PMID: 22558610 Aims: To investigate the influence of noxious stimulation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) on conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and the possible influence of gender on such CPM effects in the craniofacial region of humans. Methods: Twenty healthy men and 20 healthy women participated in two sessions. Conditioning stimulation (CS) was standardized mechanical stimulation of pericranial muscles at a pain level of 5 on a 0 to 10 visual analog scale (VAS). Intra-articular electrical stimuli were applied to the left TMJ with an intensity around VAS = 5 (painful session). No electrical stimulation was applied in the control session. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and pressure pain tolerance threshold (PPTol) were used as responses to pressure (test) stimuli and were assessed in the right masseter muscle and left forearm before and during TMJ stimulation in addition to the CS (during, immediately after, and 10 minutes after CS). PPT and PPTol were analyzed by multilevel analysis of ...
Indian Journal of Clinical Anatomy and Physiology-IJCAP-Print ISSN No:-2394-2118 Online ISSN No:-2394-2126Article DOI No:-10.18231/2394-2126.2018.0112,Gender differences on pain threshold, body temperature and reaction time among elderly population after alternate nostril breathing exercises-A comparative study-IP Inno
Spexin is a central modulator of nociception. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of intra-hippocampal CA3 (IHCA3) injection of spexin and spexin-progesterone co-administration on pain sensitivity in ovariectomized rat. Thirty-five adult female rats were divided into five groups. Sham: the animals received injection of 0.5 μL ACSF by IHCA3. Experiments 1 and 2: the animals received injection of 0.5 μL of spexin bilaterally (10 and 30 nmol/rat respectively). Experiments 3 and 4: the animals received injection of 0.5 μL of spexin bilaterally (10 and 30 nmol/rat respectively) + subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of progesterone (5 mg/kg). Ovariectomy was performed in all groups to eliminate the effects of cyclic changes in the female rats. The formalin test (formalin 2.5%) was performed following the administration of spexin and progesterone. Results showed that bilateral injection of spexin in IHCA3 at both concentrations a significant (P < .05) decrease in the pain ...
A decrease in mechanical pressure pain thresholds,particularly over pre-designated tender points, is one of thedefining characteristics of f
Accumulating evidence points to sex differences in pain sensitivity and many chronic pain conditions preferentially affect women. Sex hormones, and in particular estrogens, have been shown to affect pain processing and pain sensitivity in animals, although the findings are divergent. The aim of the research on which this thesis is based was to examine the effect of gonadal hormones on the sensation of pain in women who either presented normal variations in hormonal levels over time or who had been given hormone treatment.. Different quantitative sensory tests (QST) examining temperature thresholds, cold, heat and pressure pain thresholds, as well as tolerance thresholds for heat and cold, were performed during different hormonal conditions: During hormonal fluctuations throughout the ovulatory cycle (papers I, II); in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF), a treatment associated with extremely low and high 17β-estradiol levels (paper III); and before and after hormonal substitution ...
Musculoskeletal pain in the low back and neck-shoulder regions is a major problem among the working population all over the world. The prevalence of musculoskeletal pain is found to be higher among women. Women also have lower pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) than men. Pressure pain topography aims at mapping the spatial distribution of PPT within a muscle in an attempt to track changes in mechanical sensitivity. In order to assess gender differences in the pain topography, it is necessary to map the distribution in both healthy men and women. The aim of this study was to assess PPT maps from the cervico-thoracic and lumbar regions in men and women. Eleven men and eleven women without any known musculoskeletal disorders participated in the study. PPT was measured twice at 36 points over the trapezius muscle of the dominant arm, at 36 points over the trapezius muscle on the contralateral side and at 12 points over the spine between the left and right trapezius. Further, 11 points were measured over the
Triathletes and ironman triathletes participate in an extremely intense sport that involves hours of considerable pain, in addition to physical and psychological stress, every day. The basic pain modulation properties of these athletes has not been established and for this reason it is not clear whether they present with unique features that make it possible for them to engage in such efforts. This studys goal was to investigate the existence of possible alterations in pain perception and modulation of triathletes, in addition to possible underlying factors. 19 triathletes and 17 non-athletes who underwent measurement of pain threshold, pain tolerance, suprathreshold perceived pain intensity, temporal summation of pain, and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) participated in the study. Participants also completed the fear of pain and the pain catastrophizing questionnaires, and rated the amount of perceived stress. Triathletes exhibited higher pain tolerance (P,.0001), lower pain ratings ...
