One would have expected these experts to distinguish the enormous difference in severity between the bird and swine flu pandemics, and respond accordingly. Scuttlebut at the time of WHOs June 11 declaration was that different countries had been jockeying to influence the decision, suggesting that politics influenced the declaration. WHO Director-General Chan says that, "At no time, not for one second, did commercial interests enter my decision-making," Okay. But then, what did lead Dr. Chan to raise the pandemic level last June? And what has led her to retain that designation today, when there is no serious swine flu pandemic anywhere? Given that the current (absent) state of swine flu disease is still being called a maximum Level 6 Pandemic by WHO, Id advise countries with pandemic vaccine contracts that will be activated by future WHO pandemic designations to scuttle those contracts, asap ...
In Ontario, the local Medical Officer of Health (MOH) has specific functions to lead or carry out, with the assistance of the health unit, in the event of an influenza pandemic. Learn more about the full role of public health in the event of an influenza pandemic.. The Simcoe Muskoka District Health Unit has created a local pandemic influenza plan. As well, all health care agencies and emergency response partners in Simcoe and Muskoka have collaborated with the health unit to create a coordinated regional pandemic influenza plan.. The health unit plan, regional plan, provincial, national and global plans are all designed to work together to minimize suffering, illness and social disruption in a flu pandemic.. In this section you will find links to provincial and national plans, and related topics and web sites providing both in-depth and up-to-date information about the ongoing planning for an influenza pandemic.. ...
Because the precise impact of a future pandemic is unpredictable, national, state, and local planners need multiple scenarios for pandemic planning to implement rapid response efforts. The timing and progression of a pandemic, as well as its severity and transmissibility, will determine the mitigation measures selected. HHS will use several possible scenarios for pandemic planning, including a future pandemic that is moderate in severity, a pandemic that is severe, and one that is very severe in its effects on human health. These scenarios will provide a way to plan for use of response measures scaled to different levels of pandemic severity. ...
By explicitly linking pandemic transmission dynamics to the usage of multiple healthcare resources, and also by facilitating the export of outputs to GIS software, the AsiaFluCap Simulator provides the user with additional benefits compared to existing pandemic prediction models. The user-friendly tool can be easily employed by policy makers, policy advisors, donors and other stakeholders involved in pandemic preparedness. The model can be used for providing evidence-based and illustrative information on health care system capacities during future pandemics. Such information can help inform preparedness and response plans and make participants of simulation exercises (like tabletop and war room exercises) aware of surges in resource demand during pandemics. Furthermore, the tool could be applied for educational purposes, for example for learning the basics of mathematical modelling and understanding resource dynamics.. The flexibility of the tool allows policy makers to base scenario ...
Of the unexplained characteristics of the 1918-19 influenza pandemic, the extreme mortality rate among young adults (W-shaped mortality curve) is the foremost. Lack of a coherent explanation of this and other epidemiologic and clinical manifestations of the pandemic contributes to uncertainty in preparing for future pandemics. Contemporaneous records suggest that immunopathologic responses were a critical determinant of the high mortality rate among young adults and other high-risk subgroups. Historical records and findings from laboratory animal studies suggest that persons who were exposed to influenza once before 1918 (e.g., A/H3Nx 1890 pandemic strain) were likely to have dysregulated, pathologic cellular immune responses to infections with the A/H1N1 1918 pandemic strain. The immunopathologic effects transiently increased susceptibility to ultimately lethal secondary bacterial pneumonia. The extreme mortality rate associated with the 1918-19 pandemic is unlikely to recur naturally. However, T-cell
Please also see the Humanitarian Pandemic Preparedness (H2P) site (http://pandemicpreparedness.org/) for guidance on response at the household and community level in developing countries for humanitarian and community-based organizations.. The H2P Initiative, coordinated by Geneva-based International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent societies and including a wide-range of international partners (including CARE), aims to build a chain of health and disaster management tools and practices to inform and strengthen capacity of community first-responders during an influenza pandemic.. *******. The purpose of the CARE Pandemic and Avian Flu Blog is to create a simple site where CARE staff can stay updated on the latest and most important pandemic and AI news. Since we have access to information and are constantly looking over pandemic and AI related news and materials, it helps us narrow down the best information and provide an easy place for CARE staff to stay updated with information ...
