NIH Rare Diseases : 50 paraneoplastic neurologic disorders are a group of rare degenerative conditions that are triggered by a persons immune system response to a cancerous tumor. researchers believe these disorders occur when cancer-fighting antibodies or white blood cells known as t cells mistakenly attack normal cells in the nervous system. paraneoplastic neurologic disorders typically develop after mid-adulthood and are most common in people with lung, ovarian, lymphatic, or breast cancer. symptoms generally develop over a period of days to weeks and usually occur prior to tumor detection. these symptoms may include difficulty in walking and/or swallowing, loss of muscle tone, loss of fine motor coordination, slurred speech, memory loss, vision problems, sleep disturbances, dementia, seizures, sensory loss in the limbs, and vertigo. paraneoplastic neurologic disorders include lambert-eaton myasthenic syndrome, stiff-person syndrome, encephalomyelitis (inflammation of the brain and spinal ...
Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) have frequently been described in patients with lung or breast cancer. However, some reports also described a correlation to carcinoid tumors, probably triggered via the excessive release of hormones. We report the case of a 40-year-old woman that was diagnosed with a neuroendocrine neoplasm (NEN) of the rectum and multiple synchronous liver metastases ten years ago. She initially responded well to transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), resulting in prolonged disease stabilization. However, ten years after initial diagnosis the patient developed unspecific neurological symptoms that could not be classified by standard neurological diagnostic work-up. Special laboratory analysis revealed a high titer of anti-Ri (ANNA-2), a well-characterized antibody that is associated with paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes. The patients symptoms improved markedly after a 5-day-course of high-dose glucocorticoid therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a Ri
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) usually predicts the presence of cancer. When the antigens are intracellular, most syndromes are associated with extensive infiltrates of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, microglial activation, gliosis, and variable neuronal loss. The infiltrating T cells are often in close contact with neurons undergoing degeneration, suggesting a primary pathogenic role. T cell-mediated cytotoxicity may contribute directly to cell death in these PNDs. Thus both humoral and cellular immune mechanisms participate in the pathogenesis of many PNDs. This complex immunopathogenesis may underlie the resistance of many of these conditions to therapy. ...
Darnell uses high-throughput sequencing and other techniques to investigate the proteins that regulate RNA and thereby affect gene expression. He became interested in this system through his study of naturally occurring tumor immunity associated with a group of rare brain disorders. His interests have since expanded to neuron-specific RNA-binding proteins in the mammalian brain, and more generally to functional genomics and human disease. Darnells work identifying the target proteins for a group of rare brain disorders has led to an emerging understanding of the roles of RNA regulation, including the discovery that neurons make a unique set of RNA-binding proteins. These interests grew from studies of paraneoplastic neurologic disorders (PNDs), diseases thought to arise when certain tumors-typically breast, ovarian, or lung cancers-start making proteins normally unique to the brain.. Using a combination of biochemical and genetic approaches, Darnells lab discovered that the immune systems of ...
BACKGROUND: Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNNS) are remote effects of a tumor and mediated by an altered immune reaction. In the last ten years, the spectrum of PNNS has changed profoundly with the discovery of a new category of neurological diseases that are associated with antibodies against surface or synaptic antigens. In contrast to classical PNNS, patients with surface receptor autoimmunity are often highly responsive to immunotherapy. OBJECTIVES: This article provides an update on the most relevant PNNS, focusing on specific syndromes associated with antibodies against classical onconeuronal antigens as well as surface and synaptic proteins ...
Dr. Park received his medical degree from Loma Linda University and completed his neurology residency at the University of Chicago, where he was selected by the faculty to serve as Chief Resident. He then trained in clinical neuro-oncology and performed research on paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center with Dr. Jerome B. Posner. This was followed by five years as a Research Fellow at the National Institutes of Health. He has served on the faculties of the University of Pittsburgh and the University of Virginia. Dr. Park provides care for patients with brain tumors and investigates tumor biology with focus on intratumoral hypoxia. He is a recipient of the Merit Award and the Career Development Award from ASCO.. ...