Chronic widespread pain and fibromyalgia often coexist with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and affects mostly women. Studies have shown lower pressure pain thresholds (PPT) in these patients indicating that hyperalgesia is involved. The aim for this study was to investigate the effect of topical anesthesia on PPT for jaw muscles in patients with widespread pain. The hypothesis was that the PPT in these patients would increase after applying topical anesthetic cream. Ten women (aged 25-64 years, median: 50 years) diagnosed with TMD associated with widespread pain, reported from at least three different anatomical sites apart from the jaw region and pain to palpation according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria 1990, were included in the study. The double blind randomized trial was based on measurements of PPT with an Algometer before and after the application of anesthetic cream (EMLA) or placebo cream. The chosen measurement sites were the anterior part of the temporal muscle ...
Materials and Methods: In this study, a total of 100 medical students (male 57 and female 43) were participated. The cold pressor test was used to give pain as noxious stimuli. Respiratory parameters (respiratory rate and vital capacity) and pain sensitivity parameters (pain rating using visual analog scale, pain tolerance, and pain threshold) were measured. Results: Respiratory reactivity in response to experimental pain applied by cold pressor test in both sexes was not found significant in this study. Second, we found no remarkable correlation between respiratory system and pain sensitivity in both sexes ...
From a methodologic viewpoint, it is difficult in clinical trials to differentiate short-term tolerance from an exaggerated postoperative pain, both of them requiring exaggerated morphine consumption for their relief. Conversely, in the absence of verbal reports in animals, classic measurements of nociceptive thresholds as used in most of the experimental studies allowed assessment of only a pain sensitivity level, not a spontaneous pain level, in the absence of experimental nociceptive stimuli. Therefore, an enhancement in experimental pain sensitivity does not necessarily mean that there is spontaneous pain.29 In fact, a decrease in nociceptive threshold values in animals means only that there is an exaggerated vulnerability to nociceptive inputs. To address this difficulty, we used in rats a test enabling us to quantify spontaneous postural changes reflecting spontaneous pain by independently measuring the weight that the animal applies on each hind paw after a unilateral hind paw tissue ...
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METHODS: Eighteen patients with painful diabetic polyneuropathy underwent 2 consecutive 12-week periods of treatment either in the sequence of saline (control) and then BoNT/A (SB cohort, n=9) or BoNT/A followed by saline (BS cohort, n=9). Sensory perception was assessed according to the tactile threshold [TT, logarithmized force (g) of von Frey filaments] and mechanical pain threshold [PT, logarithmized weight (g) of weighted syringes], both being averages from 4 individual measurements of bilateral medial and lateral feet obtained at baseline (before injections) and at weeks 1, 4, 8, and 12 after treatment ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Assessment of CPM reliability. T2 - quantification of the within-subject reliability of 10 different protocols. AU - Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke. AU - Petersen, Kristian Kjær. AU - Mørch, Carsten Dahl. AU - Imai, Yosuke. AU - Arendt-Nielsen, Lars. PY - 2018/10/25. Y1 - 2018/10/25. KW - conditioned pain modulation. KW - cuff algometry. KW - pain sensitivity. KW - pain threshold. KW - pain tolerance. KW - reliability. KW - test-retest. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85050669959&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1515/sjpain-2018-0087. DO - 10.1515/sjpain-2018-0087. M3 - Journal article. VL - 18. SP - 729. EP - 737. JO - Scandinavian Journal of Pain. JF - Scandinavian Journal of Pain. SN - 1877-8860. IS - 4. ER - ...
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JSH-23 is a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) nuclear translocation inhibitor. JSH-23 inhibits LPS and cytokine-induced nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-kB as analyzed by EMSA and western blot. JSH-23 treatment significantly reversed the nerve conduction and nerve blood flow deficits seen in diabetic animals. Reduction in mechanical pain threshold was also partially corrected by the treatment. Protein expression studies showed that nuclear translocation of p65/p50 subunit was inhibited by JSH-23 treatment in the sciatic nerve..