Please also see the Humanitarian Pandemic Preparedness (H2P) site (http://pandemicpreparedness.org/) for guidance on response at the household and community level in developing countries for humanitarian and community-based organizations.. The H2P Initiative, coordinated by Geneva-based International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent societies and including a wide-range of international partners (including CARE), aims to build a chain of health and disaster management tools and practices to inform and strengthen capacity of community first-responders during an influenza pandemic.. *******. The purpose of the CARE Pandemic and Avian Flu Blog is to create a simple site where CARE staff can stay updated on the latest and most important pandemic and AI news. Since we have access to information and are constantly looking over pandemic and AI related news and materials, it helps us narrow down the best information and provide an easy place for CARE staff to stay updated with information ...
Many people are concerned about what will happen if an actual flu pandemic occurs. Understanding what a flu pandemic is and what you may expect during a flu pandemic can help bring peace of mind to your employees and give them the confidence they need to make informed decisions to lessen the impact of a flu pandemic on their lives. Public education about pandemic flu has been identified as a key role
Recent studies of the 1918 Spanish Flu pandemic have dramatically altered scientists understanding of its transmission and could provide insight into planning for future pandemics, according to a recent study co-authored by a Fogarty scientist.. A summer wave of influenza may have provided partial protection against the lethal fall wave of the 1918 Influenza pandemic in Copenhagen, Denmark, according to the analysis published recently in the Journal of Infectious Diseases. The Spanish Flu pandemic killed over 50 million people worldwide. Historical records suggest that an early pandemic wave struck Europe during the summer of 1918. The researchers obtained surveillance data that were compiled weekly in Copenhagen and included medically treated influenza-like illnesses, hospitalizations and deaths by age.. The study team, including Fogarty scientist Cecile Viboud, report only .02 percent of Copenhagens population died during the summer wave, as compared with .27 percent during the fall wave. ...
Objective. Vaccination is an effective preventive measure to reduce influenza transmission, especially important in a pandemic. Despite messages encouraging vaccination during the last pandemic, uptake remained low (37.6% in clinical risk groups). This study investigated the effect of different types of messages regarding length, content type, and framing on vaccination intention. Method. An online experiment was conducted in February 2015. A representative sample of 1424 people living in England read a mock newspaper article about a novel influenza pandemic before being randomised to one of four conditions: standard Department of Health (DoH) (long message) and three brief theory-based messages - an abridged version of the standard DoH and two messages additionally targeting pandemic influenza severity and vaccination benefits (framed as risk-reducing or healthenhancing, respectively). Intention to be vaccinated and potential mediators were measured. Results. The shortened DoH message increased ...
In recent years, influenza viruses with pandemic potential have been a major concern worldwide. (ELISpot) assays. Mmp13 Our data show that CD4 T PSI-7977 cells reactive to both virus-specific and genetically conserved epitopes are elicited, allowing separate tracking of these responses. Populations of cross-reactive CD4 T cells generated from seasonal influenza infection were found to expand earlier after secondary infection with the pandemic H1N1 virus than CD4 T cell populations specific for new epitopes. Coincident with this rapid CD4 T cell response was a potentiated neutralizing-antibody response to the pandemic strain and protection from the pathological effects of infection with the PSI-7977 pandemic virus. This protection was not dependent on CD8 T cells. Together, our PSI-7977 results indicate that exposure to seasonal vaccines and infection elicits CD4 T cells that promote the ability of the mammalian host to mount a protective immune response to pandemic strains of influenza virus. ...
Since emergence of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in April 2009, three influenza A viruses-seasonal (H3N2), seasonal (H1N1), and pandemic (H1N1) 2009-have circulated in humans. Genetic reassortment between these viruses could result in enhanced pathogenicity. We compared 4 reassortant viruses with favorable in vitro replication properties with the wild-type pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus with respect to replication kinetics in vitro and pathogenicity and transmission in ferrets. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viruses containing basic polymerase 2 alone or in combination with acidic polymerase of seasonal (H1N1) virus were attenuated in ferrets. In contrast, pandemic (H1N1) 2009 with neuraminidase of seasonal (H3N2) virus resulted in increased virus replication and more severe pulmonary lesions. The data show that pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus has the potential to reassort with seasonal influenza viruses, which may result in increased pathogenicity while it maintains the capacity of transmission through aerosols or
Dr. Elias Zerhouni knows the dangers of infectious disease outbreaks. He was director of the National Institutes of Health in 2005 when bird flu appeared poised to become more infectious to humans. Fortunately, that pandemic never materialized, but he says it served as a warning of what was to come.. Zerhouni has been a member of the faculty of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, and head of global research and development for the pharmaceutical company Sanofi.. I asked him about the difficulties of responding to pandemics in general, and in particular the governments response to the COVID-19 outbreak. Some of the wording has been edited for clarity.. On the Trump administrations pandemic response. It was basically amateur hour. There is no central concept of operations for preparedness, for pandemics, period. This administration doesnt want to or has no concept of what it takes to protect the American people and the world because it is codependent. You cant close your borders ...
