Fig. 5. Identification of Pax3 binding sites on Pax3 promoters in vitro (A) Pax3, but not Zic1 alone, can trigger synthesis of the endogenous Pax3 transcript (primers in 3UTR, not amplifying the inducible form) either in absence of the translation inhibitor cycloheximide (induction is 5-fold compared to uninjected animal caps) or in the presence of cycloheximide (induction is 31-fold, compared to cycloheximide-treated uninjected animal caps). Endogenous pax3 expression level in a stage 11 whole embryo is set at a relative value of 1 unit. After co-injection of Pax3 and Zic1, endogenous pax3 was activated as an immediate-early target as well (77-fold compared to uninjected animal caps; and, in presence of cycloheximide, 16-fold when compared to cycloheximide-treated uninjected animal caps). (B) Location of the ECR containing Pax3 putative binding site in the genomic sequence upstream of the Pax3 TSS. (C) Pax3 binds specifically to the motif identified in the pax3 promoter ECR: an electrophoretic ...
The majority of novel disease genes is currently being identified in less well-investigated consanguineous populations. Based on its corresponding global positioning, CENTOGENE has been able to contribute significantly to such research projects. The most recent example is the discovery of recessive mutations in the transcription factor PAX7 to underlie a new form of muscle disease. The findings were published in Genetics in Medicine, one of the leading journals in the field.
Purified Recombinant Human PAX9 Protein, His-tagged from Creative Biomart. Recombinant Human PAX9 Protein, His-tagged can be used for research.
Buy our Recombinant Human PAX7 protein. Ab114237 is a protein fragment produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ELISA, SDS-PAGE. Abcam provides…
Buy our Recombinant Human PAX4 protein. Ab114607 is a protein fragment produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ELISA, SDS-PAGE. Abcam provides…
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
The transcription factor Pax8 is expressed during thyroid development and is involved in the morphogenesis of the thyroid gland and maintenance of the differentiated phenotype. To date, Pax8 has been shown to regulate all the genes that are considered markers of thyroid differentiation. To identify novel Pax8 target genes we performed a genome-wide expression analysis following Pax8 siRNA. The silencing of Pax8 expression in rat thyroid differentiated FRTL-5 cells and the subsequent analysis of the gene expression profile by microarray identified Wnt4 among the down-regulated genes. As the other members of the Wnt family, Wnt4 has been implicated in several developmental processes including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. Up to now, the only data on Wnt4 in thyroid concern its down-regulation as necessary for the progression of thyroid epithelial tumors. Currently, we believe that it could be involved in thyroid morphogenesis, development and in the maintenance of ...
Nature 428, 717-723 (2004) In this Article, we showed that Pitx1 maps to the major locus controlling pelvic reduction in sticklebacks and shows altered expression, but not altered amino-acid sequence, in a pelvic-reduced population. Owing to a technical error, Figs 3 and 4 of the Article incorrectlyshow results from a Pitx1 sense probe, rather than from an antisense probe.
PAX3 in neuroblastoma: oncogenic potential, chemosensitivity and signalling pathways.: Transcription factor PAX3/Pax3 contributes to diverse cell lineages durin
J:16215 Ontell MP, Sopper MM, Lyons G, Buckingham M, Ontell M, Modulation of contractile protein gene expression in fetal murine crural muscles: emergence of muscle diversity. Dev Dyn. 1993 Nov;198(3):203-13 ...
J:53310 Szeto DP, Rodriguez-Esteban C, Ryan AK, OConnell SM, Liu F, Kioussi C, Gleiberman AS, Izpisua-Belmonte JC, Rosenfeld MG, Role of the Bicoid-related homeodomain factor Pitx1 in specifying hindlimb morphogenesis and pituitary development. Genes Dev. 1999 Feb 15;13(4):484-94 ...
PAX8-expressing tumors PO Definition; PAX8 is a paired-box gene important in embryogenesis of the thyroid, Müllerian tract, and renal/upper (...)
The Paint Splotch 3 - Light Pink wall mural by Alexandra Doffing will add a distinctive touch to any room. Choose from standard sizes or get a custom size to perfectly fit your wall.