The freeMD virtual doctor has found 1 condition that can cause Chest Pressure Pain and Tingling of the Arm. There is 1 rare condition that can cause Chest Pressure Pain and Tingling of the Arm.
What is clear is that [Castillo] sustained an injury far beyond what his body could tolerate, no matter how much degree of injury was delivered," he added.. Yolo said Castillo must have died "a slow and painful death.". "My tolerance of the degree of pain is different from others and may not necessarily reflect a scale similar to the degree of pain [that] Castillo experienced," he said.. Body tolerance is dependent on many factors such as age, physical stature, gender and conditions such as heart diseases, said Yolo.. Pain threshold is the minimum intensity at which a person begins to perceive, or sense, a stimulus as being painful. Pain tolerance, is the maximum amount, or level, of pain a person can tolerate or bear.. The threshold for pain can differ between men and women, and can uctuate based on many other factors.. Pain researchers believe regular exposure to painful stimuli can increase ones pain tolerance.. Some individuals learn to handle pain by becoming more conditioned to it, ...
Thermal stimuli will be administered to the ventral surface of the dominant forearm and then to the lower abdomen (surgical site)using the Thermal Sensory Analyser. Each thermal testing trial will be separated by approximately 2 min and at a separate site.. To measure the thermal pain threshold temperature, The thermode will be applied to the ventral surface of the dominant forearm and the temperature will be increased at 1°C/s from 35 to 50°C.. To measure the Suprathreshold Thermal Pain Intensity and unpleasantness, Stimulus responses for noxious heat stimuli will be performed by applying phasic heat stimuli at 8 different temperatures (35, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, and 49°C). ...
Neuropathic or idiopathic pain patients will be assessed with the variety of pain tests including the conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and temporal summation (TS). Then, they will be offered on the double-blind design a several weeks treatment with either pregabalin or duloxetine. Patients will be followed-up weekly by phone for their pain relief and will be re-assessed in the lab toward the end of the treatment. The investigators suggest that patients with less-efficient CPM (deficient pain inhibition) will earn more pain relief from the treatment with duloxetine, while the patients with the enhanced pain summation will response better to pregabalin ...
Background Unrecognized myocardial infarction (MI) is a prevalent condition associated with a similar risk of death as recognized MI. It is unknown why some persons experience MI with few or no symptoms; however, one possible explanation is attenuated pain sensitivity. To our knowledge, no previous study has examined the association between pain sensitivity and recognition of MI. Methods and Results We conducted a population‐based cross‐sectional study with 4849 included participants who underwent the cold pressor test (a common experimental pain assay) and ECG. Unrecognized MI was present in 387 (8%) and recognized MI in 227 (4.7%) participants. Participants with unrecognized MI endured the cold pressor test significantly longer than participants with recognized MI (hazard ratio for aborting the cold pressor test, 0.64; CI, 0.47-0.88), adjusted for age and sex. The association was attenuated and borderline significant after multivariable adjustment. The association between unrecognized MI ...
How does pain present differently in older patients?How should pain be assessed in primary care?What is the key to providing adequate analgesia?
I have been a research assistant sins the fall of 2011 and have been responsible for various training programs including training patients with shoulder problems, patients with knee osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis patients for research. Moreover, I have performed various test on research participants; including gait-analysis, pain-threshold and functional tests. As part of my Master degree I did my own project about stretchings effect on pain sensitivity in healthy participants.. ...
29 alasan terbaik ⭐ Sudafed PE Pressure Pain and Mucus lebih baik: 1. Adalah antipiretik (pengurang demam): Yes 2. Ibuprofen: 0 3. Maksimal kapsul harian: 10
Arm, Central Sensitization, Elbow, Electronic, Hyperalgesia, Hypersensitivity, Inflammation, Leg, Measures, Outcome Measures, Pain, Pain Management, Pain Threshold, Pain Thresholds, Patients, Pressure, Sensitivity, Tourniquet, Women
AOL SPORTS, 13TH APRIL 2007 Everyone talks about the dangers open to the horses in a Grand National but rarely does anyone mention the men who mount them - the poor jockeys. AOL Sport sought the views of leading orthopaedic surgeon, Simon Moyes,... Read , ...
algometry definition: The measurement of susceptibility to pain. Additionally algesimetry.; measuring sensitiveness to pain or stress
The pain relief effect of opioids is induced by the synergy of two events, namely the reduction of pain threshold and emotional detachment from pain.
