TY - JOUR. T1 - Smokers at higher risk for undetected antibody for oncogenic human papillomavirus type 16 infection. AU - Wiley, Dorothy J.. AU - Wiesmeier, Edward. AU - Masongsong, Emmanuel. AU - Gylys, Karen H.. AU - Koutsky, Laura A.. AU - Ferris, Daron Gale. AU - Barr, Eliav. AU - Rao, Jian Yu. PY - 2006/5/1. Y1 - 2006/5/1. N2 - Objective: To determine the association between tobacco smoking and serologic evidence of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16)-specific antibodies among HPV16 DNA-positive women. Design, Setting, and Participants: Baseline health history, physical examination, and laboratory data for 205 HPV16 DNA-positive women with no prior cytologic evidence of squamous intraepithelial lesions who were enrolled subsequently in a randomized clinical trial. Main Outcome Measure: HPV16-L1 antibody (anti-HPV16 antibody) detected from serum using RIA or ELISA. Results: Eighty-seven percent (179 of 205) of women tested positive for HPV16 DNA using cervicovaginal swabs or lavage ...
We have sequenced 1730 bp of human papilloma virus type 18 (HPV 18) DNA containing the open reading frames (ORF) E6, E7, the N-terminal part of E1 and, additionally, 120 bp of the N-terminal part of L1. Based on these sequencing data, together with the human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV 16) DNA sequence published recently, we identified and cloned the ORF E6, E7, E1 and L1 of HPV 18 and the ORF E6, E7, E1, E4, E5, L2 and L1 of HPV 16 into prokaryotic expression vectors. The expression system used provides fusions to the N-terminal part of the MS2 polymerase gene controlled by the heat-inducible lambda PL promoter. Using the purified fusion proteins as immunogens we raised antisera against the proteins encoded by the ORF E6, E7 and E1 of HPV 18 as well as those encoded by the ORF E6, E7, E4 and L1 of HPV 16. By Western blot analysis we could show that the E7 gene product is the most abundant protein in cell lines containing HPV 16 or HPV 18 DNA. It is a cytoplasmic protein of 15 kd in the SiHa and the
Human papillomavirus type 11 L1 protein, Human papillomavirus type 16 L1 protein, Human papillomavirus type 18 L1 protein, Human papillomavirus type 31 L1 protein, Human papillomavirus type 33 L1 protein, Human papillomavirus type 45 L1 protein, Human papillomavirus type 52 L1 protein, Human papillomavirus type 6 L1 protein, Human papillomavirus type 58 L1 ...
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used to amplify the long control region (LCR) of episomal human papillomavirus type 16 from cervical scrape DNA obtained from a woman with no evidence of cervical disease and a woman with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN 3). An 883 base pair fragment containing the entire LCR was cloned into pUC13 and the DNA sequence determined for both isolates and compared with the prototype HPV type 16 LCR DNA sequence. Nucleotide variation was apparent in the LCRs derived from both women. In the case of the sample derived from the woman with no cervical disease, there were three nucleotide deletions, one insertion, four transversions, and three transitions (overall conservation: 98.7%). In contrast, the LCR derived from the woman with CIN 3 showed significantly more nucleotide variation with two nucleotide deletions, one insertion, nine transversions, and ten nucleotide transitions (overall conservation 97.6%). Using computer analyses coupled with
TY - JOUR. T1 - The impact of HIV infection and immunodeficiency on human papillomavirus type 6 or 11 infection and on genital warts. AU - Silverberg, Michael J.. AU - Ahdieh, Linda. AU - Munoz, Alvaro. AU - Anastos, Kathryn. AU - Burk, Robert D.. AU - Cu-Uvin, Susan. AU - Duerr, Ann. AU - Greenblatt, Ruth M.. AU - Klein, Robert S.. AU - Massad, Stewart. AU - Minkoff, Howard. AU - Muderspach, Laila. AU - Palefsky, Joel. AU - Piessens, Eva. AU - Schuman, Paula. AU - Watts, Heather. AU - Shah, Keerti V.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Background: HIV infection and associated immunodeficiency are known to alter the course of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and of associated diseases. Goal: This study investigated the association between HIV and HPV and genital warts. Study Design: HPV testing and physical examinations were performed in two large prospective studies: the Womens Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) and the HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS). Statistical methods incorporating ...