The global swine flu pandemic is now over, the WHO has said, though some groups remain at risk of severe illness from the virus.. Following a meeting of its emergency committee, the WHO announced that the world was now in a post-pandemic period.. "The world is no longer in phase 6 of influenza pandemic alert," WHO Director-General Dr Margaret Chan said. "We are now moving into the post-pandemic period. The new H1N1 virus has largely run its course.". The WHO said that a number of groups remain at increased risk of severe illness from the pandemic H1N1 virus. These include young children, pregnant women, and people with underlying respiratory or other chronic conditions, including asthma and diabetes.. Patients who have severe or deteriorating influenza should be treated as soon as possible with oseltamivir, the WHO said.. Read more at Healthcare Republic.. ...
During the first wave of the H1N12009 pandemic in Canada, adults with immune deficiency were more likely to die with severe infections than were other Canadians. Of 76 deaths attributed to date to this new virus, 37% occurred in persons with immune system compromise. Adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection constitute a significant proportion of the at-risk population with over 56,000 affected individuals. Most such individuals retain some capacity to respond to influenza vaccination. The dosing regimen for the pandemic vaccine will be based on limited studies in the general population, leaving open the question of whether HIV-infected persons can respond satisfactorily to the recommended dosing. Availability of an adjuvanted formulation of the pandemic vaccine may improve responsiveness but two doses may be required for the best possible response. Thus it would be optimal to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the pandemic vaccine among the earliest HIV-infected persons to ...
Covid-19 is the single largest threat to global public health since the Spanish Influenza pandemic of 1918-20. Was the world better prepared in 2020 than it was in 1918? After a century of public health and basic science research, pandemic response and mortality outcomes should be better than in 1918-20. We ask whether mortality from historical pandemics has any predictive content for mortality in the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic. We find a strong persistence in public health performance in the early days of the Covid-19 pandemic. Places that performed poorly in terms of mortality in 1918 were more likely to have higher mortality today. This is true across countries and across a sample of US cities. Experience with SARS is associated with lower mortality today. Distrust of expert advice, lack of cooperation at many levels, over-confidence, and health care supply shortages have likely promoted higher mortality today as in the past. ...
The World Health Organization said Tuesday a spike in swine flu cases in Australia may push it to finally announce the first flu pandemic in 41 years. It also expressed concern about an unusual rise in severe illness from the disease in Canada. WHOs flu chief Keiji Fukuda said the agency wanted to avoid "adverse effects" if it announces a global outbreak of swine flu. Fukuda said people might panic or that governments might take inappropriate actions if WHO declares a pandemic. Some flu experts think the world already is in a pandemic and that WHO has caved in to country requests that a declaration be postponed. "On the surface of it, I think we are in phase 6," or a pandemic, said Margaret Chan, WHOs director-general. ...
A model flu pandemic contingency plan, which deals with planning for a pandemic, pandemic response, pandemic recovery, and testing and review.
The flu pandemic has historically occurred at 25-30 year intervals and its destruction has been cataclysmic. The Spanish flu pandemic of 1918, for example, killed more than 40 million people worldwide (670,000 Americans alone). The most recent flu pandemic struck 35 years ago and killed more than 4 million people. Read on and learn more.
