The present genetic analysis revealed that the mouthbrooding adults of X. rotundiventralis were most likely the genetic mothers and fathers of the young in their mouths. This result suggests that each female broods offspring that she has laid and each male receives the young that he has fertilized from his mate. This finding strongly suggests that the female-to-male shift of young takes place between mating partners. Therefore, the mating pairs most likely maintain the pair bonds at least until the female-to-male shift of young occurs. There are two possible explanations of why these pair bonds are not recognized by eye: one explanation is that the pairs maintain physical proximity, but mingle with other conspecific individuals in schools, and the other explanation is that the pairs do not maintain physical proximity most of the time. At present, there is no information regarding which explanation is more likely. One adult male (M38) was most likely the genetic father of the two young brooded by ...
Monogamous pairing refers to a general relationship between an adult male and an adult female for the purpose of sexual reproduction. It is particularly common in birds, but there are examples of this occurrence in reptiles, invertebrates, fish, amphibians, and mammals. Social monogamy in mammals is defined as a long term or sequential living arrangement between an adult male and an adult female (heterogeneous pair). It should not be confused with genetic monogamy, which refers to two individuals who only reproduce with one another. Social monogamy does not describe the sexual interactions or patterns of reproduction between monogamous pairs; rather it strictly refers to the patterns of their living conditions. This arrangement consists of, but is not limited to: sharing the same territory; obtaining food resources; and raising offspring together. A unique characteristic of monogamy is that unlike in polygamous species, parents share parenting tasks. Even though their tasks are shared, monogamy ...
Social monogamy is a mating strategy rarely employed by mammalian species. Laboratory studies in socially monogamous prairie voles Microtus ochrogaster demonstrate that oxytocin and vasopressin act within the mesolimbic dopamine pathway to facilitate pair-bond formation. Species differences in oxytocin receptor (OTR) and vasopressin 1a receptor (V1aR) distribution in this pathway are associated with species differences in mating strategy. Here, we characterize the neuroanatomical distribution of OTR and V1aR binding sites in naturally occurring populations of Taiwan voles Microtus kikuchii, which purportedly display social monogamy. Live trapping was conducted at two sites in 2009-2010 and receptor autoradiography for OTR and V1aR was performed on brains from 24 animals. OTR binding in two brain regions where OTR signaling regulates pair-bonding were directly compared with that of prairie voles. Our results show that like prairie voles, Taiwan voles exhibit OTR in the prefrontal cortex, insular ...
Drug addiction has devastating consequences on social behaviors and can lead to the impairment of social bonding. Accumulating evidence indicates that alterations in oxytocin (OT) and dopamine (DA) neurotransmission within brain reward circuitry may be involved. We investigated this possibility, as well as the therapeutic potential of OT for drug-induced social deficits, using the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster)-a socially monogamous rodent that forms enduring pair bonds between adult mates. We demonstrate that repeated exposure to the commonly abused psychostimulant amphetamine (AMPH) inhibits the formation of partner preferences (an index of pair bonding) in female prairie voles. AMPH exposure also altered OT and DA neurotransmission in regions that mediate partner preference formation: it decreased OT and DA D2 receptor immunoreactivity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc), respectively, and increased NAcc DA levels. Administration of OT directly into the ...
Monogamy is one of several mating systems observed in animals. However, a pair of animals may be socially monogamous but that does not necessarily make them sexually or genetically monogamous. Social monogamy, sexual monogamy, and genetic monogamy can occur in different combinations.[87]. Social monogamy refers to the overtly observed living arrangement whereby a male and female share territory and engage in behaviour indicative of a social pair, but does not imply any particular sexual fidelity or reproductive pattern.[87] The extent to which social monogamy is observed in animals varies across taxa, with over 90 percent of avian species being socially monogamous, compared to only 3 percent of mammalian species and up to 15 percent of primate species.[79][101] Social monogamy has also been observed in reptiles, fish, and insects.. Sexual monogamy is defined as an exclusive sexual relationship between a female and a male based on observations of sexual interactions.[87] However, scientific ...