High-risk human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is a risk factor for cervical cancer. Previous studies suggest that polymorphisms in the E6 gene or the long control region(LCR)of HPV16 may alter the oncogenic potential of the virus. The aims of this study were to investigate the genetic variations of HPV16 E6 gene and LCR in isolates from Chinese population and correlation of the E6 and LCR polymorphisms with disease status of infected patients. HPV16 positive endocervical specimens were collected from 304 women living in Northeast of China. Sequences of E6 gene and LCR were analyzed by PCR-sequencing. Two lineages were found in the populations, including EUR lineage and As lineage. Based on the HPV16 prototype, the most frequent variation in the E6 gene was T178A/G (48.7%), followed by mutations of G94A (12.2%) and T350G (9.9%). The rank orders of incidence of E6 variations in amino acid were as follows: D25E (46.3%), L83V (9.9%) and H78Y (4.3%). Nucleotide variations in LCR were found in all the 304
The activity and epithelial tropism of the human papillomavirus type 18 P105 early promoter, which directs the synthesis of the E6 and E7 transforming genes, are controlled by cis elements included in the viral long control region. To identify potential cellular regulators of this promoter, we mutagenized one or both of the 5-TGACTAA-3 cis elements capable of interacting with the AP1 transcription factor, which is composed either of homodimers or heterodimers of the Jun products or of heterodimers of Jun and Fos. Mutation of both elements completely abolished P105 promoter activity in human keratinocytes. We show that either AP1 site can interact efficiently in vitro with any of the three different Jun products as heterodimers with c-Fos. However, in nuclear extracts prepared from human keratinocytes, JunB was the predominant Jun component bound to the DNA probe containing this cis element. These results implicate JunB as an important factor in human papillomavirus type 18 transcription in ...
CLINICAL INVESTIGATION (Araflt rma) DIAGNOSING HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS AND HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPE 16 BY REALTIME PCR IN PATIENT UNDERGONE TO COLPOSCOPY AND SIGNIFICANCE OF THE DIAGNOSIS Sibel OZDAS 1,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of the human papillomavirus type 11 E5A protein from the [email protected]?E4,E5 transcript. AU - Brown, Darron R.. AU - McClowry, Tracy L.. AU - Sidner, Richard A.. AU - Fife, Kenneth H.. AU - Bryan, Jonine T.. PY - 1998/8/1. Y1 - 1998/8/1. N2 - The abundant human papillomavirus type II (HPV 11) [email protected]?E4,E5 transcript potentially encodes the [email protected]?E4,E5a and E5b proteins. It is not known if either of the E5 proteins are expressed from this transcript. For HPV 16, E5 is a single open reading frame (ORF), and the E5 protein is expressed from an unspliced E2,E5 transcript but not from tile spliced [email protected]?E4,E5 transcript. This study was undertaken to determine if the HPV 11 E5a protein is expressed from the [email protected]?E4,E5 transcript. To detect E5a expression in eukaryotic cells, the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was fused to the [email protected]? end of the E5a gene in the pEGFP-N1 vector. Several recombinant plasmid constructs were made to determine if E5a translation is influenced by upstream ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serum Immunoglobulin A Response to Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Virus-Like Particles in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HFV)-Positive and High-Risk HIV-Negative Women. AU - Viscidi, Raphael P.. AU - Ahdieh-Grant, Linda. AU - Schneider, Michael F.. AU - Clayman, Barbara. AU - Massad, L. Stewart. AU - Anastos, Kathryn M.. AU - Burk, Robert D.. AU - Minkoff, Howard. AU - Palefsky, Joel. AU - Levine, Alexandra. AU - Strickler, Howard. PY - 2003/12/15. Y1 - 2003/12/15. N2 - Serum samples from 2008 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and 551 HIV-negative women were tested for immunoglobulin A (IgA) to human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 capsids. IgA seropositivity was lower than previously reported IgG seropositivity (7% vs. 51%), but, like IgG antibodies, HPV 16 IgA was associated with sexual behavior, cervicovaginal HPV 16 DNA, and cytological abnormalities. IgA seropositivity was higher in HIV-positive women than in HIV-negative women (7.7% vs. 4.9%; P = .02), but the ...
