat? I had to look this up online. Never heard of it before.. The parathyroid glands are four tiny glands located in the neck. As I learned from an excellent website (http://tinyurl.com/68×78n), they have nothing to do with the thyroid gland except for location: Parathyroid glands are small glands of the endocrine system which are located in the neck behind ...
Each parathyroid gland is invested with a fibrous capsule that is continuous with the thyroid capsule. Thin extensions of the capsule enter the gland itself and divide each gland into small lobules ...
Understanding the Different Roles of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands. For more information about thyroid glands call Thyroid Clinic Sydney 1300 113 310
Diagram shawin structurs in the human neck. The fower green shadit auries represent the maist common poseetion o the parathyroid glands, which are generally fower in nummer an situatit behind the lateral lobes o the thyroid gland (shadit orange ...
10.1055/b-0038-149736 4 SPECT/CT for the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands with CasesElisa Franquet-Elía and Kevin J. Donohoe 4.1 Introduction Single-photon emission computed tomography/ computed tomography (SPECT/CT) has substantially improved patient care in the management of several endocrine disorders previously managed with planar imaging or with planar imaging and SPECT together. Before the advent of hybrid imaging…
Få Surgery of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands af Gregory W. Randolph som bog på engelsk - 9781437722277 - Bøger rummer alle sider af livet. Læs Lyt Lev blandt millioner af bøger på Saxo.com.
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An example of negative feedback is the regulation of the blood calcium level. The parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone, which regulates the blood calcium amount. If calcium decreases, the parathyroid glands sense the decrease and secrete more parathyroid hormone. The parathyroid hormone stimulates calcium release from the bones and increases the calcium uptake into the bloodstream from the collecting tubules in the kidneys. Conversely, if blood calcium increases too much, the parathyroid glands reduce parathyroid hormone production. Both responses are examples of negative feedback because in both cases the effects are negative (opposite) to the stimulus.. Positive feedback mechanisms control self-perpetuating events that can be out of control and do not require continuous adjustment. In positive feedback mechanisms, the original stimulus is promoted rather than negated. Positive feedback increases the deviation from an ideal normal value. Unlike negative feedback that maintains hormone ...
In the present paper we report the case of a patient with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid with a coexistent intrathyroidal parathyroid gland and thymic tissue. All lesions were located in the right lobe of the thyroid, with imaging examinations not being able to differentiate between them, as findings consistent with either possible diagnosis were present (6). Eventually, diagnosis was established through histologic examination of the surgically excised tissue.. To the best of our knowledge, such a case with a combination of intrathyroidal parathyroid gland and thymic tissue with coexisting papillary carcinoma of the thyroid has been reported only once before by Kim et al. (7). In their work the authors report the case of a 29-year-old female patient with a history of right lobectomy due to papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Her follow-up ultrasonography revealed a hyperechoic nodule, which was later identified by microscopy as ectopic thymic tissue containing a parathyroid gland.. Wu et al. ...
Urinary excretion exceeding filtered load indicates net tubular addition of 3′,5′ - cAMP in normal mammals. Tubular addition of the nucleotide depends on parathyroid hormone. This study investigated: 1....
The 1K1C model is a severe, acute model of renal dysfunction which enables the activity of AMG 416 and cinacalcet to be investigated in the presence of the highly elevated levels of PTH and lack of kidney function typically seen in CKD-MBD patients receiving hemodialysis [1]. Due to its acute nature, the 1K1C model is not associated with the parathyroid gland hyperplasia seen in the rat 5/6 Nx uremic model and in dialysis patients with SHPT [9, 10]. However, it is an excellent model for assessing PTH-lowering activity in the background of severe kidney dysfunction. In this study, plasma PTH levels were significantly reduced by a single dose of either AMG 416 or cinacalcet. The effect of cinacalcet on PTH was of a lesser extent and shorter duration than seen with AMG 416, which maintained PTH lowering for more than 24 hr. The prolonged suppression of plasma PTH in the 1K1C model by AMG 416 is consistent with the pharmacokinetics (PK) observed for AMG 416 in normal rats and in different uremic ...
A group of scientists studying calcium metabolism in laboratory rats discovered that removing the rats parathyroid glands resulted in the rats having substantially lower than ...