So why are pair-bonding mammals more susceptible to substance abuse? Because the same neural circuitry that governs pair-bonding also governs susceptibility to substance abuse, and pair-bonders seem to have a more sensitive version of it than most mammals. When pair-bonding mammals are longing for a mate (whether or not they correctly analyze the roots of that longing), they are vulnerable to any neurochemical buzz that signals "relief.". Scientists saw this recently when they compared the effects of amphetamine on two types of voles: pair-bonding prairie voles, and promiscuous montane voles. Dopamine rose significantly more in response to the drug use in the pair-bonding voles than in the voles who were not wired to seek long-term mates. The monogamous voles were inclined to find certain dopamine-based rewards more rewarding than their promiscuous vole cousins. In short, a lonely pair-bonder would have a greater risk of becoming an addict than would a mammal with no built-in urge to form a ...
True monogomy is atypical among animal species. The zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata, is an exception, renown for forming life-long monogamous relationships. We explored the extent of monogamy in a captive population of breeding zebra finches by determining the rate of extra-pair fertilizations (EPFs). Six pairs of finches were placed in a large flight cage and daily observations established pair-bond formation, nest building, and incubation behaviors. Zebra finches provide biparental care, and our observations revealed five established male-female pairs and one group of three (two males and a female). Both males and females vigorously guard and defend the nest, but males also engage in mate-guarding, protecting his female from the attentions of nearby males. If no EPFs occur, all eggs within a given nest should be those belonging to a specific, identifiable, pair of birds. EPFs are detected when the expected female is the mother but a different male is revealed as the father. Egg dumping is a ...
A small, brightly colored, restless honeycreeper of montane Hawaiian rain forests, the Akepa is unusual in morphology, plumage, and behavior. Perhaps its most noteworthy character is a lateral asymmetry of the bill: the lower mandible is curved to one side, an extremely rare trait in birds. The Akepa uses this unusual bill to pry open leaf and flower buds in search of arthropod prey in a manner similar to that of crossbills (Loxia spp.) opening conifer cones.. Another interesting feature of this species is that males exhibit delayed plumage maturation and do not acquire Definitive (adult) plumage until after their second breeding season. Such a long delay in plumage maturation is unusual for a 10- to 12-g bird.. The nonterritorial Akepa has low annual reproductive output, high annual survivorship, and large group displays by males that are reminiscent of leks, even though the Akepa is socially monogamous, with long-term pair bonds and biparental care. The only close relative of the Akepa is ...
A)s our forebears adopted life on the dangerous ground, pair-bonding became imperative for females and practical for males. And monogamy - the human habit of forming a pair-bond with one individual at a time - evolved." (Helen Fisher 2004: 131). …. "Several types of evidence suggest our pre-agricultural (prehistoric) ancestors lived in groups where most mature individuals would have had several ongoing sexual relationships at any given time. Though often casual, these relationships were not random or meaningless. Quite the opposite: they reinforced crucial social ties holding these highly interdependent communities together." (Chris Ryan & Cacilda Jethá 2010: 9-10). …. "We are not a classic pair-bonded species. We are not a polygamous, tournament species either…. What we are, officially, … is a tragically confused species." (Robert Sapolsky). ….. .. The above three quotations were selected to illustrate the range of views that exist on the evolution of human sexual and mating ...
The Carolina Wren is an energetic, generalist species that frequents homes and gardens, as well as wilder habitats. Found mainly in the eastern United States and Central America, it is most common in the southern US where every patch of woods seems to be inhabited by this nervous, often shy permanent resident. A small bird with rusty upperparts, cinnamon underparts, a distinct white eye-stripe, and a loud and varied repertoire, it is more likely to be heard than seen. Males and females are identical in plumage, but males are often slightly heavier and have longer bills, wings, and legs.. Insects and spiders make up the bulk of this wrens diet. Although they generally feed on or near the ground, foraging individuals sometimes climb trunks and branches like a creeper (Certhia) or nuthatch (Sitta). A strongly philopatric species, the Carolina Wren maintains territories and pair bonds year-round. Both sexes help build the nest, which is usually domed and within 1 or 2 m of the ground. In natural ...