Duragesic MAT: Fentanyl belongs to a group of medications called opioids. Fentanyl is used to treat persistent chronic (long-term) moderate-to-severe pain for those who need constant pain relief and are currently taking other opioid (narcotic) medications. It acts on the brain to increase pain tolerance.
No two people have the same pain threshold; your sister could be in agony after disc surgery, while you could pop an aspirin and feel fine. Physical therapy or even behavioral therapy, which teaches you cognitive techniques to modify pain triggers, can also play a part of your pain management. Ask before accepting the prescription.. If you decide that opioids are the right choice for you, ask to be prescribed only what you will need, dont assume a refill will be necessary. If your pain persists, follow up with your doctor to discuss your options.. Never take home more than you need and make sure you store them in a secure place, out of the reach of others. According to the US Department of Health and Human Services Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration, 54% of young people using opioids report getting them from a friend or family.. And what do you do with leftovers? Dont keep them for the next time youre hurt or in pain, and never share them with others. Ask your pharmacist ...
Today was just a reminder that I have no control over whats going to happen to me on marathon day. The pain could be there. Well, it WILL be there...but it could be what I call unmanageable. As much as I want to, I cant predict if that will happen. If it doesnt...great. If it does...well, Ill do the best I can. I know I will finish. And Im pretty sure it will be with a semi-respectable time. But after today Im not holding myself to any time goal. Its too much pressure. If all I had to worry about was running hard, I could think about time and splits and pacing. The running hard isnt my worry--its dealing with that stabbing pain. And, no matter your pain tolerance, your body just says "Whoa....slow it down....this is bad for us." Ill just do what I can. So I dont want you all to expect me to put up any sort of time (can you tell Im used to striving for external validation?). If you track me, or if you are waiting on the edge of your seat to see what I ran...just know that, in this ...
Autistic women encounter unique challenges throughout the lifespan: Tips for professionals, family and employers to help women cope with hormonal changes, isolation and decreased pain tolerance.
If 5 ml syringes are employed, each rubber seal is 1.12 cm in diameter and therefore presents an area of 1 cm2.. To prevent air escaping from the syringe, push one of these rubber seals down the barrel of the syringe to its furthest extent. Reinsert an intact piston into this syringe. Air is now trapped in the barrel of the syringe between the two seals: the volume of air is progressively reduced by compression when the piston is pushed forcibly into the syringe.. A cable (zip) tie is used to form a loop around the external surface of the syringe cylinder. The geared surface of the tie is passed through its ratchet to form a loop around the syringe. Ensure the loop is tight enough to stay in one place when left alone but can still be slid manually up or down the cylinder when required. Remove excess tie material.. The base of the syringe piston is now pressed against a weighing scale to provide a given force of, for example, 1.5 kg.. While this force is being provided, the cable tie is slid over ...
If 5 ml syringes are employed, each rubber seal is 1.12 cm in diameter and therefore presents an area of 1 cm2.. To prevent air escaping from the syringe, push one of these rubber seals down the barrel of the syringe to its furthest extent. Reinsert an intact piston into this syringe. Air is now trapped in the barrel of the syringe between the two seals: the volume of air is progressively reduced by compression when the piston is pushed forcibly into the syringe.. A cable (zip) tie is used to form a loop around the external surface of the syringe cylinder. The geared surface of the tie is passed through its ratchet to form a loop around the syringe. Ensure the loop is tight enough to stay in one place when left alone but can still be slid manually up or down the cylinder when required. Remove excess tie material.. The base of the syringe piston is now pressed against a weighing scale to provide a given force of, for example, 1.5 kg.. While this force is being provided, the cable tie is slid over ...