I have thought about the Sabvoton quite seriously, its not quite plug and play for me since a) I will only be able to realistically use 24s for conservative safety margins and the mcb (master control board) needs modification to run straight off a 12v source as it normally steps the 48v down itself (and that has all the ancillary bits like lights and indicators on it). Its all been done by others before on here so Im not on virgin territory with it). Flexy & Jonesy have great threads regarding Emax scooters. It would be easier though but not as exciting. my plan is FOC at 100v and just keeping within the 11kw that makes it akin to a 125cc. I will have to go through the MSVA cert here once I upgrade to keep it legal and if I go any higher than 11kw I need a full bike license too which I havent got yet ...
No wonder his goal is to be the last living thing alive. If one can burrow into creation itself, whats to stop him from at some point learning to sever other essenses from the fabric? He could in time potentially rob all other races of Psionics then, or master control of the extremest forms of Psionics, giving him nearly boundless power? Or even kill with a thought, even later ...
购买我们的重组人PAX3蛋白。Ab114320为全长蛋白,在小麦胚芽中生产并经过ELISA, SDS-PAGE, Western blot实验验证。Abcam提供免费的实验方案,操作技巧及专业的支持。
PAX3山羊多克隆抗体(ab15717)可与小鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IP, IHC实验严格验证,被2篇文献引用并得到2个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of submicroscopic chromosomal deletions in aniridia patients using fluorescence in situ hybridization and a panel of cosmids covering the WT1 gene. AU - Kempski, H.. AU - Cowell, J. K.. PY - 1993/1/1. Y1 - 1993/1/1. N2 - A series of cosmids have been isolated from a human chromosome 11-specific cosmid library using the human Wilms tumour predisposition gene cDNA, WT33. Seven overlapping cosmids were isolated which cover the genomic sequence of WT1 and in situ hybridisation shows that they all localise to the p13 region of chromosome 11. Chromosomes from patients with aniridia and Wilms tumour, and a small subband deletion in 11p13, were analysed and no hybridisation signal was seen on the deletion chromosomes. These cosmids, therefore, can be used to analyse chromosomes from patients with sporadic aniridia for submicroscopic deletions. Aniridia patients who show normal hybridisation patterns on both chromosomes need no longer be screened for Wilms tumours.. AB - A ...
A 2 year old female presenting with bilateral sporadic aniridia was found to have an apparently balanced reciprocal translocation with a chromosome 11 breakpoint within band p13. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) studies with distal 11p13 specific cosmids showed that the chromosome 11 breakpoint lay between the aniridia (PAX6) locus and a region approximately 100 kb distal to PAX6 defined by the cosmid FO2121. Although this patient did not have a detectable deletion within PAX6, her aniridia may have resulted from a disruption of the distal chromatin domain containing either enhancers or regulators for PAX6. This case may therefore be another example of aniridia caused by a position effect as recently described in two familial aniridia patients in which the phenotype cosegregated with chromosome abnormalities with 11p13 breakpoints.. ...
Purpose : Aniridia is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in PAX6 (Paired Box 6). Although named for lack of iris, aniridia is a panocular disorder, with vision loss attributable to three main causes: 1) hypomorphic fovea, 2) progressive corneal clouding, and 3) progressive glaucoma. Current treatments may delay vision loss, but do not prevent the blindness experienced by most people with aniridia. Gene therapy is a promising treatment strategy that may delay, or even prevent, vision loss. Here we focus on gene therapy for the corneal pathology. Methods : EmGFP (emerald GFP), PAX6, 3xFLAG/PAX6, and PAX6/3xFLAG mRNAs were injected into Xenopus laevis embryos, which were fixed and examined 14 days later. Additionally, EmGFP and 3xFLAG/PAX6 constructs, driven by smCBA (ubiquitous) or a human MiniPromoter (targeted to the cornea) were cloned into a custom rAAV genome, and packaged into rAAV9 at the University of Pennsylvania Vector Core. Viruses were introduced into wild-type and ...