Mating strategies vary between species, populations, individuals, and even within an individual. For instance, an individual might use different strategies to maximise its fitness when it is old, compared to when it is young. In most bird species, both females and males engage in copulations outside their pair bond (extra-pair copulations). Extra-pair males are commonly older males. However, whether older males get better at outcompeting younger rivals (the observed effect takes place within an individual) or are simply the ones that live longest (the observed effect arises through cross-sectional comparison between individuals) remains to be clarified. In my PhD, I use an experimental breeding design in a captive population of house sparrows, as well as a long-term dataset from a wild population to study the occurrence of extra-pair offspring and its interaction with parental age. I compare the fitness of within- and extra-pair offspring associated with parental age, quantify fitness ...
Source: Gene treatment stops frisky voles being love rats, 17-06-2004 Not done on human yet. When the brains of male meadow voles, usually the most promiscuous of lovers, are enhanced with a gene called the vasopressin receptor, they instantly reform their loose ways and form lasting pair bonds instead. Because vasopressin is also active in…
We all can and do feel judgmental about people who have affairs. We realize that they are doing it out of powerful desires, but judge these people for not constraining their desires. The fact is that if people didnt actively constrain themselves, monogamy would be a joke. The only thing natural about monogamy is that it reflects the pair-bond, the deep mutual attachment that can form when two people fall in love. But the trouble is that, in many cases, love doesnt last, and it can be overridden by new attractions. Thats why the group had to come together and make a collective commitment, simultaneously creating the social institution of monogamy and the first moral system. My guess is that initially it was simply an agreement to control violence, and allow for pair-bonding and social stability, and the initiators had no idea of the positive consequences that would ensue. ...
Why are older male birds more successful at fertilizing eggs? The study Senescent sperm performance in old male birds found that obstacles to sperm movement in a female birds reproductive tract affected older males less than younger males. I would love to see research on the role that skill and pair bonds play in sperm retention (I am defining skill as actions taken by the male to assure a high degree of receptivity in his partner). We know that at least some female birds are able to preferentially reject the sperm of less desirable males, that female birds who mate with familiar males often produce more fertilized eggs with more egg mass than those who mate with novel males, and that the success of novel mating is highly dependent on male behavior. Reproduction is clearly much more complicated than we used to think, and it is obviously past time to drop the pejorative term bird-brained ...
One thing I found rather interesting is that Japanese Badgers have a polygynandrous breeding system. This means that both the males and the females will mate with multiple partners throughout the year. Unlike their close European cousins, they do not even form pair bonds to rear the offspring-- females do that duty alone. They actually will mate at all times of the year, but the females are luckily able to delay implantation so that her cubs are only born during the favorable spring season. Another fun fact? Female offspring will stay with their mothers for up to 14 months, but males will hang around for more than two years! Outside of mother/offspring groups the Japanese Badgers are solitary, more so than other Badger species ...
Eudorae mate for life. An Eudore pair stimulate each other through pheromones to transform the posterior portion of their bodies into an epitoke - a length of segments dedicated to reproduction. Eudorae have distinct sexes. The epitoke of the female will be filled with eggs and that of the male with sperm. When the epitokes are fully developed, they will detach from the rest of the body, seek each other out, spawn, and die. This usually occurs in the nest chamber, allowing the eggs to be collected and brooded, but occasionally epitokes will get lost (or be released when a pair bond is disrupted), and may fertilize each other in the open sea. The size, and thus the fecundity, of the epitokes depends on the population density of Eudorae the parents are exposed to. In crowded environs, the epitokes may be mere centimeters long and result in only one or two viable eggs. Eudore pioneers, on the other hand, may produce broods of hundreds. After spawning, Eudore re-grow their tails ...