Accuracy and cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening by high-risk human papillomavirus DNA testing of self-collected vaginal samples.
Human Papilloma virus type 16 E6 antibody for WB. Anti-Human Papilloma virus type 16 E6 pAb (GTX132686) is tested in Human papillomavirus samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
1. Walboomers JM, Jacobs MV, Manos MM. et al. Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. J Pathol. 1999;189(1):12-9 2. Burd EM. Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2003;16(1):1-17 3. Boyer SN, Wazer DE, Band V. E7 protein of human papilloma virus-16 induces degradation of retinoblastoma protein through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Cancer Res. 1996;56(20):4620-4 4. Thomas M, Pim D, Banks L. The role of the E6-p53 interaction in the molecular pathogenesis of HPV. Oncogene. 1999;18(53):7690-700 5. Thierry F. Transcriptional regulation of the papillomavirus oncogenes by cellular and viral transcription factors in cervical carcinoma. Virology. 2009;384(2):375-9 6. Badaracco G, Venuti A, Sedati A. et al. HPV16 and HPV18 in genital tumors: significantly different levels of viral integration and correlation to tumor invasiveness. J Med Virol. 2002;67(4):574-82 7. Romanczuk H, Howley PM. Disruption of either the E1 or the E2 regulatory ...
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are small, double-stranded DNA viruses that infect epithelial cells and lead to the production of warts. A subset of HPVs infect the anogenital tract and can be placed into two categories, the low- and high-risk genotypes. While both low- and high-risk HPV genotypes lead to the production of warts, the high-risk genotypes are also associated with anogenital cancers including cervical cancer. HPV-16 is the genotype most commonly found in cervical cancer (31). The HPV life cycle is intimately tied to the differentiation of the host epithelium that it infects. The HPV life cycle begins in the basal layer of the epithelium, where the virus is thought to gain entry at a site of wounding. In this layer of the epithelium, the nonproductive stage of the HPV life cycle occurs, where the virus establishes itself as a low-copy-number episome by synthesizing its DNA on average once per cell cycle via a bidirectional theta mode (1a, 8, 12, 30). The productive stage of the HPV ...
Index Which other diagnostic measures besides the Pap test can be performed In most European countries testing for HPV is currently not performed directly as a screening method Instead it is frequently used as a triage of women who already were diagnosed with abnormalities in the Pap test Then it is also paid by health insurances Back to Index What are low and high risk HPV types The genital HPV types are classified into two groups low and high risk HPV Low risk HPV e g 6 11 42 43 44 are almost never detected in case of a cervical cancer High risk HPV types e g 16 18 31 33 35 39 45 51 52 56 58 are detected in 99 7 of all cervical cancer cases In 70 of the cases HPV16 and HPV18 are detected Only women with long term infection with high risk HPV and subsequent cervical lesions have a risk of developing precancerous lesions and cancer It is well established nowadays that HPV infection ist he main risk factor for the development of cervical cancer Back to Index How can I get to know if I am infected ...