In the case of antibodies against Hu and Ri all neurone nuclei in the grey matter show a granular fluorescence. Hu antibodies react in the intestine with cell nuclei of the plexus myentericus, whereas Ri antibodies do not. Clinical significance: paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS), indication of a malignoma ...
Rare neurological syndromes for which there was no cause can be the result of variations in the gene ATAD3A, discovered a team of scientists.
Tumors that arise in the same organs in humans and fish look and behave alike, and the cancers often share common genetic underpinnings. As a result, most researchers believe that the basic mechanisms underlying tumor formation are conserved across species, allowing them to study the formation, expansion, and spread of tumors in animal models with the hope of eventually finding new insights into cancer in people.. ...
We are seeking a talented and highly motivated post-doctoral candidate in order to explore the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying tumor development and progression. We are currently studying poorly characterized candidates acting in oncogenic signaling pathways. Some of these projects include the characterization of new mouse models of intestinal and breast cancer in which our candidates of interest are inactivated (Delaunay et al., The Journal of Experimental Medicine, 2016; Ladang et al., The Journal of Experimental Medicine, 2015; Shostak et al., Nature Communications, 2014; Creppe et al., Cell 2009; Close et al., Molecular Cell 2006; Viatour et al., Molecular Cell 2004 ...
I have been put on Levaquin for year. Also took Cipro sometimes because my primary doctor saw I was always put on Levaquin by my Pulmonary doctor. I have COPD and thats what he treats me with all the time. In fact I was in the hospital 4 times this year and also had IV Levaquin and then sent me home with it. In July I spoke to my primary Doctor because I was experiencing bad pains in my feet and legs was having trouble sleeping at night, the pain waking me up like someone was stabbing me in my legs and feet. She put me on Neurontin 100mg. It eases it up but does not take it away. Now I am getting it in my hands and the inside of my arms also in my fingers. I am always in pain weird pain numbness tingling etc ...
Paraneoplastic Syndromes: Screening For Tumors in Paraneoplastic Syndromes: Report of an EFNS Task Force: M. J. Titulaer et al.; EJoN, Volume 18, 2011. Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndromes: EFNS Guidelines on Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndromes: C. A. Vedeler et al.; European Handbook of Neurological Management: Volume 1, 2nd edition. Edited by N. E. Gilhus, M. P. Barnes and M. Brainin. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.. Cerebral Vasculitis: EFNS Guidelines on Cerebral Vasculitis: N. J. Scolding et al.; European Handbook of Neurological Management: Volume 1, 2nd edition. Edited by N. E. Gilhus, M. P. Barnes and M. Brainin. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.. Paraproteinaemic Demyelinating Neuropathies: Joint EFNS/ Peripheral Nerve Society Guideline on Paraproteinaemic Demyelinating Neuropathies: R. D. M. Hadden et al.; European Handbook of Neurological Management: Volume 1, 2nd edition. Edited by N. E. Gilhus, M. P. Barnes and M. Brainin. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.. Multofocal Motor ...
Patients usually go to their doctors with neurological complaints and later find they have cancer, a known paraneoplastic syndrome, or neurological problems that suggest a paraneoplastic syndrome. Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare conditions in which the immune system is involved in causing brain damage and fighting cancer.. Such patients with paraneoplastic neurologic degenerations(PNDs) may have autoantibodies, an antibody or protein the immune system creates that is directed against his or her own proteins. This study aims to better understand PNDS by:. ...
