ER stress plays a crucial role in obesity, insulin resistance [27], and NAFLD [28]. The ER stress response is triggered by different stimuli such as oxidative stress, hypoxia, enhanced protein synthesis, high levels of glucose and saturated fatty acids, and high levels of ER stress inducers, such as thapsigargin and Tuni [29,30]. The ER stress response also stimulates ER stress sensors such as ATF6, phosphorylation of PERK and IRE-1α [31], and ER stress-induced transcription factors, such as CHOP and XBP-1 [32,33]. In a previous study, we demonstrated that exendin-4 has a protective effect against PA-induced ER stress in hepatocytes [34]. In cells treated with PA, changes in the expression of the ER stress markers, SEPP1 and fetuin-A showed similar patterns, and exendin-4 treatment in cells pretreated with PA or Tuni significantly reduced the expression of these genes. In addition, relieving ER stress by exendin-4 induced decreased expression of the SEPP1 and fetuin-A genes. Thus, these results ...
Increased aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) and de novo lipogenesis are the 2 most commonly detected metabolic changes in tumors and can be considered the metabolic hallmarks of cancer. Our study to uncover the downstream consequences of mTORC1 activation, a common event in human cancer (5), shows that mTORC1 signaling is sufficient to drive these metabolic processes (2). mTORC1 promotes these metabolic changes through induction of a transcriptional program affecting metabolic gene targets of HIF1α and SREBP1 and 2. Although the glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes encoded by HIF1α are well known to be upregulated in tumors (13), less is known about the expression status of the diverse array of SREBP targets. One notable exception is fatty acid synthase (FASN), which encodes a multifunctional enzyme complex that converts acetyl-CoA to the 16-carbon saturated fatty acid palmitate. Because most normal tissues do not undergo substantial levels of de novo lipid biosynthesis, obtaining ...
Palmitoylation of V2R was investigated by immunoprecipitation of receptor proteins expressed transiently in COS.M6 cells and detection of incorporated [3H]palmitic acid. In cells expressing the wild-type glycosylated V2R, [3H]palmitic acid incorporation resulted in the appearance of a broad radioactive band at 45-55 kDa, which is the expected size for the mature receptor form. Deglycosylation with PNGase F produced a sharp band at 40 kDa. As seen in Fig. 2, this band was identical to the band obtained from cells expressing nonglycosylated receptor (17, 18). These results demonstrated that the V2R is palmitoylated and that protein glycosylation was not required to observe palmitoylation.. Analogous to other G protein-coupled receptors, the palmitoylation site was expected to be located 10-12 amino acids downstream of the seventh transmembrane region. Some receptors, such as the α2- and β2-adrenoceptors, contain only one palmitoylated cysteine; others, like rhodopsin and the LH/hCG receptor, ...
ACME SYNTHETIC CHEMICALS - Exporter, Manufacturer, Supplier, Trading Company of Palmitic Acid - Manufacturer based in Mumbai, India
Creative-Proteomics offer cas 628-97-7 PALMITIC ACID, ETHYL ESTER (PALMITATE-U-13C16, 98%+) 95%+ PURE. We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard products.
Q: How much palmitic acid is in Omega-7 Support Gels?. A: The total amount of palmitic acid in a dose of Omega-7 Support Soft Gels is slightly less than 1% of the daily maximum limit the WHO (World Health Organization) recommends. One dose of the SIBU soft-gels contains about 40% Omega 7 (mostly palmitoleic acid and a little cis-vaccenic acid). Palmitic acid is bad in large quantities (as in most American diets) but 1 dose of 1000mg of SIBU soft-gels contains less than 1% of the recommended daily maximum so its negligible.. Q: Whats the daily recommended dose for the Omega-7 Support Gels? A: The daily recommended dose for the Omega 7 Support is 2 500mg soft gels/day. Be sure to check with your doctor about Omega 7s possible effects on your body before you begin. Q: Whats the daily recommended dose for SIBUs Omega-Pure?. A: We recommend starting with 1 oz. per day. You can slowly increase from there up to 4 oz a day.. Q: Can Omega-7 Supplements help you lose weight? A: While Omega 7 doesnt ...