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small double‐stranded DNA viruses that are associated with greater than 95% of cervical cancers and 20% of head and neck cancers
Following cleaning with detergent and water at the end of the working day (sampling 1), nine of the 20 surfaces tested were contaminated. It was decided to clean surfaces with a more stringent agent. After subsequent cleaning with Clearsol solution HPV DNA was present on one surface at the beginning of the day, and on four at the end of the day.. β Globin DNA was detected in all HPV DNA positive samples, indicating HPV was cell associated, and in a further five samples taken at the end of the day from HPV DNA negative surfaces.. Compared to our previous study a 50% reduction in surface contamination with HPV DNA was found after cleaning with detergent and the number of types detected was reduced. Only HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 58 were detected on the nine different surfaces. This is also a 73% reduction in the number of types detected in our previous study.1 HPV types 6, 11, and 16 were still the most common types found (all types in table 1).. Three of the samples positive for β globin DNA but ...
The "high-risk" types of human papillomaviruses (HPV), in particular PV 16 and 18 are responsible for the development of almost all cases of cervical cancer, for a substantial fraction of other malignant anogenital tumors (penis, vulva and perianum) and for a proportion of head and neck cancer. The natural history of HPV infections and immunization experiments in animals with their respective papillomaviruses (e.g. the canine oral papillomavirus) clearly revealed the involvement of the immune system in controlling the viral infections and the diseases associated therewith. Antibodies appear to be the key molecules in preventing of an infection whereas mostly T cells and cytokines are involved in controlling virus persistence and progression towards malignancy. During the natural course of infection human papillomaviruses are not particularly immunogenic since their biology makes them barely "visible" by the immune system (infection is confined to the epithelium) but also since it has acquired ...
PURPOSE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 (HPV16) causes cancer at several anatomic sites. In the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition study, HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present more than 10 years before oropharyngeal cancer diagnosis and was nearly absent in controls. The current study sought to evaluate the extent to which HPV16 E6 antibodies are present before diagnosis of anogenital cancers within the same cohort. METHODS: Four hundred incident anogenital cancers (273 cervical, 24 anal, 67 vulvar, 12 vaginal, and 24 penile cancers) with prediagnostic blood samples (collected on average 3 and 8 years before diagnosis for cervix and noncervix cancers, respectively) and 718 matched controls were included. Plasma was analyzed for antibodies against HPV16 E6 and multiple other HPV proteins and genotypes and evaluated in relation to risk using unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present in 29.2% of individuals (seven of 24 individuals) who
The 62 women had a median age of 56 years, and 39% had high-risk behavior known to be associated with HPV. Ten of 62 patients (16.1%) had high-risk HPV at baseline screening, 5 of whom had atypical cytology. All of the patients who were positive for high-risk HPV had an etiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) as the underlying cause of liver disease, with the majority (90%) having no history of high-risk behavior for HPV. In contrast, all patients with high-risk behavior who were HCV negative were HPV negative. Fishers exact test demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between HPV and HCV; odds ratio = 24.4, 95% confidence interval, 1.4, 438.7, P-value = 0.0013. None of the other potential risk factors were associated with HPV in this cohort. ...
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1.HPV is easily spread through direct skin to skin contact. As sexual intercourse is not necessary, any kind of sexual activity involving genital contact will lead to genital HPV infection.. 2.In general, HPV infection does not give any signs or symptoms, so most people dont even know of having it. This is one of the main reasons why most people get infected. On the plus side, the human body is able to fight this infection on its own, providing the immune system is at its best.. 3.The majority of the HPV types are not life-threatening, but they do put you at a higher risk of cancer because they change the cell structure of the cervix turning it into cervical cancer. If women leave the "low-risk" types of the virus untreated, benign (abnormal but non-cancerous) changes in the cervix can develop. Over time, this can set the ground for cervical cancer.. 4.A number of studies confirm that women infected with the high-risk HPV are more susceptible to developing cervical cancer in the next 10 - 20 ...
Dear Mr. Gardner:. Thank you for taking time to respond to our September 2, 2011 letter addressed to Commissioner Hamburg, informing the FDA of our discovery of recombinant HPV DNA in Merck & Co.s HPV 4 vaccine, Gardasil currently marketed worldwide.. Your response dated September 22, 2011 seems to indicate that the FDA is unaware of, or indifferent to the harms HPV vaccines have brought to medical consumers; primarily adolescent girls, as documented in the VAERS reports. Do you know how many parents have lost their perfectly healthy young daughters and how many parents still have to deal with the hardship of caring for their physically disabled or mentally impaired daughters as a result of Gardasil vaccinations?. There are at least seven reports published in the peer-reviewed medical journals containing documented links between HPV vaccination and a class of newly recognized, probably immune-mediated inflammatory neurodegenerative disorders, also described under the name of acute disseminated ...