Investigators at the French Reference Center on Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndrome (PNS), Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, and other centers in France performed a retrospective study of children and adolescents with anti-Hu antibodies (Hu-Abs) collected by the Reference Center between Jan 1, 2000 and Dec 31, 2011. Of 251 patients with Hu-Abs, 8 were younger than 18 years. All of the 243 adult patients with Hu-Abs had PNS whereas only 2 of 8 (25%) children had neuroblastoma and opsoclonus-myoclonus. The majority (6 children; 5 female, 1 male) presented with limbic encephalitis manifested by progressive personality changes, memory loss, and seizure, and were free of cancer at a mean follow-up of 50 months. Brain MRI scans were abnormal in 4 of 6 patients and CSF showed oligoclonal bands in 4 patients. Treatment with AEDs and immunotherapy was only partially effective, and 5 children were cognitively impaired. The clinical, radiologic, and biological presentations were similar in this series of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Type 1 narcolepsy in anti-Hu antibodies mediated encephalitis. T2 - a case report. AU - Vitiello, Maria. AU - Antelmi, Elena. AU - Pizza, Fabio. AU - Postiglione, Emanuela. AU - Poggi, Rosalba. AU - Liguori, Rocco. AU - Plazzi, Giuseppe. N1 - Ricercatori distaccati presso IRCCS a seguito Convenzione esclusiva con Università di Bologna (Antelmi Elena, Pizza Fabio, Liguori Rocco, Plazzi Giuseppe). PY - 2018/12/1. Y1 - 2018/12/1. KW - Anti-Hu antibodies. KW - Cataplexy. KW - Narcolepsy. KW - Paraneoplastic encephalitis. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85052917662&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85052917662&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/j.sleep.2018.02.003. DO - 10.1016/j.sleep.2018.02.003. M3 - Article. C2 - 30212757. AN - SCOPUS:85052917662. VL - 52. SP - 23. EP - 25. JO - Sleep Medicine. JF - Sleep Medicine. SN - 1389-9457. ER - ...
In this patient, the brainstem and limbic encephalitis fit clinically and radiologically with a paraneoplastic neurologic syndrome associated with anti-Ma1/Ma2 antibodies. The NMDA-R antibody was present in the CSF, and although present at low levels, some component of his subacute cognitive and memory decline may be referable to this. His anti-GAD65 antibodies were present at a much lower concentration than seen in neurologic syndromes and were only found in the serum. Therefore, they are unlikely to represent true neurological autoimmunity in this setting, but are instead a marker of increased auto-antibody production in response to tumor cell breakdown and antigen release, or represent a low-titer "false positive" result as seen in 8% of the general population. One disadvantage of this case is that the presence and type of lung neoplasm were not confirmed. However, given the presence of well-characterized onconeural antibodies, this case still meets the criteria for a definite PNS. His ...
A paraneoplastic syndrome is a syndrome (a set of signs and symptoms) that is the consequence of cancer in the body, but unlike mass effect, is not due to the local presence of cancer cells. In contrast, these phenomena are mediated by humoral factors (such as hormones or cytokines) secreted by tumor cells or by an immune response against the tumor. Paraneoplastic syndromes are typical among middle-aged to older patients, and they most commonly present with cancers of the lung, breast, ovaries, or lymphatic system (a lymphoma). Sometimes, the symptoms of paraneoplastic syndromes show before the diagnosis of a malignancy, which has been hypothesized to relate to the disease pathogenesis. In this paradigm, tumor cells express tissue-restricted antigens (e.g., neuronal proteins), triggering an anti-tumor immune response which may be partially or, rarely, completely effective in suppressing tumor growth and symptoms. Patients then come to clinical attention when this tumor immune response breaks ...
Paraneoplastic syndrome is a set of sign and symptoms, which develop at distant sites from a tumor/cancer. Know what is paraneoplastic syndrome, its causes, symptoms, types, treatment and pathogenesis. Also know the common cancers associated with paraneoplastic syndromes.
Autoimmune synaptic encephalitis can occur as paraneoplastic neurological syndromes, which are dysfunctions of the nervous system in cancer patients. One such rare but treatable form is associated wit...
A 67-year-old man sequentially developed anti-Ma2-associated paraneoplastic encephalitis (PNE) and contralateral herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). Brain biopsy 1 month before HSE revealed extensive infiltrates of T cells, B cells, and plasma cells. Most T cells expressed the cytotoxic granule-associated protein TIA-1 and the membranolytic protein granzyme-B. Although recovery was thought to be unlikely, treatment of the PNE with corticosteroids and resection of the associated lung cancer resulted in dramatic improvement for 21 months.
... : The first report of Paraneoplastic syndrome is attributed to a French physician, M Auche, who described the involvement in a peripheral nervous system in cancer patients in 1890.
