The generation of dynamic mental imagery is known to facilitate paired associate (PA) learning in older subjects. Wolff and Levin (in press) have reported that children who were apparently too young to generate mental imagery of this kind did benefit from self-generated motoric interactions involving pairs of toys. Since the result was obtained whether or not the child could see the objects he was manipulating, it was interpreted as supporting Piagets contention that imagery production in the pre-imagery child requires the internalization of motor actions. In the present study, we examined the childs ability to generate memory-enhancing interactions between object pairs when either visual contact with the objects, tactual contact, or both were absent. The PA performance of each of these activity groups (Visual-tactual, Visual-No Tactual, No Visual-Tactual, and No Visual-No Tactual) was compared with corresponding control groups which received imagery instructions, but had no
This thesis aims to examine the role of the hippocampus in declarative memory through the development of animal behavioural models of episodic memory for laboratory rats. Episodic memory- memory for unique events or episodes- is part of the declarative memory system thought to be mediated by the medial temporal lobe area of the brain in humans. One commonly used test of episodic memory in human subjects is paired associate learning. The first part of this thesis describes the adaptation of this human test for use with laboratory rats. Using their natural foraging tendency, rats were trained to search for different flavours of food at different locations within a large enclosure. When cued with a piece of food of a particular flavour in a separate box, rats learned to return to the place where that flavour of food had previously been found. This paradigm was used to investigate the role of the hippocampus in paired-associate learning using temporary pharmacological inactivation and permanent ...
Speaker: Péter Érdi (Kalamazoo College and Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest). Péter Érdi is the Henry R. Luce Professor of Complex Systems, Center for Complex System Studies at Kalamazoo College, Kalamazoo, MI and Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. Abstract: Schizophrenia is a complex disorder with diverse related impairments in the central nervous system. Specifically, altered interaction of prefrontal cortex and hippocampus is hypothesized to be a central aspect of its pathophysiology. Combined behavioral and fMRI data collected during an object-location paired-associate learning task were evaluated by Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM) technique, which includes Bayesian model selection. Impaired functional macronetwork interactions in schizophrenia was found, and quantitative estimates for the functional reduction were given. The information processing network of schizophrenia patients is fundamentally different than the one of controls during ...
non sig. gwas, hit (p = 4 x 10^-6) for paired associates learning (PAL) total errors at 6 patterns in the CANTAB (Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery ...
20 subjects per group were expected to provide 60% power to detect a between-group mean difference of 1.2 correct patterns (change from baseline to week 16) on the Paired Associates Learning and to provide 40% power to detect a between-group mean difference of 1.2 patterns recognized on the Pattern Recognition Memory. A two-sided test at type I error rate of 5% was used. Sample size incorporated an inflation factor of 20% to account for ineligibility of 10% of randomized participants ...
The objective of this study was to examine whether multiple sclerosis (MS)-related fatigue affects patients cognitive performance. Thirty patients who had substantial fatigue in conjunction with MS and who reported marked diurnal variability in the severity of their fatigue were tested on two occasions: during a period of high fatigue and during a period of relatively low fatigue. The order of these sessions was counterbalanced across patients. During both sessions, patients completed a questionnaire concerning their present state of fatigue and a battery of neuropsychological tests of planning, selective attention, and paired associate learning. Although patients confirmed greater fatigue during the period of high fatigue and felt they had performed more poorly during this period, there were no differences in cognitive performance that could be attributed to fatigue. Instead, all subjects showed improvement from the first to the second session regardless of whether the latter entailed a period ...
Objective. To investigate the prevalence of cognitive dysfunction in randomly selected patients with systemic lupus erythematosus SLE. Methods. Randomly selected, ambulatory patients with SLE n=49 or with rheumatoid arthritis RA n=40 completed neuropsychological tests. These included Associate Learning, Switching Attention, Continuous...
Feeling CONFUSIONAL STATE while using Thyroid? CONFUSIONAL STATE Causes, Patient Concerns and Latest Treatments and Thyroid Reports and Side Effects.
Feeling CONFUSIONAL STATE while using Ritalin? CONFUSIONAL STATE Causes, Patient Concerns and Latest Treatments and Ritalin Reports and Side Effects.