... uses human structures to help in its territorial drumming. It seems to suffer no ill effects of whacking its bill on metal, the bird returns to it day after day. Yellow-bellied Sapsucker is a migratory bird. Females tend to migrate farther south than do males. Courtship displays are performed at the site of excavation. During these flights, we can hear a "winnowing" sound. Other ritual consists of tapping to strengthen pair bonds: male taps on a tree and female responds with a similar tap. To attract a potential mate, male and female raise the head to show their throats patches, red for male and white for female. They raise their crest and shake their head to display aggression ...
A pair of Crested Screamers will typically remain together monogamously for a few breeding seasons. Sometimes the pair bond will even last for a lifetime. (Which is about 15 years) The couple will build a huge nest in an area near water. This nest may be used multiple times over the years, and is vigorously defended. Up to seven eggs are laid, and the hatchlings leave the nest and are able to feed on their own very shortly after birth. After only 3 months they will leave their parents and join groups of other young, non-breeding birds ...
Concerning emotional intimacy, It is likely that emotional intimacy and attachment between men and women was selected as it solved the adaptive problem of forming long term pair bonds, especially for humans who can "move around" and thereby more likely to seek sex with others. However is emotional intimacy with opposite sex partnering the same as that for same sex partnering? My guess is that nature would have selected an emotional intimacy between opposite sex mating partners, and probably emotional intimacy between same sex friends (irreplaceable friends?), BUT these two kinds of emotional intimacy serve different functions and to me they probably evolved in different contexts and exists differently. It is hard to imagine being attracted to a same sex friend because of the possibility of emotional attachment, when this can be experienced in the context of friendship. Thus my question is, are we looking at emotional intimacy per se, or emotional intimacy in certain context? That is, does ...
Ammonia NH3 contains 3 electron pair bonds (N-H) and one lone pair, represented on the model I made below as the empty tip of the pyramid shape. The blue centre represents Nitrogen, and the 3 white bits are Hydrogen. The pyramidal shape is a result of the electron pairs (bonded and lone) repelling each other.…
Gay Forums - A guy I'm seeing told me that he thinks men are not wired to be sexually monogamous....that our natural state is to pair bond emotionally, but we can not resist
Game Theory: Thomas Schelling highlighted the benefits of being irrational, because if you convince other countries you will blow the world up if they launch an atomic bomb at you, you actually deter their use of the bomb. Committing to an irrational response, is rational. In a similar way, prudish mores about sex can make everyone in society better off, because without stigma and shame of having sex outside a pair-bond, theres massive sexual inequality and lower parental investment. Consider that monogamy is good for beta or omega males, because that keeps alpha males with only one female. But if sexual morality becomes unpopular, serial monogamy (aka one-night stands) will be a dominant strategy for those with the highest value, because they can. Those with the most to gain from such activity will do it most, further eroding the quaint stigma attached to casual sex, encouraging more of it. Those with low value will try to have casual sex to signal they have higher value, leading to an ...
Notice the sequence when the newborn (Inti, a 2 months old male) climbs onto the back of another female (Santi): he is first sitting on his mothers back and looks into the face of Santi before climbing on her back. Although he is still very young and clumsy, he is willing to leave his mother for another individual. This might seem surprising, but Santi is a childless female who spends a lot of time sitting next to Intis mother, Sylvie, and engaging Inti in various interactions (lipsmacking, grooming, etc). Worth pointing out is the fact that Santi and Sylvie are sisters.. Hrdys hypothesis goes further as she proposes that, in humans, alloparental care is the evolutionary precursor of mind reading capacities. This more controversial hypothesis could gain further support if cooperative breeding species of monkeys showed more developed capacities for mind reading capacities than non-human apes. To my knowledge, mind reading capacities in monkeys have not been thoroughly tested, maybe because ...