This page contains the abstract Association Between Primary Dysmenorrhea and Pain Threshold at the Thoracolumbar Junction http://www.chiro.org/research/ABSTRACTS/Association_Between_Primary_Dysmenorrhea.shtml
Pain tolerance is the maximum level of pain that a person is able to tolerate. Pain tolerance is distinct from pain threshold (the point at which pain begins to be felt). The perception of pain that goes in to pain tolerance has two major components. First is the biological component-the headache or skin prickling that activates pain receptors. Second is the brains perception of pain-how much focus is spent paying attention to or ignoring the pain. The brains perception of pain is a response to signals from pain receptors that sensed the pain in the first place. Clinical studies by the journal of Psychosomatic Medicine found that "men had higher pain thresholds and tolerances and lower pain ratings than women" when they are exposed to cold pressor pain. The study asked participants to submerge their hands in ice water (the cold pressor pain procedure) and told members of the experimental group (as opposed to the control group) that they would be compensated financially for keeping their hand ...
BACKGROUND: Correlations between clinical and quantitative measures of pain sensitivity are poor, making it difficult for clinicians to detect people with pain sensitivity. Clinical detection of pain sensitivity is important because these people have a different prognosis and may require different treatment. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between clinical and quantitative measures of pain sensitivity across individuals with and without neck pain. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 40 participants with chronic neck pain and 40 age- and sex-matched controls. Participants underwent quantitative sensory testing of cold pain thresholds (CPTs) and pressure pain thresholds (PPTs). Clinical tests for pain sensitivity were the ice pain test and the pressure pain test. All tests were undertaken at standardized local (neck and upper trapezius muscles) and remote (wrist and tibialis anterior muscles) sites. Median and interquartile range (IQR) were ...
Patellofemoral Pain (PFP) is highly prevalent among adults and adolescents. Localized mechanical hyperalgesia around the knee and tibialis anterior have been observed in people with PFP, but limited knowledge of potential manifestations of central sensitisation exists. The aims of this study were to study conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and wide-spread hyperalgesia in adults with PFP. This assessor-blinded cross-sectional study design compared CPM and mechanical pressure pain thresholds (PPT) between 33 adults (23 females) diagnosed with PFP and 32 age and sex matched pain-free controls. The investigator taking the PPT measurements was blinded to which participants had PFP. PPTs were reliably measured using a Somedic hand-held pressure algometer at three sites: 1) The centre of the patella, 2) the tibialis anterior muscle and 3) a remote site on the lateral epicondyle. For the assessment of CPM, experimental pain was induced to the contralateral hand by immersion into a cold water bath ...
Despite an elusive pathophysiology, common characteristics are often observed in individuals with chronic low back pain (LBP). These include psychological symptoms, altered pain perception, altered pain modulation and altered muscle activation. These factors have been explored as possible determinants of disability, either separately or in cross-sectional studies, but were never assessed in a single longitudinal study. Therefore, the objective was to determine the relative contribution of psychological and neurophysiological factors to future disability in individuals with past LBP. The study included two experimental sessions (baseline and six months later) to assess cutaneous heat pain and pain tolerance thresholds, pain inhibition, as well as trunk muscle activation. Both sessions included the completion of validated questionnaires to determine clinical pain, disability, pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs and pain vigilance. One hundred workers with a history of LBP and 19 healthy ...
Pain Research and Management is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies focusing on laboratory and clinical findings in the field of pain research and the prevention and management of pain. The journal welcomes submissions in the areas of chronic pain, anaesthesia, dentistry and oral medicine, rheumatology, and drug development.
Study explores the impact of emotion-related autonomic nervous system responsiveness on pain sensitivity in fibromyalgia patients.
