I chose to read an article about the classification of chimpanzees population status. It discussed how chimpanzees are currently classified as an "endangered species" as of September 14, 2015 under the Endangered Species Act which was put in place in 1873 in order to protect and recover any specie that is at risk of being instinct or that our ecosystem depends on. Since chimpanzees are an officially endangered species, scientists are now required to have a specific permit before they can preform any biomedical experiments on chimpanzees. The article goes on to describe the tedious process of qualifying for a chimpanzee experiment permit; you must prove that your research would benefit the survival of the species. But besides research that directly pertains to the expansion of chimp population, no future experiments will be conducted on chimpanzees any time in the near future. Also, laboratories that previously privately owned chimpanzees are now in search of sanctuaries and other places to put ...
The discovery that viruses related to HIV were found naturally in healthy African primates was first made in the mid-1980s, and in 1989 came the first publication (by Martine Peeters group) demonstrating that SIVs that were related to HIV-1 were found in common chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. (The actual genetic sequences were published by Simon Wain-Honbsons group in 1990.) Given this sound start, it is rather surprising that so little progress was made in SIV research in central Africa during the next nine years. Early in 1999, the Hahn/Sharp group claimed that they had found the most closely related SIV to HIV-1 in Pan troglodytes troglodytes (Ptt), a chimpanzee subspecies found in Congo Brazzaville, Gabon, Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea, and drew a distinction between these SIVs, and others SIVs found in Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii (Pts), the chimp subspecies that is located further east, in the DRC, Uganda and Tanzania. Superficially, this seemed reasonable, in that those Ptt SIVs that ...
The potential of human activities, including research, to alter parasite transmission ecology in wildlife is unknown. We examined gastrointestinal parasitism in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Budongo Forest, Uganda. Trail use and time spent on the ground was recorded during 10 months of observations in four sites with differing human disturbance. Disturbance was quantified using transect plots (n = 320). Fecal (n = 435) samples were examined for helminth eggs, larvae, and for protozoan cysts. Individuals that spent more time on the ground had more infections and higher intensity infections. Prevalence of 13 parasite species was similar across sites, but percentage of multiple infections and infection intensity differed, as did ground use. Chimpanzees at the long-term research site spent more time on the ground or on human trails. We hypothesize that researcher presence and trail creation may influence ground use, and thereby parasite burden, by altering trade-offs between foraging and
Dominance rank in female chimpanzees correlates positively with reproductive success. Although a high rank obviously has an advantage for females, clear (linear) hierarchies in female chimpanzees have not been detected. Following the predictions of the socio-ecological model, the type of food competition should affect the dominance relationships among females. We investigated food competition and relationships among 11 adult female chimpanzees in the Taï National Park, Côte dIvoire (West Africa). We detected a formal linear dominance hierarchy among the females based on greeting behaviour directed from the subordinate to the dominant female. Females faced contest competition over food, and it increased when either the food was monopolizable or the number of competitors increased. Winning contests over food, but not age, was related to the dominance rank. Affiliative relationships among the females did not help to explain the absence of greetings in some dyads. However comparison post hoc ...
ATLANTA - Researchers at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center, have shown chimpanzees have a significant bias for prosocial behavior. This, the study authors report, is in contrast to previous studies that positioned chimpanzees as reluctant altruists and led to the widely held belief that human altruism evolved in the last six million years only after humans split from apes. The current study findings are available in the online edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. According to Yerkes researchers Victoria Horner, PhD, Frans de Waal, PhD, and their colleagues, chimpanzees may not have shown prosocial behaviors in other studies because of design issues, such as the complexity of the apparatus used to deliver rewards and the distance between the animals. "I have always been skeptical of the previous negative findings and their over-interpretation, says Dr. de Waal. "This study confirms the prosocial nature of chimpanzees with a different test, better adapted to the ...