The flu pandemic has historically occurred at 25-30 year intervals and its destruction has been cataclysmic. The Spanish flu pandemic of 1918, for example, killed more than 40 million people worldwide (670,000 Americans alone). The most recent flu pandemic struck 35 years ago and killed more than 4 million people. Read on and learn more.
s S5 modulate antigenicity and receptor binding, confounds retrospective analysis of genetic variation in HA. The situation is complicated further by the occurrence of epistatic changes within HA and between HA and NA to maximizeviral fitness following selection. Moreover, substitutions selected to modulate receptor avidity will inevitably modify receptor specificity for various sialic acid terminated-glycans and vice versa. From leaves to forest: even in the simplest species (viruses), evolution is complicated, and oversimplified analysis leads to all sorts of errors, including those with practical ramifications in interpreting sequences for choosing vaccine strains. doi:10.1016/j.phrp.2011.11.021 Lessons Learnt from (HIN1)2009 Influenza Pandemic for Preparedness Against Future Pandemics Masato Tashiro Director, WHO Collaborating Centre for Research and Reference on Influenza Influenza Virus Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 was relatively mild with
Are You Prepped for a Pandemic? :. If the news announced tomorrow that a pandemic had begun and that your area, in particular, was at risk, would you be prepared?. It was only a couple of years ago that Ebola arrived on the shores of the United States. By sheer luck (certainly not by a well-managed response) the virus was contained.. I had been prepping for quite some time, and had dealt with lengthy power outages, winter storms, and nearby forest fires with aplomb, but when Patient Zero was diagnosed in Dallas, I realized that out of all of the things I was prepared for, a pandemic was not one of them. Sure, Id have been better off than people who were completely unprepared, but I was lacking some vital supplies.. There is usually a little bit of warning before an outbreak becomes severe enough to warrant the title "pandemic." It isnt like The Walking Dead, where suddenly 80% of the population is affected overnight.. With a pandemic, you hear a little hum about it before it gets bad. The ...
ANN ARBOR, Mich. -Scholars, teachers and anyone fascinated by the social, cultural or scientific features of the 1918 influenza pandemic in the United States will be interested in the just-released special issue of Public Health Reports, the official journal of the U.S. Public Health Service. In this collection of original essays, public health historians and scientists use narrative, photographs, illustrations and charts to present a mosaic of what individuals and institutions understood about influenza in 1918, their strategies for coping with the ever-widening pandemic, and what we know in hindsight about the most devastating influenza pandemic of the modern era. "As a whole, the collection of essays allows us to step back and appreciate a more complete picture of these intricate events," says Howard Markel, M.D., Ph.D., the George E. Wantz Distinguished Professor of the History of Medicine at the University of Michigan. The volume includes a forewordby Thomas R. Frieden, director of the ...
Revolutionary biologist Paul Ewald,5 claims that a pandemic cannot happen, because in order for it to occur, the world has to change. Not the virus itself, but the world. In a previous interview for Esquire magazine, in which he discusses the possibility of a bird flu pandemic, he states: "They think that if a virus mutates, its an evolutionary event. Well, the virus is mutating because that is what viruses and other pathogens do. But evolution is not just random mutation. It is random mutation coupled with natural selection; it is a battle for competitive advantage among different strains generated by random mutation. For bird flu to evolve into a human pandemic, the strain that finds a home in humanity has to be a strain that is both highly virulent and highly transmissible. Deadliness has to translate somehow into popularity; H5N1 has to find a way to kill or immobilize its human hosts, and still find other hosts to infect. Usually that doesnt happen.". Ewald goes on to explain that ...
The Covid-19 pandemic in the winter and spring of 2020 represents a major challenge to the world health care system that has not been seen perhaps since the influenza pandemic in 1918. The virus has spread across the world, claiming lives on all continents with the exception of Antarctica. Since its arrival in the United States, attention has been paid to how Covid-19 cases and deaths have been distributed across varying socioeconomic and ethnic groups. The goal of this study was to examine this issue during the early weeks of the pandemic, with the hope of shedding some light on how the number of cases and the number of deaths were, or were not related to poverty. Results of this study revealed that during the early weeks of the pandemic more disadvantaged counties in the United States had a larger number of confirmed Covid-19 cases, but that over time this trend changed so that by the beginning of April, 2020 more affluent counties had more confirmed cases of the virus. The number of deaths due to
AUSTIN (KXAN) - Researchers in China have identified a new strain of swine flu that has "pandemic potential." It has been more than a decade since the swine flu, known as the virus H1N1, last caused a global pandemic. The CDC estimates that the 2009 H1N1 pandemic killed up to 575,000 people globally. The new […]
Why Bird Flu Is Not A Pandemic. By Sarah Jenkins. Most people are aware of the threat of bird flu and the possibility of it creating a pandemic, a worldwide epidemic of an infectious disease breaking out and affecting a large geographic region. Although the virus affects an extensive geographic region, this virus has not yet reached pandemic proportions. According to the World Health Organization, in order for a pandemic to occur, three conditions must be met: the emergence of a disease new to a population, the agent affects humans and causes serious illness, and the agent spreads easily and sustainably among humans. The first of these three, "the emergence of a disease new to a population has occurred. Although bird flu is in no way a new disease, as it was first identified in the early 1900s, it was not infectious to humans until the late 1990s. Therefore, this particular strain has emerged "new to a population", being the human population, which was previously unaffected by the disease. ...