In this study, we are able to show that for mammals: (i) allomaternal care exhibits a strong phylogenetic signal, as do relatedness and group size to a more moderate extent; (ii) species with allomaternal care live in groups that are on average smaller than species without allomaternal care; (iii) there is a negative association between relatedness and group size, but only for species with allomaternal care; and (iv) species with allomaternal care that live in small groups do so in groups that consist of more related individuals relative to species without allomaternal care with similar group sizes.. The strong phylogenetic signal for allomaternal care found here means that closely related taxa are more similar in this behaviour than distantly related taxa, which is rather exceptional for a behavioural trait [7]. This indicates that the evolutionary transition from independent to cooperative breeding (and vice-versa) is not straightforward. This may be because the evolution of social monogamy ...
The evolution of monogamy has long been debated within the scientific community. Two new studies examine why mammals may have evolved to stick with their mates.
In a previous post (link) the bold claim was made that there is no biological predisposition towards human monogamy, but instead what drives us toward monogamy-like mating system is culture. There seem to be several independent lines of evidence that supports my position.. ...
The shift away from polygamy to monogamy with the dawn of agriculture could be down to the impact of sexually transmitted infections in communities By Nicola
This is the fourth part on the evolution of human mating behavior, comparing evidence for promiscuity and pair-bonding in our species. Please see the introduction here. ____________________________________________________________________ … We left off with a list of eight traits in humans suggesting promiscuity in humans. Admittedly, the previous post was a little thick, as it dealt…
Or ask yourself this question, are humans actually meant to reproduce then move on and reproduce with another mate? why do some organisms mate, and then part company? why do others stay together for life? Genetic diversity? Security? serial monogamy should that be the way? I think it was Joan Rivers the comedian who I heard say once Men think monogamy is a piece of timber ...
we used to be good at these kinds of thought thread in FYM -- so this is meant to be non-political, though the personal is always on some level political. anyway ... Sex at Dawn
when i look at marraige about 50 years ago, it made sense a woman would take care of the household and the children. the man would be expected to...
Sprawdź ile zapłacisz za lek Duet DHA 400 w aptece, znajdź tańsze zamienniki leku. Określ swoje uprawnienia i sprawdź jakie zniżki Ci przysługują.
They may be worlds (and octaves) apart, but this duet between the highest and lowest member of the clarinet family works surprisingly well.
In Duets, Gwyneth Paltrow plays a kindhearted if not very bright woman in her 20s who meets the father she has never known and upends her life to be with him, even though he doesnt want her
This study compared the effects of centrally administered oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) on partner preference formation and social contact in male and female prairie votes (Microtus ochrogaster). After 1 hr of cohabitation and pretreatment with either AVP or OT, both males and females exhibited increased social contact and significant preference for the familiar partner. After pretreatment with either an OT receptor antagonist (OTA) or an AVP (V1a) receptor antagonist (AVPA), neither OT nor AVP induced a partner preference.
The authors investigated the effects of postnatal manipulations of oxytocin (OT) on the subsequent tendency to form a partner preference in male prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Neonatally, males received either an injection of OT, an oxytocin antagonist (OTA), 0.9% saline vehicle, or handling without injection. As adults, males were tested for partner preference
1.1 The monogamous prairie vole. Monogamous (prairie vole) versus Polygynous (all others -- ex. meadow vole) WHY?. 1.2 The brain of the prairie vole is a complex, highly organized machine. Vasopressin - large number of receptors (V1a) in Ventral pallium - (emotion and memory)...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular variation in AVP and AVPR1a in New World monkeys (primates, platyrrhini). T2 - Evolution and implications for social monogamy. AU - Ren, Dongren. AU - Chin, Kelvin R.. AU - French, Jeffrey A.. PY - 2014/10/31. Y1 - 2014/10/31. N2 - The neurohypophysial hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays important roles in fluid regulation and vascular resistance. Differences in AVP receptor expression, particularly mediated through variation in the noncoding promoter region of the primary receptor for AVP (AVPR1a), may play a role in social phenotypes, particularly social monogamy, in rodents and humans. Among primates, social monogamy is rare, but is common among New World monkeys (NWM). AVP is a nonapeptide and generally conserved among eutherian mammals, although a recent paper demonstrated that some NWM species possess a novel form of the related neuropeptide hormone, oxytocin. We therefore characterized variation in the AVP and AVPR1a genes in 22 species representing every ...