Dear Mr. Gardner:. Thank you for taking time to respond to our September 2, 2011 letter addressed to Commissioner Hamburg, informing the FDA of our discovery of recombinant HPV DNA in Merck & Co.s HPV 4 vaccine, Gardasil currently marketed worldwide.. Your response dated September 22, 2011 seems to indicate that the FDA is unaware of, or indifferent to the harms HPV vaccines have brought to medical consumers; primarily adolescent girls, as documented in the VAERS reports. Do you know how many parents have lost their perfectly healthy young daughters and how many parents still have to deal with the hardship of caring for their physically disabled or mentally impaired daughters as a result of Gardasil vaccinations?. There are at least seven reports published in the peer-reviewed medical journals containing documented links between HPV vaccination and a class of newly recognized, probably immune-mediated inflammatory neurodegenerative disorders, also described under the name of acute disseminated ...
Human Papilloma virus (HPV) are viruses that cause a common infection of the skin and genitals in men and women. Several types of HPV infection are transmitted by sexual activity and, in women, can infect the cervix (part of the uterus or womb). This infection often goes away by itself, but if it does not go away (this is called persistent infection), it can lead in women over a long period of time to cancer of the cervix. If a woman is not infected by HPV, it is very unlikely that she will get cervical cancer. This study will evaluate the efficacy of GSK Biologicals HPV 16/18 VLP/AS04 vaccine to prevent infection associated cervical pre-cancer and vaccine with HPV 16 or 18 and the vaccine safety, over 48 months, in young adolescents and women of 15/25 years of age at study start. Approximately 18.000 study subjects will either receive the HPV vaccine or a control vaccine (hepatitis A vaccine) administered intramuscularly according to a 0-1-6 month schedule.. The Protocol Posting has been ...
Human Papilloma virus (HPV) are viruses that cause a common infection of the skin and genitals in men and women. Several types of HPV infection are transmitted by sexual activity and, in women, can infect the cervix (part of the uterus or womb). This infection often goes away by itself, but if it does not go away (this is called persistent infection), it can lead in women over a long period of time to cancer of the cervix. If a woman is not infected by HPV, it is very unlikely that she will get cervical cancer. This study will evaluate the efficacy of GSK Biologicals HPV 16/18 VLP/AS04 vaccine to prevent infection associated cervical pre-cancer and vaccine with HPV 16 or 18 and the vaccine safety, over 48 months, in young adolescents and women of 15/25 years of age at study start. Approximately 18.000 study subjects will either receive the HPV vaccine or a control vaccine (hepatitis A vaccine) administered intramuscularly according to a 0-1-6 month schedule.. The Protocol Posting has been ...
Results The seroprevalence for any HPV type and any of the types HPV-6/11/16/18 was 64.8% and 34.4%, respectively. 30.3% of adults were seropositive for any mucosal high-risk (HR) HPV, and HPV-58 (10.6%), HPV-16 (9.7%) and HPV-18 (9.3%) were the three most common types. 24.8% of seropositive individuals were positive for multiple mucosal HR-HPV serotypes. Seroprevalence for most HPV types was similar among men and women. While mucosal low-risk HPV seropositivity was found to significantly decrease with age, the prevalence of antibodies to mucosal HR antigens showed a general trend of increase with age. The lifetime number of sex partners was independently associated with mucosal HR-HPV seropositivity. Positive correlation of spousal seropositivity was observed for mucosal HPV but not for cutaneous HPV.. ...