The main finding of the present study was that myotubes established from type 2 diabetic subjects expressed a primary reduced complete palmitate oxidation with a concomitant increase in the esterification of palmitic acid into phospholipids. Palmitic acid incorporation into DAG and TAG did not differ between the groups, whether under basal conditions or acute insulin stimulation, and TAG content in myotubes established from control and type 2 diabetic subjects did not differ significantly. These results indicate that the reduced lipid oxidation in diabetic muscle observed in vivo may be of genetic origin and that TAG metabolism may not be primarily affected in diabetic muscles under basal physiological conditions.. Previously, it has been described that intracellular TAG is increased (7,9,10) and that oxidation of lipids is reduced in muscle fibers from obese and type 2 diabetic subjects (4,6,27,31); however, the mechanism responsible for these changes has not yet been identified. To gain ...
I am Petro Dobromylskyj, always known as Peter. Im a vet, trained at the RVC, London University. I was fortunate enough to intercalate a BSc degree in physiology in to my veterinary degree. I was even more fortunate to study under Patrick Wall at UCH, who set me on course to become a veterinary anaesthetist, mostly working on acute pain control. That led to the Certificate then Diploma in Veterinary Anaesthesia and enough publications to allow me to enter the European College of Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia as a de facto founding member. Anaesthesia teaches you a lot. Basic science is combined with the occasional need to act rapidly. Wrong decisions can reward you with catastrophe in seconds. Thinking is mandatory. I stumbled on to nutrition completely by accident. Once you have been taught to think, its hard to stop. I think about lots of things. These are some of them ...
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50 µCi quantities of [1-14C]-Palmitic Acid are available for your research. Application of [14C]Palmitic Acid can be found in: myristic acid (unlike palmitic acid) rapidly metabolizing in cultured rat hepatocytes, palmitic acid following a different metabolic pathway than oleic acid in human skeletal muscle cells, metabolic fate of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids and their effects on palmitic acid metabolism and gluconeogenesis, phenotype of palmitic acid transport and of signalling in alveolar type II cells from E/H-FABP double-knockout mice, fatty acid-binding site environments of serum vitamin D-binding protein vs. albumin, etc. ...
Pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and death are central in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Saturated fatty acids cause β-cell failure and contribute to diabetes development in genetically predisposed individuals.. Here we used RNA-sequencing to map transcripts expressed in five palmitate-treated human islet preparations, observing 1,325 modified genes. Palmitate induced fatty acid metabolism and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Functional studies identified novel mediators of adaptive ER stress signaling. Palmitate modified genes regulating ubiquitin and proteasome function, autophagy and apoptosis. Inhibition of autophagic flux and lysosome function contributed to lipotoxicity. Palmitate inhibited transcription factors controlling β-cell phenotype including PAX4 and GATA6. 59 type 2 diabetes candidate genes were expressed in human islets, and 11 were modified by palmitate. Palmitate modified expression of 17 splicing factors and shifted alternative splicing of 3,525 transcripts. Ingenuity ...
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and is characterized by excessive hepatic lipid accumulation. Many studies have suggested that lipid overload is the key initi......
Palmitate decreases insulin secretion. Cell lines of each level of palmitate concentration were exposed to both basal (2.5 mM) and high (16.7 mM) glucose concentrations, after which glucose stimulated insulin secretion was measured. Results of 125I-labelled insulin radioimmunoassay indicated that 0.15 mM and 0.5 mM palmitate culturing significantly decreased insulin secretion rates in response to high glucose levels, though no significant change was seen for the 0.3 mM level (Fig. 1).. Palmitate decreases β-cell proliferation and viability. Contrary to preliminary data, further cell counts showed that all three palmitate cell lines had decreased proliferation compared to controls (data not shown). Similarly, cell counts following treatment with the apoptosis-inducing drug, thapsigargin, showed clear decreases in β-cell viability for all palmitate cell lines compared to controls (Fig. 2).. Palmitate decreases expression of some glycolytic genes. To determine possible mechanisms of action for ...
These results imply that stimulated T cells produce cytokines that cooperate with saturated free fatty acids in beta cell destruction during diabetes pathogenesis.