Recent etho-archaeological studies of stone-tool use by wild chimpanzees have contributed valuable data towards elucidating the variables that influenced the emergence and development of the first lithic industries among Plio-Pleistocene hominins. Such data help to identify potential behaviours entailed in the first percussive technologies that are invisible in archaeological records. The long-term research site of Bossou in Guinea features a unique chimpanzee community whose members systematically use portable stones as hammers and anvils to crack open nuts in natural as well as in field experimental settings. Here we present the first analysis of repeated reuse of the same tool-composites in wild chimpanzees. Data collected over 5 years of experimental nut-cracking sessions at an outdoor laboratory site were assessed for the existence of systematic patterns in the selection of tool-composites, at group and at individual levels. Chimpanzees combined certain stones as hammer and anvil more often than
Hand use in gestural communication was examined in 115 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Hand use was measured in subjects while they gestured to food placed out of their reach. The distribution of hand use was examined in relation to sex, age,
Synonyms for Troglodytes aedon in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Troglodytes aedon. 1 synonym for Troglodytes aedon: house wren. What are synonyms for Troglodytes aedon?
Chimpanzees are great apes and one of our closest living relatives. The Smithsonian Institutions Division of Mammals ( http://vertebrates.si.edu/mammals/ ) houses many chimpanzees in its scientific collections. This specimen, USNM 220063 ( http://collections.mnh.si.edu/search/mammals/?irn=7275275 ), is a female chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ) from Gabon. This individual was collected by Charles R. Aschemeier in Animba near Lake Fernan Vaz.
Chimpanzees are great apes and one of our closest living relatives. The Smithsonian Institutions Division of Mammals ( http://vertebrates.si.edu/mammals/ ) houses many chimpanzees in its scientific collections. This specimen, USNM 174707 ( http://collections.mnh.si.edu/search/mammals/?irn=7260898 ), is a female chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ) from Gabon. It was collected by Richard Garner near Lake Fernan Vaz.
Foamy viruses are frequently found in non-human primates and apes in captivity. However, data on simian foamy virus (SFV) infection in apes from the wild are limited. Necropsy specimens were collected from 14 West African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) from three communities in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. PCR analysis revealed SFV-related int- and env-specific sequences in 12/14 chimpanzees. Two young chimpanzees were not infected. Plasma from PCR-positive chimpanzees reacted against Pr71/74gag in Western blot analysis. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated clustering of all analysed sequences with SFVcpz previously identified from the other P. troglodytes verus, although interestingly the sequences were diverse and no grouping according to a particular animal community was observed. The body compartments of two infected animals were examined and found to contain SFV sequences. Frequent SFV infections in chimpanzees from this area significantly increase the potential risk of
The Chimpanzee Genome Project is an effort to determine the DNA sequence of the Chimpanzee genome. It is expected that by comparing the genomes of humans and other apes, it will be possible to better understand what makes humans distinct from other species from a genetic perspective. It will also aid in the study of diseases that affect (or, conversely, do not affect) various primate species. Human and chimpanzee chromosomes are very similar. The primary difference is that humans have one fewer pair of chromosomes than do other great apes. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes and other great apes have 24 pairs of chromosomes. In the human evolutionary lineage, two ancestral ape chromosomes fused at their telomeres, producing human chromosome 2. There are nine other major chromosomal differences between chimpanzees and humans: chromosome segment inversions on human chromosomes 1, 4, 5, 9, 12, 15, 16, 17, and 18. After the completion of the Human genome project, a common chimpanzee genome project ...
THE DIFFERENCE Humans and chimpanzees are easy to tell apart, even though they share a primate ancestor. Jumping genes helped sculpt their distinctions Face-to-face, a human and a chimpanzee are easy to tell apart. The two species share a common primate ancestor, but over millions of years, their characteristics have morphed into easily distinguishable features.…
Processing of faces is really interesting. Its thought to be an evolutionarily ancient system, predating primates (we share the same neurobiological substrate for face processing with sheep, for example, though we cant rule out that there is a preadaptation which permitted convergent evolution). Part of the temporal lobe decomposes the image of a face into a smaller number of dimensions of variation, called face space. These dimensions consist of things like roundness vs. ovalness, square chin vs. pointy chin, distance between the eyes, etc. Each of us seems to carry a template around in our heads of what a default face looks like, and actual faces we see are encoded as differences from the default face. As well as the default face, we also carry a representation of the primary ways that faces deviate from the default face (so-called eigenfaces). The default face together with the eigenfaces describe the basis of face space [1], and everyones personal face space is unique. One possible ...