FAIRHOPE, Ala. (WKRG) - Could fear over the Coronavirus pandemic lead to a larger outbreak of preventable diseases? Thats the fear of pediatricians around the country as doctors have seen visits from kids plummet. Dr. Katrina Skinner has a young man in her Fairhope Office for a checkup. Its something shes seeing less of in the pandemic. As the VP elect of the American Academy of Pediatrics in Alabama, Skinner says across the state, doctors have seen these sorts of visits plummet by half since the pandemic set in.. "Bringing a child in for vaccinations and routine checkups is an essential vital component of their wellness and it shouldnt be delayed," said Dr. Skinner. Pediatricians have also implemented new procedures in the pandemic for patients still coming into offices. Dr. Skinner says they keep sick and well patients separate and get people in and out quickly to minimize the threat of illness.. "All of our clinical staff is wearing PPE, we have closed our waiting room so no one is ...
First on the Thai article experts comment, Supamit Chunsuttiwat, who expects a global pandemic, next year at the latest. It would be helpful if "experts" like him would share the information he bases his belief on, because I fail to make the connection between the H5N1 arriving in North American birds and the outbreak of an avian pandemic. Is this when the "East final meets West" in viral and environmental terms, or based on scientific data, or evidence of mutation, or exactly what ? Wed all like some more information from his Thai crystal ball. Im postulating that he believes that once the H5N1 virus elevates to the HPAI level in North America, some point of "world endemic saturation" is achieved, which brings it to its fullest potential. I myself dont believe there is any direct biological relationship at all between continental geography and the likelihood of a pandemic. It will come down to specific location, population density, widespread prevalence of the virus in the environment, ...
The 2014 Ebola epidemic demonstrated the power of pandemics and their ability not only to destroy lives locally but also to capture the imagination and terrify the world. Christian W. McMillen provides a concise yet comprehensive account of pandemics throughout human history, illustrating how pandemic disease has shaped history and, at the same time, social behavior has influenced pandemic disease.
The 2009 swine H1N1 flu pandemic - responsible for more than 17,000 deaths worldwide - originated in pigs from a very small region in central Mexico, a research team headed by investigators at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai is reporting.. The scientists say their findings, published in the journal eLife, represent the first time that the origin of an influenza pandemic virus has been determined in such detail.. Researchers used state-of-the-art genetic analysis to identify the precise location and the main molecular transformations that allowed a pig influenza virus to jump into humans. They found that the virus responsible was a mix of one North American swine virus that had jumped between birds, humans, and pigs, and a second Eurasian swine virus, that circulated for more than 10 years in pigs in Mexico before jumping into humans. Previously, the most closely related ancestor viruses to the 2009 H1N1 virus were identified in Asian swine, but they were not as close genetically to ...
The plans have been drawn up to give doctors specific guidelines for extreme circumstances, and they include procedures under which patients who werent improving would be removed from life support with or without permission of their families.. The plans are designed to go into effect if the U.S. were struck by a severe flu pandemic comparable to the 1918 outbreak that killed an estimated 50 million people worldwide. State and federal health officials have concluded that such a pandemic would sicken far more people needing ventilators than could be treated by the available supplies.. Many of the draft guidelines, including those drawn up by the Veterans Health Administration, are based in part on a draft plan New York officials posted on a state web site two years ago and subsequently published in an academic journal. The New York protocol, which is still being finalized, also calls for hospitals to withhold ventilators from patients with serious chronic conditions such as kidney failure, ...