Background: Saturated free fatty acids induce apoptosis in cardiomyocytes, which is implicated in diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, the underlying mechanisms remain not fully understood. MiRNAs are a class of short RNA molecules and they repress their target gene expression and/or protein translation. MiRNAs have been involved in cardiac pathophysiology. This study was to examine whether miR-195 regulates palmitate-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis by targeting Sirt1, a member of the silent information regulator (Sir2) family.. Methods and Results: In cultured neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes, incubation with palmitate up-regulated miR-195 expression, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and induced apoptosis as determined by up-regulation of caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation as well as reduction of Bcl-2. Knockdown of miR-195 by its antagomir decreased ROS production and apoptosis in palmitate-stimulated cardiomyocytes. In contrast, miR-195 mimic enhanced palmitate-induced ROS ...
Palmitic acid (PA) has been for long time negatively depicted for its putative detrimental health effects, shadowing its multiple crucial physiological activities. PA is the most common saturated fatty acid accounting for 20-30% of total fatty acids in the human body and can be provided in the diet or synthesized endogenously via de novo lipogenesis (DNL). PA tissue content seems to be controlled around a well-defined concentration, and changes in its intake do not influence significantly its tissue concentration because the exogenous source is counterbalanced by PA endogenous biosynthesis. Particular physiopathological conditions and nutritional factors may strongly induce DNL, resulting in increased tissue content of PA and disrupted homeostatic control of its tissue concentration. The tight homeostatic control of PA tissue concentration is likely related to its fundamental physiological role to guarantee membrane physical properties but also to consent protein palmitoylation, palmitoylethanolamide
Anyhoo. Half a pound of doner meat down and you are now just ravenous. You fight the hunger off for another 10 minutes, but you know you are on to a looser. You blow another £3.20 on a second portion. Sitting in Mothercares car park, finishing your second kebab, you promise yourself that now you will just drive home and stop eating, and you actually turn on the ignition before the palmitic acid driven hunger breaks your will like a matchstick and you go back for a third portion. This time you dont leave the shop and wolf down your fourth portion, an extra large one, which gets you up to well over the two pounds of meat mark, and you need more. After that its a race within the family to spent the weeks food budget on Friday night doner kebabs. With five or six pounds of meat eaten you hopefully run out of money and the palmitic acid pusher mercilessly and mercifully kicks you out on the street, half a sheep in your stomach and ravenous from the palmitic acid flooding your brain. That hunger ...
S-palmitoylation consists in the covalent attachment of a 16-carbon chain palmitic acid to a cysteine residue of a target protein through a thioester bond, regulating thus the localization and/or function of the modified protein because of the consequent change in hydrophobicity (18, 19). Although several Palmitoyl-proteome analyses have been described in the last years, only few have been using protozoan parasites (12, 53⇓-55). Interestingly, in all parasites where the role of palmitoylation has been described, it appears to be involved in vital processes such as invasion and motility (12, 53⇓-55). In this context, here we performed the first large-scale description of palmitoylated proteins of the extracellular human pathogen T. vaginalis, identifying 363 putative palmitoylated proteins. Among the isolated proteins, 8 TvPAT-like molecules were identified. Interestingly, only one of them contain the classical DHHC-CRD domain whereas the remaining seven contain variants of the DHHC-CRD ...
The Ras family of guanosine triphosphatases plays key roles in signaling downstream of growth factors, and mutations in the encoding genes are associated with various types of cancer. All of the proteins are prenylated, and H-Ras, N-Ras, and K-Ras4A (but not K-Ras4B) are also palmitoylated at the Golgi and depalmitoylated at the plasma membrane. Indeed, the palmitoylation status of the proteins controls their cellular localization, with palmitoylation promoting transport to the plasma membrane and depalmitoylation returning Ras to the Golgi to reinitiate the cycle. Ahearn et al. show that the prolyl isomerase FKBP12 (named for its ability to bind the immunosuppressive agent FK506 that binds and inhibits this protein; see Liu et al.) bound to palmitoylated Ras isoforms and promoted their depalmitoylation and thus their trafficking to the Golgi. The authors noticed that a green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion construct with only 10 amino acids of the H-Ras C-terminal tail (GFP-H-Ras10aaTail) ...