In their study, Yerkes and CBN post-doctoral fellow Miranda M. Lim, PhD, and Yerkes researcher Larry J. Young, PhD, of the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Emory University s School of Medicine and the CBN, attempted to determine whether differences in vasopressin receptor levels between prairie and meadow voles could explain their opposite mating behaviors. Previous studies of monogamous male prairie voles, which form lifelong social or pair bonds with a single mate, determined the animals brains contain high levels of vasopressin receptors in one of the brain s principal reward regions, the ventral pallidum. The comparative species of vole, the promiscuous meadow vole, which frequently mates with multiple partners, lacks vasopressin receptors in the ventral pallidum ...
The role of oxytocin at the interface of stress and social behavior in the socially monogamous prairie vole Yee and colleagues examined the role of oxytocin at the interface of stress and social behavior in the socially monogamous prairie vole.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether pretreatment with oxytocin could mimic the effects of social contact and enhance sexual receptivity in female prairie voles. Female prairie voles req...
Maybe Im jumping too quickly to put two and two together but juxtaposing the description of the effect of Smiths Nambian root with the actions of oxytocin, I cant but wonder if there is some connection. There are numerous examples of other plants which contain hormones. Could this root contain oxytocin or could something in it stimulate oxytocin release in people? Food for thought, eh?. Here is concise but partial summary of oxytocins actions in the brain from Wikipedia:. 1. Sexual arousal. Oxytocin injected into the cerebrospinal fluid causes spontaneous erections in rats, reflecting actions in the hypothalamus and spinal cord. 2. Bonding. In the Prairie Vole, oxytocin released into the brain of the female during sexual activity is important for forming a monogamous pair bond with her sexual partner. Vasopressin appears to have a similar effect in males. In people, plasma concentrations of oxytocin have been reported to be higher amongst people who claim to be falling in love. Oxytocin has ...
Dr Young has found that one difference between monogamous prairie voles and promiscuous montane voles is in the distribution of vasopressin and oxytocin receptors in the brain. His hypothesis is that if the receptors are not expressed in certain areas, then smell and sex will no longer coordinate to form social memory. Hence, when a montane vole mates, it does not form a lasting bond with its partner and is therefore unrestrained when encountering a different potential mate. (This hypothesis is strongly supported by a wealth of pharmacological and genetic data, which I wont go into-unless asked ...
Lets start by talking about gay marriage for a sec. Does any one really, really give a fuck? Seriously. Oh, its going to be mandatory. Thats different. Oh, you were kidding; back to my original point.. Kah-lee-fohnia had a State Supreme Court ruling that opened the door to fully equal rights for same-sex marriage. In my opinion ho-and-indeed-hum. Im married and I dont think that the ruling would affect anyone in my potential dating pool anyway, so.... The usual intellectual featherweights with pretensions of being lightweights have said the usual crap about overturning the will of the people or inventing rights out of whole cloth, or activist judges. The real issue is not adding a right to gay marriage; its ending the restriction of the right of two consenting adults to form a legally recognized pair bond. Remember, this has no bearing on the religious institution of marriage - under freedom of religion provision in pretty much every western country religious practices cannot be coerced or ...