Established from the bone marrow metastasis of a 17-year-old man with undifferentiated (standard classification) or unclassified (Palmer classification) alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma; cells were described as carrying a p53 mutation, expressing high levels of both myogenin and myoD, and expressing the Pax3/FKHR fusion protein secondary to the t(2;13)(q35;q14) ...
Single cell transcriptomes of cell cultures differentiated from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) following the HX protocol (Xi et al., Cell Rep, 2017) for 6 weeks. Cells are either non-enriched or enriched using an endogenous PAX7-driven GFP reporter ...
Description of photograph included into Photographic Archive of the Fundación Juan March: title, year, provenance, place, names. Print. Use conditions
hello, I occasionally get red splotches on my face, chest and arms when I drink more than two or three drinks. This has been happening since I was 18 (6 years). I finally did some research and it appears to be rosacea. However, they are not permanent and will go away if I stop drinking for an hour or two. On one hand this stops me from drinking too much, which is good. At the same time, I love drinking to excess and this prevents me from doing so..because I dont like being covered in
So Ive had this T. Maxima for a bit over a year now, maybe 14 months, and it seems to be doing fine until very recently. Over the last week or so its...
Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of childhood. Especially the alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) shows poor prognosis when metastases have developed. [...]
Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is an aggressive paediatric cancer of skeletal muscle with poor prognosis. A PAX3-FOXO1 fusion protein acts as a driver of malignancy in ARMS by disrupting tightly coupled but mutually exclusive pathways of proliferation and differentiation. While PAX3-FOXO1 is an attractive therapeutic target, no current treatments are designed to block its oncogenic activity. The present work shows that the histone acetyltransferase P/CAF (KAT2B) is overexpressed in primary tumours from ARMS patients. Interestingly, in fusion-positive ARMS cell lines, P/CAF acetylates and stabilizes PAX3-FOXO1 rather than MyoD, a master regulator of muscle differentiation. Silencing P/CAF, or pharmacological inhibition of its acetyltransferase activity, down-regulates PAX3-FOXO1 levels concomitant with reduced proliferation and tumour burden in xenograft mouse models. Our studies identify a P/CAF-PAX3-FOXO1 signalling node that promotes oncogenesis and may contribute to MyoD dysfunction in ...
Background: Altered dosage of the transcription factor PAX6 causes multiple human eye pathophysiologies. PAX6(+/-) heterozygotes suffer from aniridia and aniridia-related keratopathy (ARK), a corneal deterioration that probably involves a limbal epithelial stem cell (LESC) deficiency. Heterozygous Pax6(+/Sey-Neu) (Pax6(+/-)) mice recapitulate the human disease and are a good model of ARK. Corneal pathologies also occur in other mouse Pax6 mutants and in PAX77(Tg/-) transgenics, which over-express Pax6 and model human PAX6 duplication. Methodology/Principal Findings: We used electron microscopy to investigate ocular defects in Pax6(+/-) heterozygotes (low Pax6 levels) and PAX77(Tg/-) transgenics (high Pax6 levels). As well as the well-documented epithelial defects, aberrant Pax6 dosage had profound effects on the corneal stroma and endothelium in both genotypes, including cellular vacuolation, similar to that reported for human macular corneal dystrophy. We used mosaic expression of an X-linked ...
SMART ODN SYSTEM OF LOW POWER CONSUMPTION - The present invention discloses a smart ODN system of low power consumption, and the system is related to the ODN field and includes a smart management terminal, a master control management board, and several wiring management boards, where the smart management terminal is directly connected to the master control management board, and is also connected to the master control management board through the Internet and a mobile terminal, the master control management board is connected with several wiring management boards, each wiring management board includes a PMU and a PQU, which are independent from each other, the PQU is connected to a CPU of a wiring management board through a control line; the PMU is configured to collect and store information data of a port and communicate with the master control management board or the smart management terminal; the PQU independent from the CPU independently performs the query operation on a wiring port, and ...