16:0 hexadecanoic, palmitic fatty acid is a nutrient present in many other foods. The below table lists foods high in 16:0 hexadecanoic, palmitic fatty acid other than Butter, without salt. ...
Final thought: Do we need omega 3 PUFA at anything above the most minimal levels if we are in saturated fat based ketosis? Of course I dont know. But the signal to cope with starvation is palmitic acid (physiological insulin resistance), not DHA. I live in starvation mode, not on a mixed diet with only intermittent access to healthy ruminant fat. I have long wanted to look at the selective release of FFAs from adipocytes in extended starvation. My suspicion is that in the early days after glycogen depletion palmitic acid is preferentially released over other lipids, PUFA are not needed/wanted. By a few weeks all the palmitate is gone and whatever is left then gets released. People like David Blaine suddenly start to feel weak, wobbly and are probably hypoglycaemic once they run out of palmitate and have to release less saturated fats. Two to four weeks if you carry some spare weight. Sauers rats had only ever been fed a low fat omega 6 based diet and had no serious palmitate reserves, PUFA ...
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Palmitic acid-induces production of reactive oxygen species in RINm5F insulin-producing cells that overexpress catalase in the cytosol (Cat) or in the mitochond
Complete information for MPP5 gene (Protein Coding), Membrane Palmitoylated Protein 5, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Slater, C., Hardieck, M., Preston, T. and Weaver, L.T. (1998) Analysis of tert.-butyldimethylsilyl [1-13C]palmitic acid in stool samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with electron impact ionisation: comparison with combustion isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications, 716(1-2), pp. 1-6. (doi:10.1016/S0378-4347(98)00280-1) ...
Chronic insulin treatment in both cell lines (C2C12 and Huh7) causes a decrease in phosphorylation of Akt, which is a hallmark of insulin resistance at the cellular level. The same effect was observed in both cell lines after chronic palmitate treatment. Chronic insulin treatment does not affect viability of (C2C12 and Huh7), while palmitate treatment decreases cell viability in both cell types. Chronic insulin treatment does not affect mitochondrial respiration, at variance with chronic palmitate treatment, which decreases respiration in C2C12 and Huh7 cells. However, chronic insulin treatment causes a decrease in respiratory acceptor control ratio (RCR) in C2C12, as observed with palmitate treatment. This is not the case for Huh7 cells, where RCR is unchanged after insulin treatment, while lowered only after palmitate treatment. Total ROS production does not change significantly in either cell line. Both C2C12 and Huh7 cells showed preserved mitochondrial morphology after chronic insulin ...
The importance of either carbohydrate or energy restriction in initiating the metabolic response to fasting was studied in five normal volunteers. The subjects participated in two study protocols in a randomized crossover fashion. In one study the subjects fasted for 84 h (control study), and in the other a lipid emulsion was infused daily to meet resting energy requirements during the 84-h oral fast (lipid study). Glycerol and palmitic acid rates of appearance in plasma were determined by infusing [2H5]glycerol and [1-13C]palmitic acid, respectively, after 12 and 84 h of oral fasting. Changes in plasma glucose, free fatty acids, ketone bodies, insulin, and epinephrine concentrations during fasting were the same in both the control and lipid studies. Glycerol and palmitic acid rates of appearance increased by 1.63 +/- 0.42 and 1.41 +/- 0.46 mumol.kg-1.min-1, respectively, during fasting in the control study and by 1.35 +/- 0.41 and 1.43 +/- 0.44 mumol.kg-1.min-1, respectively, in the lipid ...
To study the mechanism of ether lipid accumulation which is characteristic of many tumors, we have compared the metabolism of lipids in primary rat tracheal epithelial cells and in a cell line derived from a benzo(a)pyrene-induced tumor. Growth of the primary epithelial cells in vitro resulted in the accumulation of alkyldiacylglycerols at levels (10% of total lipid) comparable to those found in the tumor cell line (B2-1). This class of ether lipids could not be detected in normal rat tracheal epithelium in vivo. A double isotope labeling method using [3H]- and [14C]palmitic acid was used to study metabolic stability of lipid classes in the cell cultures. Primary cells and B2-1 cells labeled with palmitic acid showed the greatest loss of label from triacylglycerols and free fatty acids during incubation in unlabeled media. A slight loss of label from the ester linkages of the alkyldiacylglycerols was observed in the primary epithelial cells but not the B2-1 cells. No label was lost from the ...