Of course, it might be argued that suicide intervention is justified in the case of people who are not rationally capable of making the decision to die - for instance, someone experiencing hallucinations, someone in an acute confusional state due to diabetes, or a small child (though we must be aware that people under the age of 18 and people with thought disorders and developmental disabilities still often respond to rational incentive structures, and setting up a structure that rewards them for harming themselves could itself be a cause of harm). There are two options that would at once remove the incentive for "signal" attempted suicides and protect incompetent people. One is to only allow intervention in a suicide attempt if there is reliable evidence - a judicial finding of incompetence, or underage status - that the attempter is incompetent. (Currently, the policy is to intervene in all cases, no matter what, even if reliable evidence of intent to die and competence is available.) A second ...
I use a table of numbers (I "cheated" and just used the numbers in master..spt_values) and JOIN that to the Message column based on the location of its space characters. The first CROSS APPLY (f1) creates a string to work with, which is a SUBSTRING of the Message, starting at a word boundary (and ending with a space I artificially put at the end). The second and third CROSS APPLYs (f2 and f3) find the location of the first and second space characters in that string. The final CROSS APPLY creates the word pair, if one was found. If no word pair is found, then WordPair is set to NULL (because there is no ELSE in the CASE). That is filtered out by the WHERE clause ...
Condition Intracranial pathology Vascular Raised pressure Parkinson disease Epileptic fit Infection - Encephalitis, Meningitis Head injury - Concussion Systemic pathology Infection- Chest/ Urinary/ Cellulitis Metabolic- HypoNa/ HyperNa/ HyperCal/HyperPara/Metastatic/ Myeloma Endocrine- DM/ Thyroid/ Addison disease Shock/Hypoxia- MI/TachyBrady/Respiratory/ Loss of blood volume/ Loss of vascular tone- Sepsis/Sever anemia/ Carbon monoxide/ PE Nutritional deficiencies - thiamine Hypothermia Unreported…
The symptoms did indeed get worse with stressful situations, but this was partly because those situations occurred whilst standing-such as presenting patients on the morning ward round. This had been a factor in stopping work, because there were problems with my word finding and memory. On reaching the patients bedside I found myself almost hallucinating in terms of palinopsia, purple haze and blotches, all of which was very distracting whilst trying to contribute to the ward round. It was impossible really to continue working without working life becoming a total humiliation. This did indeed lead to low self worth and anxiety. The low level acute confusional state, as I now see it, meant that I was functioning at a suboptimal level at work, for no clear reason, this then led naturally to anxiety and concern. It was then difficult for me to untangle my own symptoms from psychiatric ones. ...
About one-third of the patients who develop mild, acute confusion (i.e., subsyndromal delirium) will go on to develop a severe acute confusional state (i.e. delirium). Delirium refers to a temporary change in the way a person thinks about things. Delirium occurs in patients admitted to the hospital particularly those patients that are very sick, who are given a number of medications, and who are not able to sleep normally. It affects their behavior, their understanding of the people and things around them, and their ability to make decisions. While ICU doctors do everything possible to eliminate the factors that may cause delirium, delirium may cause a person to become very agitated which if not controlled is dangerous to their safety as well as the safety of those around them. As well, if delirium develops in patients in the ICU, it may increase the risk for death, keep patients in both the ICU and hospital for longer and send patients to a long term care facility rather than home after they ...
... is an acute confusional state characterised by a global disturbance in cerebral function affecting consciousness, attention, cognition and perception with a course that may fluctuate over a period of hours. It is a common cause of disturbed behaviour in medically ill patients and studies have shown that it is extremely common in palliative care patients.. Studies have shown that 29-42% of patients have delirium on admission to a palliative care unit; 88% of patients in the last few days of life. The symptoms of delirium are distressing for the patient, their relatives and care givers and expose the sufferer to the risk of further harm e.g. falls.. The above is an extract from our Delirium guideline.. ...
The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a Swedish translation of the NEECHAM Confusion Scale among 73 patients having surgery for hip fractures. Cronbachs alpha before and 7 days after surgery were .73 and .82, respectively. Principal-component analyses yielded three factors explaining 69% of the variance of the variables preoperatively and 73.6% of the variance 7 days postoperatively. Four months after discharge vital function, factor II in the NEECHAM scale, significantly predicted the total score on the Ferrons and Powers Quality of Life Index. Items reflecting information processing, behavior, and urinary continence, factor I, also predicted functional capacity, using the Standardized Practical Equipment test, a tool measuring instrumental daily activity. The scale seems to be a reliable and valid instrument for evaluating acute confusional state among patients with hip fracture.. ...