Embryonic development requires complex events in morphogenesis that are driven by changes in cell shape, migration, proliferation and death. Although progress has been made in understanding some of the mechanisms underlying morphogenesis (Lecuit and Lenne, 2007), our knowledge is still limited. During early development of the ocular lens, a region of surface ectoderm adjacent to the optic vesicle thickens to form the lens placode. This placode then invaginates in coordination with the presumptive retina and forms the lens pit and optic cup. This relatively simple morphogenesis event serves as a useful model with which to study the mechanisms involved.. There is a strong case that the genes required for fate decisions during induction of the lens placode are closely linked to the morphogenesis machinery. For example, mice mutant for Pax6 (Grindley et al., 1995; Ashery-Padan et al., 2000; Smith et al., 2009), Bmp7 (Wawersik et al., 1999) or the Fgf receptor adaptor Frs2α (Gotoh et al., 2004) all ...
Although other antiapoptotic genes may be implicated in the protection of c-myc-induced cell death, we pursued the potential protective function of Bcl-xL in view of its link with c-myc in β-cell survival and proliferation (Pelengaris et al., 2002). Small increases in Bcl-xL, similar to those observed in our work, were shown to protect β-cells against thapsigargin-induced apoptosis in a transgenic mouse model. Increased levels of this mitochondrially targeted protein were also found to impair insulin secretion (Zhou et al., 2000). Consistent with these studies, we found that glucose-stimulated insulin exocytosis was attenuated by 50% in Pax4-overexpressing islets 48 h after infection. β-Galactosidase-expressing islets and noninfected controls exhibited an expected threefold increase in hormone release (Fig. 5 A). However, inhibition was transient as glucose-induced insulin secretion was restored 6 d after infection (unpublished data). Inclusion of 1 μM forskolin/100 μM IBMX, which modulates ...
The roles of BMP and Pax in the embryonic development have been extensively studied in recent years and the formation of the neural tube is usually described as a self-evident process, but formation of nervous system in human embryos has actually not been examined in detail. In the present study 40 human embryos at Carnegie stages (CS) 10-20 were obtained, and the expression of BMP-2, BMP-4, Pax2, Pax6 and Pax7 proteins were examined in the developing brain. 22 rat embryos of CS 14, 18 and 20 were employed to compare the BMP-2, BMP-4 and Pax2 expression in the developing spinal cord of human and rat embryos throughout early stages of the nervous system development. To detect expression of proteins the method of immunohistochemistry was used. BMP-2 and BMP-4 are essential signalling molecules for the formation of the neural tube in human embryos as their expression was seen throughout all studied developmental stages 10-20. The expression of both proteins, BMP-2 and BMP-4, had a tendency to ...
There are 9 Pax genes in the human or mouse genomes, defined by presence of a 128 amino acid Paired domain, and of these 7 are members of the PRD homeobox class by virtue of possessing a homeobox: complete homeobox for PAX3, 4, 6 and 7; partial homeobox for PAX2, 5 and 8 (the two human Pax genes lacking a homeobox entirely are PAX1 and PAX9; these are not included in this database). In addition to these 7 homeobox-containing Pax genes, there are a further 43 PRD class genes in the human genome. These 50 genes can be divided into 31 gene families. There are also 24 human pseudogenes generated from these genes, plus an unknown number of DUX repetitive sequences (Holland et al. 2007 ...
There are 9 Pax genes in the human or mouse genomes, defined by presence of a 128 amino acid Paired domain, and of these 7 are members of the PRD homeobox class by virtue of possessing a homeobox: complete homeobox for PAX3, 4, 6 and 7; partial homeobox for PAX2, 5 and 8 (the two human Pax genes lacking a homeobox entirely are PAX1 and PAX9; these are not included in this database). In addition to these 7 homeobox-containing Pax genes, there are a further 43 PRD class genes in the human genome. These 50 genes can be divided into 31 gene families. There are also 24 human pseudogenes generated from these genes, plus an unknown number of DUX repetitive sequences (Holland et al. 2007 ...