Note that this is just one of the many ways that ATP is used as a energy storage unit: in order to make a high energy acyl phosphate molecule from a low energy carboxylate, the cell must spend the energy of one ATP molecule.. An excellent example of biological activated carboxylic acids is seed in the biosynthesis of fatty acids. In the biologically active form of fatty acids, the carboxylate groups have been converted to thioesters using coenzyme A. For example, the activated form of the C16 fatty acid palmitate is:. ...
Insulin signaling can be modulated by several isoforms of PKC in peripheral tissues. Here, we assessed whether one specific isoform, PKC-θ, was expressed in critical CNS regions that regulate energy balance and whether it mediated the deleterious effects of diets high in fat, specifically palmitic acid, on hypothalamic insulin activity in rats and mice. Using a combination of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we found that PKC-θ was expressed in discrete neuronal populations of the arcuate nucleus, specifically the neuropeptide Y/agouti-related protein neurons and the dorsal medial nucleus in the hypothalamus. CNS exposure to palmitic acid via direct infusion or by oral gavage increased the localization of PKC-θ to cell membranes in the hypothalamus, which was associated with impaired hypothalamic insulin and leptin signaling. This finding was specific for palmitic acid, as the monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, neither increased membrane localization of PKC-θ nor induced ...
Palmitic acid (16:0) is the most common fatty acid (saturated) found in animals, plants and microorganisms. Coenzyme A (CoA) also presents in living organisms, is bound to Palmitic acid for synthesis and oxidates several fatty acids. These 2 elements reacts to form the first metabolite of our pathway 16:CoA, which is generated by the endoplastic reticulum (plastid membrane). AraGEM model is compounded by 1737 metabolites and 1601 reactions. These elements are organized in the stoichiometric matrix S[1737x1601] to use them in the FBA optimization take into account some constraints. Our efforts were aimed at the optimization of Palmitic Acid or Hexadecanoic32 Acid_acc (16:0), which is the precursor of our pathway. 16:0 is located in the cytosol and the reaction takes place using one influx V1 and two effluxes V2, V3. The efflux V2 was incorporated as an exchange reaction in order to generate branch in the original pathway of 16:0 metabolism. As our metabolic pathway is linear starting from 16:0, ...
Lixia Jia, Mariangela Chisari, Mohammad H. Maktabi, Courtney Sobieski, Hao Zhou, Aaron M. Konopko, Brent R. Martin, Steven J. Mennerick and Kendall J. Blumer; 2014 Journal of Biological Chemistry, 289(9) pp. 6249-57
The yeast Efr3p protein is a major regulator of the Stt4p phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase at ER-PM contact sites. Its mutant fly homologue, Rbo displays diminishing light responses attributed to progressively impaired PLC signaling. Here we find that Efr3s play a role in maintaining responsiveness to angiotensin II (AngII) receptors. RNAi-mediated depletion of EFR3A and EFR3B impaired the sustained phase of cytosolic Ca2+ response to high concentration of AngII in HEK293 cells expressing the wild type but not a truncated AT1a receptor, missing the phosphorylation sites. Efr3 depletion had minimal effect on the recovery of plasma membrane phosphoinositides during stimulation, and AT1 receptors still underwent ligand-induced internalization. A higher level of basal receptor phosphorylation and a larger response was observed after stimulation. Moreover, Gq activation more rapidly desensitized after AngII stimulation in Efr3 downregulated cells. Similar but smaller effect of EFR3 depletion was ...
A significant correlation was observed between the quantity of oil fraction in α-CD and the turbidity of saturated α-CD solution. → It is reported that the binding constant between α-CD and a fatty acid increases by an increase of hydrophobic strength of fatty acid1). Therefore, it would be very difficult to remove palmitic acid in the industrial manufacturing of α-CD, and the turbidity of saturated α-CD was originated by the complex between α-CD and palmitic acid.. 1) T. Yamamoto, N. Taira, Y. Akihara and Y. Matsui, 20th Cyclodextrin Symposium(2002, Chiba, Japan) pp. 124-125. ...