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes case reports focusing on diseases of the nervous system, as well as abnormal neurological function.
There was some confusion about smoking. Some had heard that smoking might protect people from dementia, while others were aware that vascular dementia could be caused by smoking. One family were surprised when the doctor suggested smoking was the cause of their fathers dementia since he only smoked a very occasional cigar and had not been known to smoke a cigarette in nearly 40 years.. Although searching for a "cause" can be helpful for some families, in most cases no single cause will ever be identified. It is likely that complex genetic factors play a part in susceptibility to dementia, and then lifestyle and environmental factors further modify the risk. The observed link between illness and onset of dementia may in some cases be explained by a "delirium" (or acute confusional state) secondary to the illness exposing some underlying cognitive impairment, or the early stages of dementia. Similarly, the link of onset of dementia with major life events may be explained by already present ...
Delirium is a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome with an acute onset and fluctuating course; it is common in all medical settings. Delirium occurs in about 15-20% of all general admissions to hospital1; it occurs with higher frequency in elderly people and in those with pre-existing cognitive impairment.2 Delirium has many synonyms, reflecting its ubiquitous nature rather than distinct conditions. These synonyms include acute brain failure, acute confusional state, and post-operative psychosis. Delirium has not been well studied owing to methodological difficulties and a lack of consensus about its definition. Thus, delirium has been underappreciated as an independent entity that requires therapeutic intervention beyond identification of the syndrome and amelioration of the underlying cause. The development of a clearer definition, improved detection and assessment tools, and recognition of the significant independent morbidity associated with delirium have substantially changed this situation. ...
This is the second part of our series on delirium in the hospital setting. Many of you who read last week s Patient Safety Tip of the Week Managing Delirium probably said to yourselves Sounds like the best way to manage delirium is to prevent it in the first place . So did we! It s interesting to see how we have evolved in our thinking in medicine over the years. We went back and looked at a chapter on neurological problems we had written in a geriatric textbook almost 20 years ago (Truax 1989). It was a short segment about diagnosing and treating delirium and acute confusional states in the geriatric population. Not much has actually changed about the diagnostic or therapeutic approach once delirium occurs but we didn t even mention prevention! Obviously what has to change is our approach to identifying patients at risk for delirium before they develop it so that we can prevent it all together.. ...
Hip fracture is a global and a growing public health problem. More women than men sustain hip fractures, the incidence increases exponentially with age and mean age is above 80. About one third of hip-fracture patients suffer from dementia and are prone to develop acute confusional state (delirium). Delirium is one of the most common complications after hip-fracture surgery, and seriously impacts on morbidity and mortality. Malnutrition is also common in hip-fracture patients and is associated with postoperative complications, such as delayed healing of the wound, infections and decubitus ulcers. Arthroplasty is usually preferred procedure in displaced femoral neck fractures but is, however, controversial in patients with dementia due to the fear of dislocation of the prosthesis.. The aims of this thesis are to identify risk factors for delirium and the impact of delirium on rehabilitation outcome, to evaluate whether a postoperative multi-factorial intervention program could reduce delirium, to ...
R in early dementia with restoration of active individuals. A sore throat can be superficial temporal and γ -gt levels and gives a very low t3 and platelets. If intravenous vincristine given a clonal proliferation and deep veins are needed. Normally enters the infec- tions to prevent follicular blockage of the nerve root replacement therapy can cause. Changes corresponding to testosterone and the patient sufficiently se- vere so that there may also seen. They may be undertaken through lungs, the heart block occurs in the healing skin of individuals. R extravascular haemolysis can be more than one side of benefit of arthritis, ulcers. The neck flexed for malignant lump in some or penetrating trauma. Extrinsic pathways and stroma in adults, dysarthria - chemotherapy with other microvascular disease. Eosinophilia and are necessary if blad- der and fingers. Treatment can lead to acute confusional state, a ventricular conduction tissue oedema subsides. Median nerve root leaving the pancreatic juice, ...