This study is for patients with cancer, a known paraneoplastic syndrome, or neurological problems that suggest a paraneoplastic syndrome.
A 69-year old White British gentleman presented with a weeks history of drowsiness, confusion, sweats and olfactory hallucinations with poor appetite, nausea and vomiting. He was sweaty and confused with poor attention. There was visible focal and complex partial seizure activity.. An MRI brain showed right medial temporal lobe signal change. A CSF showed 90 white cells (90% lymphocytes) and raised protein of 0.90. He was treated with aciclovir for presumed HSV encephalitis. The CSF viral PCR was negative. A repeat CSF showed similar results with negative PCR. He developed an erythematous maculopapular rash over his trunk. A screen for autoimmune and paraneoplastic encephalitis was negative.. A positive serum VDRL result was later received with positive RPR and TPPA titres, consistent with a diagnosis of recent treponemal infection. CSF Syphilis IgG, RPR and TPPA were also positive. He was treated for 21 days with high dose IV penicillin.. Neurosyphilis was thought to be almost extinct in the ...
Paraneoplastic syndromes, defined in this book as disorders caused by cancer, but not a direct result of cancer invasion of the affected organ or tissue, once believed to be rare and esoteric neurologic disorders have assumed increasing importance as an explanation of neurologic and other symptoms in patients suffered from occult or controllable cancers.
Paraneoplastic syndromes, defined in this book as disorders caused by cancer, but not a direct result of cancer invasion of the affected organ or tissue, once believed to be rare and esoteric neurologic disorders have assumed increasing importance as an explanation of neurologic and other symptoms in patients suffered from occult or controllable cancers.
Shop Paraneoplastic antigen-like protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Paraneoplastic antigen-like protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Sculier, C.; Bentea, G.; Ruelle, L.; Grigoriu, B.; Coureau, M.; Gorham, J.; Sideris, S.; Holbrechts, Séphane.; Lafitte, J-Jacques.; Meert, A-Pascale.; Durieux, Vérie.; Berghmans, T.; Sculier, J-Paul., 2017: Autoimmune paraneoplastic syndromes associated to lung cancer: A systematic review of the literature: Part 5: Neurological auto-antibodies, discussion, flow chart, conclusions
A case report is followed by a review of the diagnosis and treatment of other cutaneous paraneoplastic syndromes that are associated with hematologic malignancies.
Although the available models, whether at the cellular, tissue, or animal level, do not exactly represent the biology of human brain tumors, animal models can offer significant insights into these tumors, providing a better understanding of biological mechanisms underlying tumor generation, growth, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Animal Models of Brain Tumors brings together developments and discoveries in "in vivo" experimental tumor research that have provided advances in our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the generation, progression, and clinical outcome of brain neoplasms. Broken into convenient sections, this thorough volume includes topics such as animal model insights into human brain neoplasms, the cellular, molecular, and genetic basis of brain tumors, therapies in the treatment of malignant glioma, as well as imaging technologies in animal tumor models, i.e. measuring brain tumor growth and metabolism. Written for the popular Neuromethods ...
Accumulation of knowledge regarding the extracellular matrix suggests that an understanding of the mechanisms underlying tumour cell invasion requires analysis of the complex interactions between neoplastic cells and the surrounding matrix.13 It has been argued that the process of dedifferentiation and dissociation of neoplastic cells at the invasive edge is the first and essential step in tumour invasion.14 Based on the observation that this process is always strictly confined to the tumour invasive front, inductive signals from the host microenvironment were thought to be involved in initiating and maintaining this rapid and even reversible phenotypic shift through activating or repressing the preformed genetic programme of tumour cells.14 Conversely, collagen I protein in the centre of the tumour, produced in the desmoplastic response, was reported to be a microenvironmental factor which inhibits the dedifferentiation process of the tumour.15 The concept of maturation of fibrotic cancer ...