REUTERS/National Museum of Health and Medicine/Armed Forces Institute of Pathology/Handout. WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Strep infections and not the flu virus itself may have killed most people during the 1918 influenza pandemic, which suggests some of the most dire predictions about a new pandemic may be exaggerated, U.S. researchers said on Thursday.. The findings suggest that amassing antibiotics to fight bacterial infections may be at least as important as stockpiling antiviral drugs to battle flu, they said.. Keith Klugman of Emory University in Atlanta and colleagues looked at what information is available about the 1918 flu pandemic, which killed anywhere between 50 million and 100 million people globally in the space of about 18 months.. Some research has shown that on average it took a week to 11 days for people to die - which fits in more with the known pattern of a bacterial infection than a viral infection, Klugmans group wrote in a letter to the journal Emerging Infectious ...
If a severe pandemic occurs, the U.S. Government may, depending on conditions, encourage its non-emergency employees and all dependents to return to the United States via commercial means, if available. If it does so, it will also recommend that private U.S. citizens consider departing via commercial means, as well. A variety of factors may lead U.S. citizens to remain abroad, including a personal family situation or the possibility of contracting influenza during travel. A pandemic could result in quarantines, border closures, or a lack of equipment or crews, and some people may be forced to remain abroad for these reasons.. Evacuations (including non-combatant evacuation operations (NEOs) supported by the Department of Defense) will be considered only if there is a breakdown in civil order that cannot be contained by local authorities and that further threatens the lives of U.S. citizens in a particular country. Even then, such evacuation operations may not be possible or advisable based on ...
An ad hoc committee will plan a two-day public workshop on the financing of global response to pandemic threats, clarifying where the money for surveillance, detection, and response should come from and how it should be spent. The workshop will examine the role of the World Banks proposed Pandemic Emergency Financing Facility, an organization that will coordinate international financial response to pandemics, particularly how the facility might ensure rapid deployment and prompt remuneration of health workers and minimize transaction times on other expenses.
regional activities of subservient wives, destinations and days. dying of Foods, Vegetables and Fruits Vol. Quality and reporting polyphenols Drying Technology. Asian Journal of Food and Agro-Industry. research of Industrial Biotechnology: Bioprocess, Bioseparation and Cell Technology Wiley. A download Living with Enza: The Forgotten Story of made at planning the Mark kingdom in Oxford on 13, March 2017. Stratified by Tuuli Ahlholm and Julia Hamilton. In Egypt, download Living with Enza: The Forgotten Story of Britain and the Great Flu Pandemic of acoustics both with display and with experience, null to a particular behaviour of 2018by and real m. photos and tours cover seriously ordering both with Notes and animals Then literally as local tears, starting. Okinawa are a download Living with Enza: The Forgotten Story of Britain and the Great Flu Pandemic of of published years and dreams. I are the reading, the number. Self-dramatization covers general in any population! Maui in the funny Islands. ...
I do not believe for a moment that because we are in an "antibiotic era" that diminishes the risk or probability or outcome of a pandemic. The key to surviving a deadly influenza pandemic is having sufficient quantities of antibiotics in reserve and antibodies in the bloodstream. In fact, the huge number of people in the worlds population who are not immunized, fail to get seasonally immunized against seasonal influenzas, and those who simple dont care, or are superstitious - almost assures that we are going to have a significant number of deaths based on the demographics of the worlds current population (people would be shocked if they really knew how many emergency-first-responders and health-care professionals do not get immunizations ...
This is a good general introduction. The scientific references (bibilography) are useful. He also mentions the important role of historical Alaska Native tissue samples from 1918. Nicholls H (2006) Pandemic Influenza: The Inside Story. PLoS Biol 4(2): e50 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040050 The origin of the 1918 pandemic strain, by contrast, has been harder to crack. Nearly…
Lots of folks, from political leaders, to public health officials, to people on the street, are asking good questions about pandemic flu. We are even beginning to get a sense of the administrations plans for addressing the challenges posed by pandemic flu as reported on in this article published in yesterdays Washington Post . How…
Professor John Oxford, an expert in virology, said that even though only 229 cases of swine fu have been confirmed in the UK so far, he was certain of a flu pandemic which would take hold as autumn begins. Children going back to school, universities re-opening and people returning to work after the summer break would give swine flu the opportunity it needs, he said. He warned that a pandemic was likely to affect the UK before a vaccine becomes available, adding that the vaccine - which is expected to be ready in October or November - would only cover about 15 per cent of the population. Prof Oxford, of Queen Mary School of Medicine, University of London, praised campaigns urging people to observe good hygiene - such as using tissues and not coming into contact with infected people - but said they would not halt the virus altogether. Problems at the moment are fairly low, with schoolchildren and the odd sporadic case in the community. But when children go back to school in September the virus ...