This study demonstrates that detections on autonomous recording devices, for two types of long-distance acoustic signals produced by chimpanzees, reflected direct and indirect indices of chimpanzee presence collected by field workers. Specifically, we found that the number of hours Taï chimpanzees were observed ranging in a given grid cell strongly predicted the probability of detecting a chimpanzee drum on an ARU located up to 1 km away (Fig. 1). At a second field site in the Issa valley, we also found that ad libitum, indirect observations of chimpanzees predicted detections of pant hoots and screams on SPATUs already within a 500 m radius (Fig. 4). These results are all the more promising since both datasets suffered from technical problems during data collection (typical for innovative solutions to field challenges) that resulted in discontinuous recording effort in their respective study periods. Additionally, the latter dataset came from unhabituated chimpanzees thereby further validating ...
The FWS decision awaits a 60-day public comment period. Once finalized, captive chimpanzees new endangered status will place them alongside their free-living relatives in Africa. As such, research not benefiting the survival of the species would be prohibited, adding yet another barrier to wanton, unnecessary, and non-productive research purportedly to benefit human health. By listing all chimpanzees as endangered, the FWS findings will more consistently promote the conservation of the species as intended by the ESA. "Chimpanzees in U.S. labs will be one step closer to being prohibited from indiscriminate use in human-directed research once appropriately listed as endangered," says NEAVS President Theodora Capaldo, EdD. "NEAVS Project R&R: Release and Restitution for Chimpanzees in U.S. Labs campaign has focused on several routes to end the use of chimpanzees and all great apes in U.S. research. While we would like to have seen a one-punch knockout to research on chimpanzees, an institution ...
Since evolutionists speculate that humans and chimps shared a common ancestor about three to six million years ago, their theory requires a human-chimp DNA similarity of 98 to 99%. The first time they constructed a chimp genome and compared it to humans, they claimed 98.5% DNA similarity based on cherry-picked regions that were highly similar to human. However, an extensive DNA comparison study I published in 2016 revealed two major flaws in their construction of the chimp genome.1. First, many chimp DNA data sets were likely contaminated with human DNA, especially those produced in the first half of the chimpanzee genome project from 2002 to 2005. Second, the chimpanzee genome was deliberately constructed to be more human-like than it really is.2 Scientists assembled the small snippets of chimp DNA onto the human genome, using it as a scaffold or reference. Its much like putting together a jigsaw puzzle by looking at the picture on the box as a guide. Since many chimpanzee data sets likely ...
Definition of Human child in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Human child? Meaning of Human child as a finance term. What does Human child mean in finance?
Since the 1980s, it has been documented that chimpanzees infected with HIV in research studies typically control viral replication and remain asymptomatic. In only a few reported cases have infected chimpanzees developed persistent immune activation, CD4 T-cell loss and opportunistic infections characteristic of AIDS.. Since the 1980s it has been documented that chimpanzees infected with HIV in research studies typically control viral replication and remain asymptomatic. In only a few reported cases have infected chimpanzees developed persistent immune activation, CD4 T-cell loss and opportunistic infections characteristic of AIDS. The reasons for the different outcomes between human and chimpanzee HIV infections have been the subject of much theorizing and even controversy. The discovery that chimpanzees are the source of HIVs closest antecedent, a virus called SIVcpz, led some scientists to hypothesize that chimpanzees alive today may be the descendants of those animals who were able to ...
At this stage I shall attempt a different approach. What I propose to do is to treat Hahns claim that she has found the source of pandemic HIV-1 in south-east Cameroonian source as if it were true, and use it to advance what I believe is a far more viable hypothesis of how AIDS began than the one that she and Paul Sharp propose.. At least this hypothesis will be supported by known historical and scientific facts.. What this will, I hope, demonstrate is that Hahns latest findings are at least as supportive of the oral polio vaccine (OPV) theory of AIDS origin as they are of the bushmeat theory…if not more so.. In order to make this work, I need to tell a story that, though it is moored in factual accuracy, is purely a work of the imagination. For this reason, the following section of this paper appears in italics, in order to underline that it is fiction, not fact.. Imagine that it is 1956. Imagine that five young Pan troglodytes troglodytes chimpanzees have been captured after a successful ...