Abstract Aims The purpose of this study was to investigate potential gender differences in pain referral patterns induced by a tonic painful mechanical stimulus. Methods Forty-five healthy adults (22 women) participated in this study. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed at the infraspinatus, the brachioradialis and the gastrocnemius muscles on the dominant side, using handheld algometry. Following this, painful pressure at the infraspinatus muscle was induced using the algometer by rapidly increasing the pressure until it reached the level of 7 cm on VAS (PVAS7). This pressure was kept constant for 60s. Upon release, the subject was asked to indicate the area of the pressure-induced pain on a digital body chart. PPT values, PVAS7 and the pain area (number of pixels) were extracted for data analysis. Results No gender differences were found in PPT values (P >0.05). The pressure needed to reach 7 cm on the VAS was significantly lower in the female group (687.4±50.5 kPa) compared with males
Labour Pain essay. Order Details/Description. Work on the comments. attach the references you use in pdf format at the end of writing process.. Definition of Pain and Description of Labour Pain. Pain is defined as a bothering sensory feeling or emotional experience and is variably described as irritating, sore, stinging, aching, throbbing, or unbearable feeling (Patel 2010). There are two categories of pain, including nociceptive and neuropathic (Macintyre & Schug 2007). Macintyre and Schug (2007) explained these categories in detail. The first category is nociceptive pain-a common category reported in clinical settings. This type of pain occurs due to trauma, tissue damage or inflammation that stimulates sensory nerve endings called nociceptors. Intense peripheral nociceptive stimuli will increase excitability of the nervous spinal cord, leading to central sensitisation in the presence of subsequent pain stimuli, increased intensity and lower pain threshold. Macintyre and Schug (2007) also ...
When it comes to pain, guys may be tougher than gals because they have more of a particular type of protein, new research suggests. Two studies published online this week by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences implicate proteins known as GIRKs in sex-based differences in pain sensitivity in mice. The findings could help researchers develop new gender-specific treatments for discomfort. Previous research had shown that males tend to have a higher threshold for pain than females do and that medications affect the sexes differently, although the precise mechanism remained unclear. In the new work, scientists tested analgesic drugs on mice unable to produce the GIRK2 protein. Allan I. Basbaum of Rockefeller University and his colleagues found that male mutants had lower pain thresholds than normal male mice. Female mutants exhibited a tolerance comparable to that of their normal counterparts, however, suggesting that GIRK2 is responsible for sex differences in pain sensitivity. Male ...
I need to know if anyone has anything like I have and were you able to resolve this problem. 20 yrs. or so ago I was diagnosed with crohns and uc. 2 yrs. after my ileostomy surgery I started having awful rectal pressure pain and to this day 18 yrs later Im still in the same disabling pain. I have tried every treatment, probe, medicine, pain management,injection,etc. and also acupuncture. Nothing has helped me. I take darvon, but this does next to nothing. My bottom feels as though I have a 30 lb. weight pushing down causing great pressure pain. I would deeply appreciate any response from anyone. Surgery is not an option because they are afraid they might puncture something inside. Thanks to anyone taking the time to read my message. Yoani ...
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Objectives: To investigate whether distinct sensory phenotypes were identifiable in individuals with nonspecific arm pain (NSAP) and whether these differed from those in people with cervical radiculopathy. A secondary question considered whether the frequency of features of neuropathic pain, kinesiophobia, high pain ratings, hyperalgesia, and allodynia differed according to subgroups of sensory phenotypes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Higher education institution.Participants: Forty office workers with NSAP, 17 people with cervical radiculopathy, and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (N=97). Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures: Participants were assessed using quantitative sensory testing (QST) comprising thermal and vibration detection thresholds and thermal and pressure pain thresholds; clinical examination; and relevant questionnaires. Sensory phenotypes were identified for each individual in the patient groups using z-score transformation of the QST data. ...
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Methysergide has been shown, in vitro and in vivo, to inhibit or block the effects of serotonin, a substance which may be involved in the mechanism of vascular headaches. Serotonin has been variously described as a central neurohumoral agent or chemical mediator, as a "headache substance" acting directly or indirectly to lower pain threshold, as an intrinsic "motor hormone" of the gastrointestinal tract, and as a "hormone" involved in connective tissue reparative processes ...
Methysergide has been shown, in vitro and in vivo, to inhibit or block the effects of serotonin, a substance which may be involved in the mechanism of vascular headaches. Serotonin has been variously described as a central neurohumoral agent or chemical mediator, as a "headache substance" acting directly or indirectly to lower pain threshold, as an intrinsic "motor hormone" of the gastrointestinal tract, and as a "hormone" involved in connective tissue reparative processes ...