PAX6 - PAX6 (GFP-tagged) - Human paired box 6 (PAX6), transcript variant 2 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Complete information for PAX7 gene (Protein Coding), Paired Box 7, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Log Message: , Introduce PaX MPROTECT -- mprotect(2) restrictions used to strengthen , W^X mappings. - pax_mprotect_adjust seems no-op. - *new_prot &= ~VM_PROT_EXECUTE; in obj != NULL case of pax_mprotect is no-op because the condition isnt met if VM_PROT_EXECUTE is set. - mprotect(2) is not only user of uvm_map_protect. have you checked the rest of users? - uobj == NULL is not a good test for anonymous memory, if you want to count eg. sysv shared memory or COWed memory as anonymous. (im not sure why you want to check if anonymous or not here.) - the semantics of uvm_map_protect after your change is not clear to me. eg. consider doing mprotect(100, 100, WRITE,EXEC) and [100..150] is file-backed and [150..200] is anonymous memory. if i read your change correctly, both of WRITE and EXEC bits will be removed for the entire range. is it an intended behaviour? - i couldnt find any code to restrict mmap. does this make sense without it? have you had any public review of the patch? YAMAMOTO ...
The Pax genes comprise a family of transcription factors active in specific tissues during embryonic development and are associated with at least three developmental mutations in mouse and man. In the developing kidney, Pax-2 is expressed in the induced mesenchyme, in the ureter epithelium, and in e …
2,765 Camera Operators jobs available on Indeed.com. Apply to Master Control Operator, Game Day Employment Opportunities, Production Assistant and more!
IKEA - PAX, Wardrobe, 200x60x201 cm, soft closing hinge, , 10 year guarantee. Read about the terms in the guarantee brochure.You can easily adapt this ready-made
Introduction: Rhabdomyosarcoma is an uncommon tumor seen in young adolescents and adults that metastasizes to the peritoneum. Case Report: Here we report a case of 18-year-old female who had alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of nose and was treated with chemoradiotherapy. After one year, she presented with ascites. Ascitic fluid cytology revealed deposits of rhabdomyosarcoma. Immunohistochemistry done to support the diagnosis. This case report highlights the cytological features of rhabdomyosarcoma cells, which were large pleomorphic with high nuclear cytoplasmic ratio, coarse chromatin and scant cytoplasm. A small population of cells was almost the size of mesothelial cells, which could be mistaken for a reactive mesothelial cells. Conclusion: Awareness of rare metastases of rhabdomyosarcoma in peritoneum and recognition of the cytological features of these malignant cells supported by specific immunostains helps in the diagnosis.
Pax or PAX may refer to: Peace, (Latin: pax) Pax (goddess), the Roman goddess of peace Pax, a truce term Pax (liturgy), a salutation in Catholic and Lutheran religious services Pax (liturgical object), an object formerly kissed as a substitute for the Kiss of Peace in the Catholic Mass Pax (1994 film), a Portuguese comedy Pax (2011 film), a Norwegian-Swedish drama PAX (event), a gamer festival Pax (novel), by Sara Pennypacker Pax, a fictional organization in Strange New World and elsewhere by Gene Roddenberry PAX, a side project of the German band X Marks the Pedwalk Pax Christi International, an international Catholic peace movement PAX Association, in Poland Pax Forlag, a Norwegian publishing house PAX Network, a US television network now known as ION Television Pax World Funds, a US mutual fund company PAX Labs, a US electronic cigarette company Pax, a Russian manufacturer of Ferris wheels and other amusement rides PAX, Penny Arcade Expo, a gaming convention VitalPax, a US manufacturer of ...