Human Papilloma virus (HPV) are viruses that cause a common infection of the skin and genitals in men and women. Several types of HPV infection are tra
HPV DNA testing by a clinician has been shown to be highly sensitive in detecting cervical disease. Can we prove that HPV self-testing will be sufficie
The carcinogenesis of cervical carcinoma implies an intricate interplay of neoplastic, human papillomavirus infected epithelial cells and stromal tissue, in which different factors have distinct but interacting influence. Persistent infection with an oncogenic human papillomavirus type may lead to epithelial dysplasia with progressive severity. To access the adjacent stromal tissue, tumour cells have to breach the basement membrane. The stroma partly controls tumour growth, invasion and angiogenesis. Last but not least there is considerable influence of the immune response. In this review we describe the importance of various stromal factors in carcinogenesis of cervical cancer. ...
The possibility of using a new bioluminometric UNA sequencing technique, called pyrosequencing, for typing of human papillomaviruses (HPV) was investigated. A blinded pyrosequencing test was performed on an HPV test panel of 67 GP5+/GP6+ PCR-derived amplification products. The 67 clinical DNA samples were sequenced up to 25 bases and sequences were searched using BLAST. All of the samples were correctly genotyped by pyrosequencing and the results were unequivocally in accordance with the results obtained from conventional DNA sequencing. Pyrosequencing was found to be a fast and efficient tool for identifying individual HPV types. Furthermore, pyrosequencing has the capability of determining novel HPV types as well as HPV sequence variants harboring mutation(s). The method is robust and well suited for large-scale programs.. ...
Two common viruses known to be associated with human cancers are both present - and may even be collaborating with each other - in most male prostate cancers, a
DNA damage, such as that elicited by UV-B, can induce either a cell cycle arrest or apoptosis that can be signalled by the p53 protein through the activation of a number of downstream cellular target genes. In contrast to oncogenic anogenital human papillomaviruses (HPVs), which mediate proteolytic degradation of p53, the E6 protein of cutaneous HPVs, such as HPV 77, do not promote p53 degradation. We have previously shown, however, that expression of HPV 77 E6 can effectively block UV-induced apoptosis in cells that have UV-activated p53. Here, we report that expression of the E6 protein from the cutaneous HPV 77 attenuates the UV-induced transactivation of p53-regulated proapoptotic genes Fas, PUMAbeta, Apaf-1, PIG3. This inhibition of p53-activation of proapoptotic genes by HPV77 E6 is exerted selectively, as the increased expression of p53 target genes involved in cell cycle arrest or regulatory functions regulation, such as p21 and Hdm2, is unaffected. Our data suggest that HPV 77 E6 may ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against human papilloma virus 16 (HPV-16). HPV-16, major capsid protein L1. (MAB14716) - Products - Abnova
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Although HPV testing by the HC-2 assay is approved for routine care in the United States, there are no treatments currently available to treat HPV itself, causing anxiety for both patients and clinicians. Our study was designed to evaluate whether folate is associated with a lower likelihood of a woman becoming high-risk HPV positive by the HC-2 assay, and of having a repeated positive test, and a greater likelihood of becoming test-negative.. There have not been carefully conducted epidemiologic studies designed to examine where in the cervical carcinogenesis continuum nutrients such as folate and vitamin B12 may influence the natural history of the disease. Incorporation of reliable high-risk HPV assessments, comprehensive risk factor information, including smoking histories and oral contraceptive use, and biomarkers of disease with a prospective study design are critical for the success of future nutrient-based chemoprevention trials of cervical cancer. We demonstrated that higher folate ...
The goal of our studies is to understand the mechanisms that regulate viral late gene expression and genome amplification during the productive life cycle of on...
Definition : Molecular assay reagents intended to identify high cancer risk types of human papilloma virus (HPV), of the family Papovaviridae, by detecting the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of the target viruses. High-risk HPV types usually infect the anogenital tract epithelium, but they can also be found in the oral mucosa, conjunctiva, and respiratory tract; the most common high-risk types include HPV types 16 and 18, but types 45 and 56 are usually included in this test. These HPV genotypes cause mucosal infections and are associated with malignancy.. Entry Terms : "Reagents, Molecular Assay, Infection, Virus, Human Papilloma Virus, High-Risk Type, DNA". UMDC code : 22306 ...