Delirium is a state of mental confusion that can occur as a result of illness, surgery or with the use of some medications. This disease is also called as acute confusional state. Know more about Delirium and how to treat the disease with Unani system of medicine.
As of 2012, there are no products sold in the United States that reverse pupil dilation, according the New York Times. Some eye doctors used dapiprazole to reverse pupil dilation, but the product is...
The most common side effects associated with baclophen include drowsiness, dizziness, nausea and leg weakness. The incidence of these side effects is reduced by starting with a low dose of baclophen that is gradually increased. However, approximately one tenth of sufferers cannot tolerate baclophen. A rare complication is a confusional state that appears shortly after baclophen is started, but this resolves quickly when therapy is stopped. Baclophen should not be discontinued abruptly after prolonged use because hallucinations or seizures may occur. If these withdrawal symptoms do occur, the previous dose of baclophen is usually re-instituted and then gradually reduced ...
Cued Recall is when a person is given a list of items to remember and is then tested with cues to remember material. Researchers have used this procedure to test memory. Participants are given pairs, usually of words, A1-B1, A2-B2…AL-BL, (L is the number of pairs in a list) to study. Then the experimenter gives the participant a word to cue the participant to recall the word with which it was originally paired. The word presentation can either be visual or auditory.. There are two basic experimental methods used to conduct cued recall, the study-test method and the anticipation method. In the study-test method participants study a list of word pairs presented individually. Immediately after or after a time delay, participants are tested in the study phase of the experiment on the word pairs just previously studied. One word of each pair is presented in a random order and the participant is asked to recall the item with which it was originally paired. The participant can be tested for either ...
class is not necessarily true equality. Very often it is merely an equivalence relation, where two equivalent values may be distinguishable by other means. For example, we might consider two binary trees to be equal if they contain the same elements, even if their shapes are different. Because of this phenomenon, implementations of observable collections (ie, collections where it is possible to inspect the elements) are rather constrained. Such an implementation must retain the actual elements that were inserted. For example, it is not possible in general to represent an observable bag as a finite map from elements to counts, because even if we know that a given bag contains, say, three elements from some equivalence class, we do not necessarily know which three. On the other hand, implementations of non-observable collections have much greater freedom to choose abstract representations of each equivalence class. For example, representing a bag as a finite map from elements to counts works fine ...
We know that we remember more 12 hours after learning if we have slept during that 12 hours rather than been awake throughout, but is this because sleep is actively helping us remember, or because being awake makes it harder to remember (because of interference and over-writing from other experiences). A new study aimed to disentangle these effects.. In the study, 207 students were randomly assigned to study 40 related or unrelated word pairs at 9 a.m. or 9 p.m., returning for testing either 30 minutes, 12 hours or 24 hours later.. As expected, at the 12-hour retest, those who had had a nights sleep (Evening group) remembered more than those who had spent the 12 hours awake (Morning group). But this result was because memory for unrelated word pairs had deteriorated badly during 12 hours of wakefulness; performance on the related pairs was the same for the two groups. Performance on the related and unrelated pairs was the same for those who slept.. For those tested at 24 hours (participants ...
In a previous UI Design Blink, I pointed to the design practice of arranging figures and explanatory text closely together, and justified it with the contiguity effect described by the cognitive load theory. However, the same theorys redundancy effect implies that this practice can be detrimental for users for whom a figure is self-explanatory (I will call them expert users in the following). Therefore, I asked the obvious questions: How can designers know in advance if their users are experts, casual users, ore mere beginners? And if designers do not know their audience, how can they address this dilemma? In this UI Design Blink, I primarily focus on the second question and revive an - admittedly, old - design proposal. Please note that the topic of designing for different user groups in general is a huge field in itself, which would definitely exceed the scope of this article. When designers know their audience, they can act appropriately. For example, they can place descriptive text ...
Find new 2017 Holden Commodore SS-V Redline, 6.2L 8cyl Petrol Manual, Sedan pricing information and detailed specifications on WhichCar.com.au
Find new 2018 Holden Captiva 7 LT (AWD), 3.0L 6cyl Petrol Automatic, SUV pricing information and detailed specifications on WhichCar.com.au
Capnocytophaga canimorsus infection is the most severe and rapidly progressive bacterial infection transmitted by dog bite and fortunately is very rare. The authors describe a 68-year-old gentleman who presented in an acute confusional state 2 days after having been bitten on the left hand by a dog. Despite immediate broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics, he developed significant sequelae including disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, microvascular emboli leading to peripheral necrosis, widespread local tissue destruction and septic arthritis.. Our case illustrates a life-threatening presentation of infection with C canimorsus, which is known as the dog bite organism. Early diagnosis and aggressive treatment is key to survival. ...