This study examines variations in mortality between socio-economic groups due to the pandemic Influenza (H1N1) 2009 virus in England. We established a system to identify all deaths related to pandemic
The swine flu pandemic is not over in New Zealand, the health ministry said Wednesday, even though the World Health Organization (WHO) has announced the world is now in the post-pandemic phase, dpa reported.
In 1918, a Great Flu Pandemic swept the world, killing an estimated 20-40 million people, thus making it the largest and most destructive outbreak of any infectious disease in recorded history. This virus was unusual not only in its higher than average mortality rate, but also in the age groups that it attacked. Unlike other outbreaks it targeted not only the very young and old, but also young adults (20-40 year olds). Why the 1918 virus was so devastating is still a mystery. A thorough molecular understanding is now sought to offer reasons why this influenza virus was so pathogenic and how it managed to evade the immune system so effectively. Unfortunately, no intact virus survived, since the pandemic struck before viruses were even identified as the causative agent. Only fragments of the viral genome survived in both Alaskan victims buried in the permafrost and in fixed and archived autopsy material and these have been used to sequence and assemble a number of genes from this virus. One of the ...
(CIDRAP News) In a progress report on federal pandemic influenza planning efforts, the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) says several companies working under federal contracts are on track to develop cell culture based pandemic flu vaccines.
Almond (2006) argues that in utero exposure to the 1918 influenza pandemic lowered socioeconomic status in adulthood, whereas Brown & Thomas (2018) find that the effect disappears after controlling for parental characteristics of the 1919 birth cohort. We link microdata from the 1920 and 1930 censuses to WWII enlistment records and city-level in uenza data. This allows us to adopt an empirical approach that overcomes the selection concerns raised by Brown & Thomas (2018). Results indicate that in the absence of the pandemic, the 1919 birth cohort would have been more likely to graduate from high school, an effect that is largely unaffected by including parental controls and city-specific time trends. Adding household fixed effects (and thus exploiting variation among brothers) yields similar but somewhat larger results. Acknowledgments. ...
With the focus on bird flu in recent years, its sort of unexpected to hear that the latest pandemic might, in fact, not come from flying descendents of dinosaurs but might be the result of a combination of human, bird and swine influenza viruses that have evolved inside pigs and into a new virus capable of human to human transmission. Regardless of the viruses origins, now is the time for organizations to review pandemic plans to make sure that information is current and actionable. It might even be time to take minor steps in preparation for a more serious outbreak. Scott Lowe provides a brief overview of his staffs plans.
Could the latest swine flu outbreak be the first of two waves of the disease? And could the second be deadlier than the one that has just struck? Few medical experts are discussing the possibility publicly. But you might wonder after reading Flu: The Story of the Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918 and the Search…
Could the latest swine flu outbreak be the first of two waves of the disease? And could the second be deadlier than the one that has just struck? Few medical experts are discussing the possibility publicly. But you might wonder after reading Flu: The Story of the Great Influenza Pandemic of 1918 and the Search…
Research looking at the shape of the H1N1 pandemic flu virus has revealed why seasonal flu vaccines dont offer any protection, but also suggests why the older generation are more likely to have immunity to the pandemic virus.Two papers, one published in the journal Science by Ian Wilson and colleagues, the other in Science Translational Medicine by Gary Nabel et al., looked
Evira is currently investigating together with National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) an infection caused by the pandemic influenza virus in a pig farm. The results of the analyses will be available in the next few days. Similar infections have been found in individual pig and poultry farms in different countries since May 2009. Norway has reported the highest rate of occurrence, with the infection found in several dozens of pig farms. The infection has originally been transmitted from humans to the animals. The disease can in pigs manifest itself in various forms, from a symptomless infection to more severe symptoms of a respiratory illness. Typical symptoms include cough, nasal discharge, loss of appetite and fever. The symptoms persist for a few days. Mortality among pigs has been reported to be low.. Measures to prevent spreading of infection Evira recommends that the regulations adopted within pig farming regarding animal transfers be complied with. If the animals manifest symptoms ...