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is fairly common; it infects the skin or the mucous membrane. There are many different types of HPV, which can trigger different illnesses. Some types of HPV can cause pre-cancer or cancer if the infection persists for a long time.
phdthesis{f6a3a27c-fb97-4176-87b2-9de2607f2e28, abstract = {Papillomaviruses are a diverse, epitheliotropic group of viruses. Some genotypes are the main cause of anogenital cancer in humans; others can induce skin lesions. In order to investigate the occurrence of subclinical skin infections with human papillomavirus (HPV), a pair of degenerate primers (FAP59/64) was designed. Moist cotton-tipped swabs were used as a gentle method of sample collection. Different skin sites were tried for sampling, and healthy and immunosuppressed adults and children of different age groups, new-borns included, were enrolled. Skin samples were also collected from healthy individuals from five countries in three different continents. All samples were tested for the presence of HPV DNA by PCR, and the positive samples were HPV type-determined by cloning and DNA sequencing. HPV DNA was found with high prevalence in both immunosuppressed (94%) and healthy (82%) individuals. The prevalence of HPV DNA was highest in ...
HPV stands for Human Papilloma Virus. There are over 100 strains of HPV, about 30 of which can be sexually transmitted. HPV can cause a number of different diseases including genital warts and cervical cancer, as well as other less common cancers of the anus, penis, vulva and vagina. Different strains of HPV cause different diseases; the "low-risk" types are more likely to cause genital warts while the "high-risk" types are more likely to lead to cancer.. The CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) estimates that about 50% of sexually active men and women will get HPV at some time in their lives. Most people who have HPV have no visible signs of infection, so they spread it to their partners without even knowing they have it. HPV is spread by direct skin-to-skin contact so you can get it even if you are using a condom. There is no medical treatment for HPV but fortunately, in about 90% of cases an individuals immune system will get rid of the virus on its own within two years. It is ...
Human papillomavirus E1 and E2 proteins are viral replication factors, E2 being also involved in transcriptional repression of the two viral oncogenes E6 and E7. For HPV 16, the E4 protein is involved in late stages of the viral cycle, has no start codon and is known to be exclusively expressed as an E1^E4 fusion product resulting from alternative splicing linking the beginning of the E1 open reading frame (ORF) to E4. The E4 gene lies within the E2 ORF but in a different frame, and we show here that the HPV18 E2 ORF also encodes two new E2^E4 chimeric proteins produced by alternative splicing of the E2 transcripts between the N-terminal part of E2 and E4. Both E2^E4 proteins are cytoplasmic, one being localized at mitochondria where E1^E4 has been previously shown to localize. In order to study E2 functions independently of E2^E4, we constructed an HPV18 E2 expression vector lacking the splice acceptor site in front of E4 and thus defective in E2^E4 expression. We could then show using ...
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted disease that is highly prevalent. Certain types of HPV can cause cervical cancer, and certain types of HPV can cause genital warts. Because the virus rarely has visible symptoms, few people know that they have it. There is no cure for the virus but cancer can be prevented with regular screening and treatment of abnormal cell changes.
When and how often laboratory tests are done may depend on many factors. The timing of laboratory tests may rely on the results or completion of other tests, procedures, or treatments. Lab tests may be performed immediately in an emergency, or tests may be delayed as a condition is treated or monitored. A test may be suggested or become necessary when certain signs or symptoms appear. Due to changes in the way your body naturally functions through the course of a day, lab tests may need to be performed at a certain time of day. If you have prepared for a test by changing your food or fluid intake, lab tests may be timed in accordance with those changes. Timing of tests may be based on increased and decreased levels of medications, drugs or other substances in the body. The age or gender of the person being tested may affect when and how often a lab test is required. Chronic or progressive conditions may need ongoing monitoring through the use of lab tests. Conditions that worsen and improve may ...