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Vocal sequences - utterances consisting of calls produced in close succession - are common phenomena in animal communication. While many studies have explored the adaptive benefits of producing such sequences, very little is known about how the costs and constraints involved in their production affect their form. Here, we investigated this issue in the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) pant hoot, a long and structurally complex vocal sequence comprising four acoustically distinct phases - introduction, build-up, climax and let-down. We found that in each of these phases, and for the sequence as a whole, there was a negative relationship between the number of calls produced and their average duration. There was also a negative relationship between the total duration of some adjacent phases. Significant relationships between the fundamental frequency of calls and their number or duration were found for some phases of the sequence, but the direction of these relationships differed between
Health, ...THURSDAY Aug. 11 (HealthDay News) -- Like humans chimpanzees are bor...At birth areas of the brain that play an important role in complex co...The scientists also noted that both chimpanzees and humans enjoy close...But they found that baby chimpanzees dont have the same dramatic incr...,Like,Those,in,Humans,,Baby,Chimps,Forebrains,Immature,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
To study the evolution of recombination rates in apes, we developed methodology to construct a fine-scale genetic map from high-throughput sequence data from 10 Western chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus. Compared to the human genetic map, broad-scale recombination rates tend to be conserved, but with exceptions, particularly in regions of chromosomal rearrangements and around the site of ancestral fusion in human chromosome 2. At fine scales, chimpanzee recombination is dominated by hotspots, which show no overlap with those of humans even though rates are similarly elevated around CpG islands and decreased within genes. The hotspot-specifying protein PRDM9 shows extensive variation among Western chimpanzees, and there is little evidence that any sequence motifs are enriched in hotspots. The contrasting locations of hotspots provide a natural experiment, which demonstrates the impact of recombination on base composition.
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The mechanisms that underlie the diversification of tropical animals remain poorly understood, but new approaches that combine geo-spatial modeling with spatially explicit genetic data are providing fresh insights on this topic. Data about the diversification of tropical mammals remain particularly sparse, and vanishingly few opportunities exist to study endangered large mammals that increasingly exist only in isolated pockets. The chimpanzees of Cameroon represent a unique opportunity to examine the mechanisms that promote genetic differentiation in tropical mammals because the region is home to two chimpanzee subspecies: Pan troglodytes ellioti and P. t. trogolodytes. Their ranges converge in central Cameroon, which is a geographically, climatically and environmentally complex region that presents an unparalleled opportunity to examine the roles of rivers and/or environmental variation in influencing the evolution of chimpanzee populations. We analyzed microsatellite genotypes and mtDNA HVRI
Read original article here.. Your "NIH advised to retire most research chimps" article (March 15, 2013) gave credence to lab director Christian Abees position that chimpanzees are necessary for research. It failed to note labs have a vested interest in the status quo of warehousing chimpanzees, even if not in active research. Nor did it mention that the public should expect AVMA to support retiring all federally owned chimpanzees because there is lack of scientific need for them - as per the Institute of Medicine and NIHs Council of Councils - and because the veterinary oath requires "protection of animal health and welfare." It was also not mentioned that a large, growing number of veterinarians support ending this wasteful, ineffective, and inhumane practice ...
Disarticulated chimpanzee skeleton. This specimen is a particularly large male. Chimpanzees are Homo sapiens closest living relatives, the genetic ties being far closer than those that chimps share with gorillas.
Unprofessional - I know - but couldnt resist…. But in all seriousnessness (or at least in relative seriousness), check out this article on PLoS One;. Wild Chimpanzees Exchange Meat for Sex on a Long-Term Basis. From the Abstract. "Humans and chimpanzees are unusual among primates in that they frequently perform group hunts of mammalian prey and share meat with conspecifics. Especially interesting are cases in which males give meat to unrelated females. The meat-for-sex hypothesis aims at explaining these cases by proposing that males and females exchange meat for sex, which would result in males increasing their mating success and females increasing their caloric intake without suffering the energetic costs and potential risk of injury related to hunting. Although chimpanzees have been shown to share meat extensively with females, there has not been much direct evidence in this species to support the meat-for-sex hypothesis. Here we show that female wild chimpanzees copulate more frequently ...