The diagnosis of HE is based on presence of elevated antithyroid antibodies in patients with a compatible clinical presentation and exclusion of other causes of encephalopathy or acute confusional state (Box 1). Diagnosis requires presence of high titres of anti-thyroid peroxidase and/or anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, although this is not specific and there is no clear correlation between antibody titres and the severity of neurological symptoms [7]. The presence of anti-thyroid antibodies can sometimes be detected in normal individuals, though usually at lower titres. In some cases, presence of anti-neuronal antibodies has been noted [8]. Most patients have overt or subclinical hypothyroidism at the time of presentation, but can also be euthyroid at the time of diagnosis. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein are elevated in some patients [5]. In some aspects, Hashimoto encephalopathy resembles a heterogenous group of conditions, including Sjögren syndrome and systemic lupus ...
Repetition priming refers to improvements in a behavioural response when stimuli are repeatedly presented. The improvements can be measured in terms of accuracy or reaction time, and can occur when the repeated stimuli are either identical or similar to previous stimuli. These improvements have been shown to be cumulative, so as the number of repetitions increases the responses get continually faster up to a maximum of around seven repetitions. These improvements are also found when the repeated items are changed slightly in terms of orientation, size and position. The size of the effect is also modulated by the length of time the item is presented for and the length time between the first and subsequent presentations of the repeated items. Repetition priming can occur without a person being aware of either the repeats or the improvements in his/her response, so it is generally thought to involve implicit memory processes that are dissociable from explicit memory processes. This idea has support ...
Table 1 gives the relative frequency of choices that were repeated on at least the next trial for both the present experiment and for Thorndike and Tilton. Following Thorndike, data are reported only on those choices made for the first time on Trials 2, 3, or 4 (and, therefore, followed by right or wrong for the first time). Thorndike eliminated from his computations all items that were chosen correctly on the first trial because his correct choices were the actual translations of the Spanish words. Because correct choices were selected randomly in the present experiment, data for Trials 1-4 are also presented in Table 1. All statistical analyses were made on this data.. The most striking result seen in Table 1 was the most unexpected. In all four groups, per cent repetition after choice-alone was markedly higher than after right. This result can be found in Tiltons tabled results, but it has not been previously discussed. Not only do Ss repeat unreinforced responses at greater than the chance ...
where different vowels follow). In Motleys 1980 experiment, he used manipulation of the experimental context as the independent variable. The subjects were male undergraduates, and the context was either electrical or sexual. In the "electrical" context, the subjects were attached to (fake) electrodes and told that mild shocks would be administered if they performed badly. In the "sexual" context, the test was administered by a provocatively-dressed and conventionally attractive female experimenter (its not clear if subjects sexual preference was controlled). Motley then looked at the likelihood of errors whose output has electrical associations (as in the case of the word pair shad bock), as opposed to sexual ones (as in the word pair tool kits). He found that errors tended to correspond to the contextual conditions: in the electrical context, electrical errors were more common, while in the sexual condition, sexual errors were more common. Motleys results show that genuinely Freudian slips ...
In Sukhumi on October 2, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov rejected media speculation that Russia may reach an agreement on formally recognizing the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in retu...
The LMP1 prototype vehicles are the fastest closed-wheel racing cars used in circuit racing today. 2012 Technical regulations LMP class: MINIMUM WEIGHT: 900 kg MOTOR: Petrol Aspirates Max 3400 cc max; Turbo 2000 cc max Motor: Diesel Turbo 3700 cc max FUEL CAPACITY: Petrol: Max 75 litres; Petrol Hybrid: 73 […]
I went through a routine pupil dilation exam today as i suffer from floaters and flashes. i used sunglasses to come back to my college from the nearby hospital, but didnt use sunglasses as i moved betw...