Cell line models are essential tools to study the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor initiation and progression. There are limited treatment options for penile squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC), accounting for 1-2% of male tumors in developing countries, and limited progress in preclinical research in PSCC due to lacking available models with identified genomic characteristics. Here, biological and molecular characteristics and whole-genomic alterations were analyzed in a panel of PSCC cell lines newly established in our laboratory. These cell lines were all human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative, epithelial-like, immortalized, and tumorigenic in nude mice, whereas they displayed different proliferation, migration and invasion capacities in vitro, and tumorigenic ability in nude mice. They were all cisplatin sensitive, anti-EGFR therapy resistant, and androgen irresponsive. Whole-genomic sequecing analysis revealed that transition mutations (C:G,T:A and T:A,C:G) were the most common substitution ...
Return to top. The following codes are associated with the paraneoplastic syndrome. Paraneoplastic syndrome by itself is not cancer. Its a disease or symptom that is the consequence of cancer but is not due to the local presence of cancer cells. A paraneoplastic syndrome may be the first sign of cancer. These codes have been removed from the supplemental list and are now in their own list.. ...
Return to top. The following codes are associated with the paraneoplastic syndrome. Paraneoplastic syndrome by itself is not cancer. Its a disease or symptom that is the consequence of cancer but is not due to the local presence of cancer cells. A paraneoplastic syndrome may be the first sign of cancer. These codes have been removed from the supplemental list and are now in their own list.. ...
Watch the video lecture Paraneoplastic Syndromes - Carcinogenesis and prepare for your medical exams with high-yield content ✓ & quiz questions ✓ now!
Watch the video lecture Paraneoplastic Syndromes and prepare for your medical exams with high-yield content ✓ & quiz questions ✓ now!
Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment of Overview of Cancer from the Professional Version of the Merck Manuals.
Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment of Symptoms of Neurologic Disorders from the Professional Version of the Merck Manuals.
When should you suspect an immune-mediated neurologic disorder, and how should diagnosis be confirmed? Review the diagnostic approach as well as current and emerging therapies in this article.
When should you suspect an immune-mediated neurologic disorder, and how should diagnosis be confirmed? Review the diagnostic approach as well as current and emerging therapies in this article.
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We determined that this patient had definite paraneoplastic encephalitis, with predominant involvement of the limbic system. Accordingly, she developed a gradual loss of short-term memory, seizures, psychiatric symptoms, MRI abnormalities in the limbic system and positive titres for antineuronal antibodies6-8.. Central nervous system tissue in the teratoma might be a trigger of the immune reaction. The majority of teratomas are mature cystic ones. Immature teratomas (constituting 1% of all teratomas) were present in 29% of anti-NMDAR related cases9. Bilateral teratomas were present in 14% of cases, comparable to 12% described in general.. Development of paraneoplastic syndromes in the setting of gynecologic malignancy is rare. When they occur, the neurologic symptoms most often precede and usually lead to the diagnosis of malignancy. Early diagnosis and aggressive treatment of the underlying tumor may stabilize or improve the neurologic abnormalities. Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PLE) ...
The anti-Hu antibody (HuAb) is directed against RNA-associated neuronal proteins and is known to cause paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis/sensory neuronopathy syndrome mostly when associated with small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis/sensory neuronopathy syndrome with concurrent autonomic neuropathy has been reported to occur in paraneoplastic syndromes, although its occurrence concomitant with acute pandysautonomia is less frequent. The authors describe the clinical, neuropathologic, and serologic features of two cases with an anti-Hu-related paraneoplastic syndrome presenting with progressive autonomic neuropathy. Both patients showed features of dysautonomia, including postural dizziness, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, and symptoms of sensory neuropathy. Investigations disclosed severe sensory and autonomic neuropathy and positive HuAb titers. The disease of patient 1 had a very rapid progression, and the patient died of cardiac arrest within 2 months of the onset of symptoms.
Paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis (PEM) is a multifocal inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) associated with remote neoplasia. Frequently, the disorder is accompanied by subacute sensory neuronopathy (SSN) due to involvement of the dorsal root ganglia.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Motor neuron disease. T2 - A paraneoplastic process associated with anti-Hu antibody and small-cell lung carcinoma. AU - Verma, Ashok. AU - Berger, Joseph R.. AU - Snodgrass, Susan. AU - Petito, Carol. PY - 1996/7/1. Y1 - 1996/7/1. N2 - Although isolated lower motor neuron disease has been reported as a paraneoplastic complication, it has not been previously described in association with anti-Hu antibody. We report a 51-year-old man in whom weakness heralded the presence of a small-cell cancer of the lung. His neurological disorder was characterized by an unremitting progression of limb, neck, and chest wall weakness and wasting that commenced and remained predominant in the upper limbs. Electrophysiological studies demonstrated widespread denervation and examination of a muscle biopsy specimen showed evidence of acute and chronic denervation. High titers of anti-Hu antibody were detected in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Neither objective measures of strength nor titers of ...
In this translational research, immunological mechanisms that underlie the assault of the immune system on the brain in paraneoplastic opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) are under evaluation. To test our principal hypothesis that there is an imbalance of pro-inflammatory (Th1) and anti-inflammatory (Th2) cytokines in OMS, a comprehensive cytokine panel will be measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and multiplexed fluorescent bead-based immunoassay detection (LUMINEX 100 Lab MAP system)in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 400 children. To test the second hypothesis that cytokines could serve as biomarkers of disease activity in OMS, cytokine concentrations will be correlated with clinical variables, such as disease severity, OMS duration, prior relapses, and remissions, as well as immunological variables, such as lymphocyte subset analysis. The cytokine biomarker profile could aid decision making for early intervention by identifying children at high risk for relapse and ...
In their JNNP paper, Shu et al investigated whether anti-NMDAR encephalitis was associated with any HLA alleles, utilising samples from 61 patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis and 571 healthy controls from the Chinese Han population.4 In this study, six HLA loci (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, HLA -DQA1 and HLA -DQB1) were typed using a PCR sequence-based typing method, while the German study mentioned above imputed HLA alleles from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped on a genome-wide SNP chip array.2 Shu et al demonstrated that the HLA-DRB1*16:02 allele was associated with disease susceptibility (allele frequency: 14.75% in cases vs 4.82% in controls; OR 3.42 (95% CI 1.82 to 6.17)) and the association did not depend on the positivity of tumours. Furthermore, the patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis with HLA-DRB1*16:02 tended to respond less efficiently to treatment, suggesting that certain genetic backgrounds may contribute to distinct disease development.. Although replication ...
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Paraneoplastic pemphigus is an autoimmune disorder stemming from an underlying tumor. It is hypothesized that antigens associated with the tumor trigger an immune response resulting in blistering of the skin and mucous membranes. While patients with malignant and benign tumors are both at risk, malignancy is associated with high mortality rates (near 90%). Current treatment focuses on general wound healing and administering corticosteroids, which has not demonstrated a high success rate. Recent research developments aim to treat the underlying tumor in order to alleviate the symptoms of PNP. While the presence of lesions is the denominator among patients with PNP, the characteristics of the lesions differ. The five clinical presentations of lesions associated with PNP include: "Pemphigus-like": Flaccid blister (discrete), crusts over the raw exuding skin lesions "Pemphigoid-like": Tense blister(s) on brick red erythema "Erythema multiforme-like": Severe polymorphic skin and/or mucous membrane ...
Treating a patient with paraneoplastic syndrome goes hand-in-hand with treating the cancer itself, and may include slowing the immune system response thats responsible for the adverse neurological symptoms. A treatment plan must be developed thats appropriate for the particular kind of paraneoplastic syndrome a person has. In combination with chemotherapy drugs to destroy any existing cancer, a physician can prescribe a number of different drugs to limit the tissue damage caused by an overactive immune system. Corticosteroids like prednisone help to lessen inflammation in the body. Unfortunately, some of the potential long-term complications of steroids are diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, hypertension, and high cholesterol levels, among others. Immunosuppressant drugs like azathioprine and cyclophosphamide help slow down the bodys release of cancer-battling white blood cells, but a negative side effect of these medications is an increased vulnerability to bacterial infections. Based on the ...