Duke University researchers find that chimpanzees are more likely to reproduce with mates whose genetic makeup most differs from their own. Many animals avoid breeding with parents, siblings and other close relatives, researchers say. But chimps are unusual in that even among virtual strangers they can tell genetically similar mates from more distant ones. Chimps are able to distinguish degrees of genetic similarity among unfamiliar mates many steps removed from them in their family tree.
The entire functional NANOG gene (according to our sequencing data) and NANOGP1 are present in both the human and chimpanzee genome assemblies at orthologous chromosomal positions. In the 3 UTR of the NANOG gene, there is an Alu element, which is missing from NANOGP1 in both genomes. Therefore, the NANOGP1 unprocessed pseudogene arose through duplication of the chromosomal region containing NANOG before the human-chimpanzee (H/C) divergence and before insertion of the Alu element into the NANOG gene. Because the same Alu element is present in both the human and chimpanzee NANOG genes, its insertion must also have preceded the H/C divergence. The processed pseudogenes NANOGP2, NANOGP3, NANOGP4, NANOGP5, NANOGP6, NANOGP7, NANOGP9, and NANOGP10 lack this Alu element. They thus likely arose before its insertion and, therefore, also predate the H/C divergence. The presence of the NANOGP11 pseudogene fragment in both the human and chimpanzee genomes likewise shows that its origin preceded H/C ...
Chimps are getting sick from a disease that looks suspiciously like AIDS. The theory has long stood that HIV is a mutated version of the far more pacific chimp disease, SIV, though there has been no actual connection ever made. Our closest evolutionary cousins are starting to get sick and dying off, offering both a threat and a hope. On the one hand, chimpanzees are endangered and a radically virulent new illness further threatens their precarious existence; on the other hand, scientists can study why the monkeys do or dont get sick and may be able to apply it to humans. Its being called the missing link ...
Chimpanzees are not just charismatic but quite remarkable, long-lived, unique creatures with very robust emotional and cognitive lives, says Gruen. After a tremendous amount of letter writing and news media coverage the government asked the Institute of Medicine to do a study to decide whether or not chimpanzees were needed scientifically in research. Their charge was to determine whether it was scientifically necessary, not whether it was ethically necessary. They determined that it was not scientifically necessary, that there were alternatives in most cases. That report then went to the NIH, where the NIH had a committee that determined what to do about the report. That committee decided that it made very little sense to do biomedical research with chimpanzees, but they may fund behavioral research with chimpanzees. That report - I think it came out in 2012 because in 2013 and 2014 there were no requests for funds.. In the meantime, for many, many years chimpanzees were considered endangered ...
Not only is that an absurd generalization, but your dog would poop right in the house if you did not take him outside. Your dog cant open doors or figure it out. Hes not going to poop in the toilet if you forget to take him out. Your dogs behaviors are taught by YOU, limited to the dogs intellect. Thats a pretty horrible example. A chimp can definitely figure out how to open a door if need be. Can your dog solve puzzles and learn sign language? Dont get me wrong, I like dogs, but they arent as intelligent as chimps and Id love to see proof that chimps just poop where ever they are sitting and dont even care to move. I find that incredibly hard to believe. Im sure it might happen every now and then, maybe as a territorial thing, but I highly doubt what you said is the norm. Chimps arent monkeys ...
Inter-individual differences in endowment or expected gains from cooperation can contribute to the emergence of leaders and followers. Leadership may involve the active coordination and motivation of group members, or involve more passive influence. Gilby et al. [40] argue that group hunting in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) is catalysed by impact hunters who initiate hunts but do not actively coordinate other hunters. Using long-term data from three populations of wild chimpanzees they show that certain individuals initiate hunts more often than chance, and without them hunting is less likely to occur. When these impact hunters initiate a hunt, they appear to dilute prey defences, which lowers the costs of hunting for other chimpanzees. The kill rates of impact hunters do not tend to be higher than other hunters of the same age, which suggests other factors motivate impact hunters to initiate hunts.. Acquiring a reputation for delivering benefits to others (i.e. prestige) is a principal ...