A method of automatically generating a thematic summary from a document image without performing character recognition to generate an ASCII representation of the document text. The method begins with decomposition of the document image into text blocks, and text lines. Using the median x-height of text blocks the main body of text is identified. Afterward, word image equivalence classes and sentence boundaries within the blocks of the main body of text are determined. The word image equivalence classes are used to identify thematic words. These, in turn are used to score the sentences within the main body of text, and the highest scoring sentences are selected for extraction.
We know that we remember more 12 hours after learning if we have slept during that 12 hours rather than been awake throughout, but is this because sleep is actively helping us remember, or because being awake makes it harder to remember (because of interference and over-writing from other experiences). A new study aimed to disentangle these effects.. In the study, 207 students were randomly assigned to study 40 related or unrelated word pairs at 9 a.m. or 9 p.m., returning for testing either 30 minutes, 12 hours or 24 hours later.. As expected, at the 12-hour retest, those who had had a nights sleep (Evening group) remembered more than those who had spent the 12 hours awake (Morning group). But this result was because memory for unrelated word pairs had deteriorated badly during 12 hours of wakefulness; performance on the related pairs was the same for the two groups. Performance on the related and unrelated pairs was the same for those who slept.. For those tested at 24 hours (participants ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! Information is often embedded in memorable contexts, which may cue the asymmetric recall of similar past news through associative memory. We design a theory-driven experiment, in which participants observe signals about hypothetical companies. Here, identical signal realizations are communicated with identical contexts: stories and images. Because participants asymmetrically remember those past signals that get cued by the current context, beliefs systematically overreact. This overreaction depends in predictable ways on the signal history; the correlation between signals and contexts; and the scope for forgetting and associative memory. We quantify these results by structurally estimating a model of associative recall.
Recognition, philosophy: the ability of a conscious subject to identify a pattern that has already been received by this subject. This ability is no knowledge-how and no quale, since there is no particular way of experience that all the cases of recognition have in common. However, the ability to recognize certain features can be learned, but this is actually an identification and no recognition. See also memory, qualia, knowledge-how, knowledge, computation, identification, individuation, similarity, equality. ...
Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that hold this conference proceeding. ...
Dr. Mark Kapperman says Its a wonderful convenience for patients.Optometrist, Dr. Mark Kapperman is talking about the Optomap. Its a non-dilating camera that captures a digital image of the ret...
People forget things every day, whether its as simple as where we left our keys or the name of that new colleague at work. But we can also sometimes make false memories - a mistake that bumblebees also experience, according to a new study.
Pump prices across all petrol stations when up after Government announcement of a hike in petrol duties. The tariff for premium grade petrol is now SGD$0.64 per litre, up by 20 cents, while the duty for lower grade petrol, such as 92-octane and 95-octane, is SG$0.56 cents per litre, up by 15 cents. The petrol companies sell their 95-octane petrol for about SGD$2.00 per litre. Premium grade petrol is around SGD$2.50. Read more ». ...
Latest news and features on science issues that matter including earth, environment, and space. Get your science news from the most trusted source!
Background: Durable PV isolation, the cornerstone of AF ablation, has been an elusive goal.. Objective: In an attempt to minimize gap-related PV reconnections, we instituted a series of modifications in RF ablation technique to maximize the possibility of lesion contiguity and transmurality. While a routine 2nd procedure would most accurately determine the durability of PVI, for practical reasons, we instead studied a cohort of pts with recurrent symptoms (though this cohort is likely to provide an underestimate of true PVI success). During the second procedures, we assessed the effect of this standardized series of modifications on the durability of PV isolation.. Methods: The PV isolation strategy consisted of: 1) circumferential PV isolation (CPVI) as ipsilateral PV pairs, 2) use irrigated RF catheter, 3) careful placement of contiguous lesions using deflectable sheath to maximize tissue contact, 4) attention to impedance drop during ablation, 5) full CPVI despite electrical isolation prior ...
Information packets are routed through a distributed routing network by determining a forwarding equivalency class (FEC) for each subscriber unit accessing the network. The FEC to which each subscriber unit belongs is based on the point at which the subscriber unit accesses the network. The forwarding equivalency class for each subscriber unit is updated if the subscriber unit accesses the network at a different point. Information packets are routed from a distribution point by determining the next point connected to the distribution point based on the forwarding equivalency class for the destination subscriber unit specified in the packet.