Language, intelligence, and humor, along with art, generosity, and musical ability, are often described as human equivalents of the peacocks tail. However, peacocks afford a poor analogy for the role of courtship displays in humans. Other animal models offer a better fit. In a number of nonhuman species - species as diverse as sea dragons and grebes - males and females engage in a mutual courtship "dance," in which the two partners mirror one anothers movements. In Clarks grebes and Western grebes, for instance, the pair bond ritual culminates in the famous courtship rush: The male and female swim side by side along the top of the water, with their wings back and their heads and necks in a stereotyped posture. If we want a nonhuman analogue for the role of creative intelligence or humor in human courtship, we should think not of ornamented peacocks displaying while drab females evaluate them. We should think instead of grebes engaged in their mating rush or sea dragons engaged in their ...
The neuropeptide Arginine vasopressin (AVP), also known as argipressin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH), is a hormone found in humans. It is mainly released when the body is low on water; it stimulates water reabsorption in the kidneys. It performs diverse actions when released in the brain, and has been implicated in memory formation, aggression, blood pressure regulation, and temperature regulation. Similar vassopressins are found in other mammalian species.. In recent years, there has been particular interest in the role of vasopressin in social behavior. It is thought that vasopressin, released into the brain during sexual activity, initiates and sustains patterns of activity that support the pair-bond between the sexual partners; in particular, vasopressin seems to induce the male to become aggressive towards other males. Evidence for this connection comes from experimental studies on several species which indicate that the precise distribution of vasopressin and vasopressin receptors in the ...
Sex can be a motivating factor for any number of causes, but could it be the basis for pair bonding? Researchers recently argued that the loss of penis "spikes" would have allowed for longer instances of intercourse, which would have aided in the emergence of social monogamy. However, in the latest installment of the PDEx tour, Eric Michael Johnson raises some issues with this argument and demonstrates that there is no correlation between penis spikes and primate mating systems ...
Slide show has 52 slides These coming-of-age young adults appear to be forming a pair-bond. Their interactions here involve a push-pull dance of enticement, interactions, attempts and denial. Its mating time, and the dance will be performed until the bond is solid and mating takes place. It was dark, so I just kept clicking away at the…
Species differences in ligand binding to Avpr1a have been associated with variation in a polymorphic microsatellite in the non-coding 5′-flanking region of the vole Avpr1a locus (Hammock et al., 2005; Hammock and Young, 2004; Hammock and Young, 2005). Furthermore, differences in microsatellite structure within the prairie vole species have been associated with variation in pair-bonding behavior between individual animals (Hammock and Young, 2002; Hammock and Young, 2004). The proximal 5′-flanking region of the Avpr1a gene is not the only factor to direct species-typical expression profiles as transgenic mice in which homologous recombination was used to replace 3.5 kb of the murine Avpr1a proximal 5′-flanking region with the homologous prairie vole sequence expressed Avpr1a largely in a mouse pattern, indicating that more distal chromosomal elements are necessary to confer species-specific expression patterns (Donaldson and Young, 2013).. As in rodents, analogous polymorphic regions ...
In the article by Dawn A. Thompson and Franklin W. Stahl (Genetics 153: 621-641) entitled "Genetic Control of Recombination Partner Preference in Yeast Meiosis: Isolation and Characterization of Mutants Elevated for Meiotic Unequal Sister-Chromatid Recombination," the following amendments and changes should be noted.. A dmc1::LEU2 mutant was erroneously assigned to class II due to a mislabeling. Re-examination of the phenotypes of a newly constructed dmc1::LEU2 mutant revealed that the frequency of SCR was elevated as reported but that the strain did not have the dominant meiotic lethal phenotype. In studies aimed at elucidating the physiological basis for the SCR phenotype in class II mutants, we constructed full deletions of a number of them (inp52, yml128c, ylr219w, pet122), selecting for LEU2 and for drug-resistance substitutions. We were unable to demonstrate reproducibly the SCR phenotype for any of these constructs. In addition, the SCR phenotype of LEU2 substitution mutants at the INP52, ...