Abstract: Culture is an important means by which both human and non-human animals transmit useful behaviours between individuals and generations. Amongst animals, chimpanzees live particularly varied cultural lives. However, the processes and factors that influence whether chimpanzees will be motivated to copy an observed behaviour are poorly understood. In this thesis, I explore various factors and their influence on social learning decisions in chimpanzees. In turn, the chapters examine the influence of (i) rank-bias towards copying dominant individuals, (ii) majority and contextual influences and finally (iii) individual differences in proclivity for social learning. In my first experiment, I found evidence that chimpanzees are highly motivated to copy the behaviour of subordinate demonstrators and innovators in an open - diffusion puzzle - box paradigm. In contrast, behaviours seeded by dominant individuals were not transmitted as faithfully. This finding has important implications for our ...
Siamophryne troglodytes is a cave dwelling frog with a snout vent length that ranges from 19.1 - 24.9 mm for adult males, and 25.0 - 27.8 mm for adult females. It has a number of features indicative of its cave-dwelling lifestyle, including a slender body with long limbs. It has a short, rounded snout with rounded lateral nostrils near the tip. The canthus rostralis is gently rounded, and the loreal region is slightly concave. The eye is medium-sized and protuberant, about the same length or slightly longer than the snout, and has a horizontal, oval pupil. By the eye, the tympanum is distinct and circular, outlined by a tympanic rim with no supratympanic fold. The back of the head is flat (Suwannapoom et al. 2018). The forelimbs are long, but less than half the length of the hindlimbs. The hand is slightly longer than the lower arm, but less than half the length of the forelimb. Siamophryne troglodytes has long, thin fingers, with relative lengths of I < II < IV < III. The fingers are flattened ...
Many animals, ranging from the rat to the puffer fish, have had their genome sequenced, and now humankinds closest living relative, the chimpanzee, has joined the group. The publication of a draft sequence of this primates genome today in the journal Nature provides the most detailed look yet at the similarities, and differences, between humans and chimps. Previous studies comparing DNA between the two analyzed randomly selected regions of the genetic codes that comprised around 500 base pairs each. The Chimpanzee Sequencing and Analysis Consortium, made up of 67 scientists from around the world, set out to catalogue the chimps entire genome, which contains some three billion base pairs. The researchers studied the DNA of Clint, a male chimp that lived at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center in Atlanta, Ga., until he passed away at the age of 24. Using the shotgun sequencing approach, they mapped 94 percent of the genome with a high degree of certainty, covering some parts of the ...
We describe the individual and combined use of vocalizations and gestures in wild chimpanzees. The rate of gesturing peaked in infancy and, with the exception of the alpha male, decreased again in old
Previously published gene expression analyses suggested that apoptotic function may be reduced in humans relative to chimpanzees and led to the hypothesis that this difference may contribute to the relatively larger size of the human brain and the increased propensity of humans to develop cancer. In this study, we sought to further test the hypothesis that humans maintain a reduced apoptotic function relative to chimpanzees by conducting a series of apoptotic function assays on human, chimpanzee and macaque primary fibroblastic cells. Human cells consistently displayed significantly reduced apoptotic function relative to the chimpanzee and macaque cells. These results are consistent with earlier findings indicating that apoptotic function is reduced in humans relative to chimpanzees.
The question of the hypothetical function of the 98% non-coding DNA of the human genome remains one of the major open problems of Genetics. In 2010, we prooved that the entire human genome codon population is fine-tuned around the "Golden ratio" ("Codon Populations in single-stranded DNA Whole Human Genome Are fractal and fine-tuned by the Golden Ratio 1618" , 2010, Interdisciplinary Science). We show how, across the entire human genome, there appears to be an overall balance in the whole single-stranded DNA. This digital balance fits neatly around 2 attractors whose predominant values are 1 and (3-Phi)/2, where Phi is the Golden Ratio. Yet, the same analysis applied to each of our 24 chromosomes and to each of the 25 chromosomes of the chimpanzee (book "Codex Biogenesis", 2009), will reveal a strange phenomenon: while this study shows that populations of the respective genome codons of humans and chimpanzees are 99.99% correlated. It appears, also, that some human chromosomes are more similar ...