Hyperparathyoidism is a disorder of the parathyroid glands. The parathyroids are located behind the thyroid gland in the neck. In hyperparathyroidism, a blood test, will indicate elevated calcium, caused by too much parathyroid hormone.
Hyperparathyroidism is when the parathyroid glands make too much parathyroid hormone. The condition is rare in children.. The parathyroid glands are 4 tiny glands on the thyroid. The hormone they make helps manage levels of calcium in the bloodstream. High levels of the hormone lead to high levels of calcium. This occurs because the hormone causes bones to start breaking down. Minerals from the bone are released into the blood. This causes high levels of calcium in the blood. The calcium is then processed by the kidneys. This process can cause thinning bones (osteoporosis) and kidney stones. Kidney stones are hard mineral crystals that get stuck in the urinary system.. ...
FOR A PDF DOCUMENT OF THIS INFORMATION, CLICK: http://content.lib.auburn.edu/cdm/singleitem/collection/vetmed1/id/999 - A 40X photomicrograph of the parathyroid gland. The field is full of parathyroid cells. Note many areas arranged in a circular manner. This arrangement is called a ROSETTE. Identify: parathyroid cells, rosettes, connective tissue, endothelium. IV. THE ADRENAL GLAND (Suprarenal glands) A. Embryology 1. The adrenal gland has a double origin and in reality is two distinct glands combined within a common capsule. THE CORTEX IS DERIVED FROM MESODERM, THE MEDULLA FROM ECTODERMAL NEURAL CREST TISSUE. a. Development of the cortex 1) The cortical primordia of the paired adrenal glands are seen first as paired condensations of mesenchyme beneath the peritoneal mesothelium, near the cephalic border of the mesonephric kidneys. b. Medulla 1) Ectodermal cell masses (sympathetic-chromaffin tissue) originally of neural crest origin invade the cortical parenchyma and migrate to the center of ...
C57BL6J-thyroid and parathyroid tissue Slides (Normal). Novus Control Slides contain a single tissue section mounted on a glass slide. Backed by our 100% Guarantee.
ABBREVIATIONS & DEFINITIONS. Hypocalcemia: low calcium levels in the blood, a complication from thyroid surgery that is usually short-term and relatively easily treated with calcium pills. If left untreated, low calcium may be associated with muscle twitching or cramping and, if severe, can cause seizures and/or heart problems. Parathyroid glands: usually four small glands located around the thyroid that secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH) which regulates the bodys calcium levels. Parathyroid hormone (PTH): the hormone that regulates the bodys calcium levels. High levels of PTH cause hypercalcemia, or too much calcium in the blood. Low levels of PTH cause hypocalcemia, or too little calcium in the blood. Hypoparathyroidism: low calcium levels due to decreased secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) from the parathyroid glands next to the thyroid. This can occur as a result of damage to the glands during thyroid surgery and usually resolves. This may also occur as a result of autoimmune ...
Irina V. Grigorieva, Samantha Mirczuk, Katherine U. Gaynor, M. Andrew Nesbit, Elena F. Grigorieva, Qiaozhi Wei, Asif Ali, Rebecca J. Fairclough, Joanna M. Stacey, Michael J. Stechman, Radu Mihai, Dorota Kurek, William D. Fraser, Tertius Hough, Brian G. Condie, Nancy Manley, Frank Grosveld, Rajesh V. Thakker ...
During embryogenesis, the thymus and inferior parathyroid glands develop from the third pharyngeal pouch and migrate to their definite position. During this process, several anatomic variations may arise, with the thyroid being one of the most common sites of ectopic implantation for both organs. Here, we report the case of a young female patient, who underwent total thyroidectomy for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. The patients history was remarkable for disorders of the genitourinary system. Histologic examination revealed the presence of well-differentiated intrathyroidal thymic tissue, containing an inferior parathyroid gland. While each individual entity has been well documented, this is one of the few reports in which concurrent presentation is reported. Given the fact that both the thymus and the inferior parathyroid are derivatives of the same embryonic structure (i.e. the third pharyngeal pouch), it is speculated that the present condition resulted from a failure in separation and ...