Images Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. https://twitter.com/histiocytosisX/status/699599913013923840 https://twitter.com/seattlequinns/status/85520214
For more than a century, the lens has provided a relatively simple structure in which to study developmental mechanisms. Lens induction, where adjacent tissues signal the cell fate changes that result in lens formation, have been of particular interest. Embryological manipulations advancing our understanding have included the Spemann optic rudiment ablation experiments, optic vesicle transplantations as well as more contemporary work employing lineage tracers. All this has revealed that lens induction signaling is a multi-stage process involving multiple tissue interactions. More recently, molecular genetic techniques have been applied to an analysis of lens induction. This has led to the identification of signaling pathways required for lens induction and early lens development. These include the bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling pathways where Bmp4 and Bmp7 have been implicated. Though no fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) ligand has been implicated at present, the Fgf signaling pathway clearly
Abstract: : Purpose: Anterior segment diseases including aniridia occur in the dog. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the canine PAX6 gene for the presence of causal mutations and to determine both its map position and transcriptional complexity in the canine genome. Methods: A canine pedigree was identified in which aniridia segregates as an autosomal recessive trait. Whole blood was used to make genomic DNA for analysis. PAX6 cDNA was cloned by RT-PCR from a canine retinal cDNA library. To test for the presence of multiple transcripts, primers were designed from human isoform b and used opposite canine primers. A canine radiation-hybrid (RH3000) panel was used to map PAX6 in relation to 3 genes on CFA18 (WT1, CD44, COLF1). To facilitate exon scanning in normal, affected, and carrier animals, primers were designed to span both introns and exons. Results: The entire 1289 bp coding sequence of canine PAX6 was cloned and shows 97% homology with the human sequence and 99.8% homology with the ...
We have recently demonstrated that Pax6 activation occurs in phase with somitogenesis in the spinal cord. Here we show that the presomitic mesoderm exerts an inhibitory activity on Pax6 expression. This repressive effect is mediated by the FGF signalling pathway. The presomitic mesoderm displays a decreasing caudorostral gradient of FGF8, and grafting FGF8-soaked beads at the level of the neural tube abolishes Pax6 activation. Conversely, when FGF signalling is disrupted, Pax6 is prematurely activated in the neural plate. We propose that the progression of Pax6 activation in the neural tube is controlled by the caudal regression of the anterior limit of FGF activity. Hence, as part of its posteriorising activity, FGF8 downregulation acts as a switch from early (posterior) to a later (anterior) state of neural epithelial development.
Paired box gene 9, also known as PAX9, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PAX9 gene. It is also found in other mammals. This gene is a member of the paired box (PAX) family of transcription factors. During mouse embryogenesis Pax9 expression starts from embryonic day 8.5 and becomes more evident by E9.5; at this stage its expression is restricted to the pharyngeal endoderm. Later on, Pax9 is also expressed in the axial skeleton. Pax9 is required for craniofacial, tooth and limb development, and may more generally involve development of stratified squamous epithelia as well as various organs and skeletal elements. PAX9 plays a role in the absence of wisdom teeth in some human populations (possibly along with the less well studied AXIN2 and MSX1). This gene was found amplified in lung cancer. The amplification covers three tissue developmental genes - TTF1, NKX2-8, and PAX9. It appears that certain lung cancer cells select for DNA copy number amplification and increased RNA/protein ...
Aniridia is a congenital, hereditary, bilateral, extreme form of iris hypoplasia that may be associated with other ocular defects. It describes an extreme form of iris hypoplasia in which the iris appears absent on superficial clinical examination.
Recombinant rabbit monoclonal antibody raised against partial human PAX8. Recombinant protein corresponding to amino acids 60-261 of human PAX8. (RAB00657) - Products - Abnova
The mouse myoblast C2C12 cell line transfected singly with cDNA for Pax-3, PAX3-FKHR, or insulin-like growth factor (IGF) II or cotransfected with IGF-II plus Pax-3 or with IGF-II plus PAX3-FKHR genes showed an altered morphology, a lack of differentiation, and higher proliferation rates in vitro. On s.c. injection into nude mice, tumors grew from transfected cell lines but not from cells transfected with the empty vector. Tumors derived from IGF-II/PAX3-FKHR- and IGF-II-transfected cells grew most rapidly. Cotransfection of IGF-II plus Pax-3 induced tumors comprised highly differentiated striated muscle cells; Pax-3, PAX3-FKHR, or IGF-II transfection produced tumors at varying stages of differentiation. Tumors derived from IGF-II plus PAX3-FKHR-cotransfected cells were composed of undifferentiated cells. This was the only tumor type to infiltrate the underlying muscle. The most angiogenesis and the least apoptosis were observed in the latter tumors. These results support the hypothesis that ...