The question of the hypothetical function of the 98% non-coding DNA of the human genome remains one of the major open problems of Genetics. In 2010, we prooved that the entire human genome codon population is fine-tuned around the "Golden ratio" ("Codon Populations in single-stranded DNA Whole Human Genome Are fractal and fine-tuned by the Golden Ratio 1618" , 2010, Interdisciplinary Science). We show how, across the entire human genome, there appears to be an overall balance in the whole single-stranded DNA. This digital balance fits neatly around 2 attractors whose predominant values are 1 and (3-Phi)/2, where Phi is the Golden Ratio. Yet, the same analysis applied to each of our 24 chromosomes and to each of the 25 chromosomes of the chimpanzee (book "Codex Biogenesis", 2009), will reveal a strange phenomenon: while this study shows that populations of the respective genome codons of humans and chimpanzees are 99.99% correlated. It appears, also, that some human chromosomes are more similar ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
The citrate cycle (TCA cycle, Krebs cycle) is an important aerobic pathway for the final steps of the oxidation of carbohydrates and fatty acids. The cycle starts with acetyl-CoA, the activated form of acetate, derived from glycolysis and pyruvate oxidation for carbohydrates and from beta oxidation of fatty acids. The two-carbon acetyl group in acetyl-CoA is transferred to the four-carbon compound of oxaloacetate to form the six-carbon compound of citrate. In a series of reactions two carbons in citrate are oxidized to CO2 and the reaction pathway supplies NADH for use in the oxidative phosphorylation and other metabolic processes. The pathway also supplies important precursor metabolites including 2-oxoglutarate. At the end of the cycle the remaining four-carbon part is transformed back to oxaloacetate. According to the genome sequence data, many organisms seem to lack genes for the full cycle [MD:M00009], but contain genes for specific segments [MD:M00010 M00011 ...
Glycolysis is the process of converting glucose into pyruvate and generating small amounts of ATP (energy) and NADH (reducing power). It is a central pathway that produces important precursor metabolites: six-carbon compounds of glucose-6P and fructose-6P and three-carbon compounds of glycerone-P, glyceraldehyde-3P, glycerate-3P, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate [MD:M00001]. Acetyl-CoA, another important precursor metabolite, is produced by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate [MD:M00307]. When the enzyme genes of this pathway are examined in completely sequenced genomes, the reaction steps of three-carbon compounds from glycerone-P to pyruvate form a conserved core module [MD:M00002], which is found in almost all organisms and which sometimes contains operon structures in bacterial genomes. Gluconeogenesis is a synthesis pathway of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors. It is essentially a reversal of glycolysis with minor variations of alternative paths [MD:M00003 ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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Dawkins also suggests that it may someday be possible to reanimate an extinct ancestor of Homo sapiens, possibly an australopithecine. And he believes this would be a good thing. "I can see positive ethical benefits emerging from the experiment," he has said. "At present we get away with our flagrant speciesism because the evolutionary intermediates between us and chimpanzees are all extinct. In my contribution to The Great Ape Project, initiated by the distinguished Australian moral philosopher Peter Singer, I pointed out that the accidental contingency of such extinction should be enough to destroy absolutist valuings of human life above all other life. Pro life, for example, in debates on abortion or stem cell research, always means pro human life, for no sensibly articulated reason. The existence of a living, breathing Lucy in our midst would change, forever, our complacent human-centred view of morals and politics. Should Lucy pass for human? The absurdity of the question should be ...
Chimpanzees mate throughout the year, although the number of females in oestrus varies seasonally in a group.[27][55] Female chimps are more likely to come into oestrus when food is readily available. Oestrous females exhibit sexual swellings. Chimps tend to be promiscuous, and during estrus females mate with several males in her community,[25] and males have large testicles for sperm competition. However, other forms of mating also exist. A communitys dominant males sometimes restrict reproductive access to females. A male and female can form consortship and mate outside their community. In addition, females sometimes leave their communities and mate with males from neighboring communities.[25][56] These alternative mating strategies give females more mating opportunities without losing the support of the males in their community.[56] Infanticide has been recorded in chimp communities in Gombe, Mahale, and Kibale National Parks. Male chimps practice infanticide on unrelated young to shorten ...