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Frei dit Frey N, Mbengue M, Kwaaitaal M, Nitsch L, Altenbach D, Häweker H, Lozano-Duran R, Fransiska Njo M, Beeckman T, Huettel B et al. 2012. Plasma membrane calcium ATPases are important components of receptor-mediated signaling in plant immune responses and development. Plant Physiology 159: 798-809 ...
Colfosceril palmitate is used in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (immature lungs in preterm baby).get complete information about colfosceril palmitate including usage, side effects, drug interaction, expert advice along with medicines associated with colfosceril palmitate at 1mg.com
Transport in the respiratory chain of electrons from FADH2 and NADH will lead to the synthesis of five high-energy phosphates (Chapter 12) for each of the first seven acetyl-CoA molecules formed by β-oxidation of palmitate (7 × 5 = 35). A total of 8 mol of acetyl-CoA is formed, and each will give rise to 12 mol of ATP on oxidation in the citric acid cycle, making 8 × 12 = 96 mol. Two must be subtracted for the initial activation of the fatty acid, yielding a net gain of 129 mol of ATP per mole of palmitate, or 129 × 51.6* = 6656 kJ. This represents 68% of the free energy of combustion of palmitic acid. ...
Abstract We investigated the effects of PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α) overexpression on the oxidative capacity of human skeletal muscle cells ex vivo. PGC-1α overexpression increased the oxidation rate of palmitic acid and mRNA expression of genes regulating lipid metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, and function in human myotubes. Basal and insulin-stimulated deoxyglucose uptake were decreased,…
Methods to study protein S‐palmitoylation dynamics have previously relied on metabolic labeling with [14C]palmitate, which requires additional safety precautions and long exposures
Detailed drug Information for Dalacin C Palmitate Oral. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and dosing information.
palmitin definition: The glyceryl ester, C3H5(OOC16H31)3, of palmitic acid, found in palm-oil and animal fats and always produce soap. Also referred to as tripalmitin.; an excellent crystallizable fat,…
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Palmitic acid is used to produce a soaps, cosmetics, and industrial mold release agents. These applications use sodium palmitate, which is commonly obtained by saponification of palm oil. To this end, palm oil, rendered from palm tree (species Elaeis guineensis), is treated with sodium hydroxide (in the form of caustic soda or lye), which causes hydrolysis of the ester groups, yielding glycerol and sodium palmitate. Because it is inexpensive and adds texture and "mouth feel" to processed foods (convenience food), palmitic acid and its sodium salt find wide use in foodstuffs. Sodium palmitate is permitted as a natural additive in organic products.[17] The aluminium salt is used as a thickening agent of napalm used in military actions. Hydrogenation of palmitic acid yields cetyl alcohol, which is used to produce detergents and cosmetics. Recently, a long-acting antipsychotic medication, paliperidone palmitate (marketed as INVEGA Sustenna), used in the treatment of schizophrenia, has been ...
Previously, bovine rhodopsin has been shown to be palmitoylated at cysteine residues 322 and 323. Here we report on palmitoylation of bovine opsin in COS-1 cells following expression of the synthetic wild-type opsin gene and several of its cysteine mutants in the presence of [3H]palmitic acid. Two moles of palmitic acid are introduced per wild-type opsin molecule in thioester linkages. Palmitoylation is abolished when both Cys-322 and Cys-323 are replaced by serine residues. Replacement of Cys-322 by serine prevents palmitoylation at Cys-323, whereas replacement of the latter with serine allows palmitoylation at Cys-322. Opsin mutants that evidently do not contain a Cys-110/Cys-187 disulfide bond and presumably remain in the endoplasmic reticulum are not palmitoylated. Replacement of Cys-140 or Cys-185 reduces the extent of palmitoylation of the opsin. Lack of palmitoylation at Cys-322 and/or Cys-323 does not affect 11-cis-retinal binding, absorption maximum or extinction coefficient of the ...