The skin of animals of a laboratory strain of Mastomys natalensis carrying endogenous, latent papillomavirus genomes was irritated by scratching with glasspaper. Hyperproliferation of the epidermis and amplification of viral DNA followed this treatment, and in approximately 27% of the animals virus-producing papillomas were induced.
Plays a role in viral genome replication by driving entry of quiescent cells into the cell cycle. Stimulation of progression from G1 to S phase allows the virus to efficiently use the cellular DNA replicating machinery to achieve viral genome replication. E7 protein has both transforming and trans-activating activities. Induces the disassembly of the E2F1 transcription factor from RB1, with subsequent transcriptional activation of E2F1-regulated S-phase genes. Interferes with host histone deacetylation mediated by HDAC1 and HDAC2, leading to transcription activation. Plays also a role in the inhibition of both antiviral and antiproliferative functions of host interferon alpha. Interaction with host TMEM173/STING impairs the ability of TMEM173/STING to sense cytosolic DNA and promote the production of type I interferon (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta).
Plays a role in viral genome replication by driving entry of quiescent cells into the cell cycle. Stimulation of progression from G1 to S phase allows the virus to efficiently use the cellular DNA replicating machinery to achieve viral genome replication. E7 protein has both transforming and trans-activating activities. Induces the disassembly of the E2F1 transcription factor from RB1, with subsequent transcriptional activation of E2F1-regulated S-phase genes. Interferes with host histone deacetylation mediated by HDAC1 and HDAC2, leading to transcription activation. Plays also a role in the inhibition of both antiviral and antiproliferative functions of host interferon alpha. Interaction with host TMEM173/STING impairs the ability of TMEM173/STING to sense cytosolic DNA and promote the production of type I interferon (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta).
Struyf, F, Colau, B, Wheeler, CM, Naud, P, Garland, S, Quint, W, Chow, S-N, Salmeron, J, Lehtinen, M, Del Rosario-Raymundo, MR, Paavonen, J, Teixeira, JC, Julieta Germar, M, Peters, K, Skinner, SR, Limson, G, Castellsague, X, Poppe, WAJ, Ramjattan, B, Klein, TD, Schwarz, TF, Chatterjee, A, Tjalma, WAA, Diaz-Mitoma, F, Lewis, DJM, Harper, DM, Molijn, A, van Doorn, L-J, David, M-P and Dubin, G (2015) Post Hoc Analysis of the PATRICIA Randomized Trial of the Efficacy of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV-16)/HPV-18 AS04-Adjuvanted Vaccine against Incident and Persistent Infection with Nonvaccine Oncogenic HPV Types Using an Alternative Multiplex Type-Specific PCR Assay for HPV DNA ...
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the most common sexually transmitted infections. Persistent infection with HPV can lead to anogenital cancers including head and neck cancers. Three prophylactic vaccines have been approved to prevent against some types of HPV infection. However, the vaccines are HPV-type specific and protect mostly against the HPV types included in the vaccines. To offer broader protection against more HPV types, studies in the field are developing candidate vaccines targeting a conserved minor capsid protein, L2. Nevertheless, reagents for developing and assessing L2 vaccines are limited. For example, antibodies to assess the antigenicity of some L2 epitopes are not available commercially and multivalent platforms to develop and purify clinical grade L2 antigens are limited. In this study, I developed and characterized the immunogenicity of a recombinant Histidine-tagged HPV16 L2 (amino acid 1-130) antigen. In addition to this, I explored the development of a multivalent display
Adapted and reproduced from Drugs 2008; 68 (3): 359-372. The original article was reviewed by: A. Ferenczy, Department of Pathology, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; J. Paavonen, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. The manufacturer of the agent under review was also offered an opportunity to comment on the original article[1] during the review process. Changes resulting from comments received were made on the basis of scientific and editorial merit. The preparation of the original article and this report was not supported by any external funding ...