Pain and Pain Measurement Scales, 978-3-659-62722-4, This book provides an insight about pain and subjective scales that are used to measure pain. Fear of pain is the most vulnerable cause that deters most of the children from seeking dental care. Young children are often unable to explain the intensity of pain and therefore it is of utmost importance for the clinician to identify and measure the pain. Subjective pain measurement scales serve as an useful guide towards pain management in clinical situations and also provides a detailed database for research studies in pain measurement.
Looking for McGill Pain Questionnaire? Find out information about McGill Pain Questionnaire. at Montreal, Que., Canada; coeducational; chartered 1821, opened 1829. It was named for James McGill, who left a bequest to establish it. Its real... Explanation of McGill Pain Questionnaire
New guidelines for measuring pain in patients with rheumatic conditions recommend that clinicians use the Numeric Rating Scale for Pain (NRS Pain) for estimating patients pain intensity and the Short Form-36 Bodily Pain Scale (SF-36 BPS) for evaluating pain in the context of overall health status, says an article by Medscape Medical News based on a review published online last month in Arthritis Care & Research. The review, part of the journals special issue titled Patient Outcomes in Rheumatology, 2011, includes the Visual Analog Scale for Pain (VAS Pain), NRS Pain, McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), Chronic Pain Grade Scale (CPGS), SF-36 BPS, and Measure of Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain (ICOAP). Details on questionnaire content, ease of use, and measurement properties are included in the review of each questionnaire. The review also discusses the strengths and weaknesses of each questionnaire.. The authors also recommend the ...
New guidelines for measuring pain in patients with rheumatic conditions recommend that clinicians use the Numeric Rating Scale for Pain (NRS Pain) for estimating patients pain intensity and the Short Form-36 Bodily Pain Scale (SF-36 BPS) for evaluating pain in the context of overall health status, says an article by Medscape Medical News based on a review published online last month in Arthritis Care & Research. The review, part of the journals special issue titled Patient Outcomes in Rheumatology, 2011, includes the Visual Analog Scale for Pain (VAS Pain), NRS Pain, McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), Chronic Pain Grade Scale (CPGS), SF-36 BPS, and Measure of Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain (ICOAP). Details on questionnaire content, ease of use, and measurement properties are included in the review of each questionnaire. The review also discusses the strengths and weaknesses of each questionnaire.. The authors also recommend the ...
OBJECTIVE: Establishing a research agenda on standardizing pain measurement in clinical trials in rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMD).. METHODS: Discussion during a meeting at the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 2018, prepared by a systematic review of existing core outcome sets and a patient online survey.. RESULTS: Several key questions were debated: Is pain a symptom or a disease? Are pain core (sub)domains consistent across RMD? How to account for pain mechanistic descriptors (e.g., central sensitization) in pain measurement?. CONCLUSION: Characterizing and assessing the spectrum of pain experience across RMD in a standardized fashion is the objective of the OMERACT Pain Working Group. ...
OBJECTIVE: Establishing a research agenda on standardizing pain measurement in clinical trials in rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMD). METHODS: Discussion during a meeting at the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 2018, prepared by a systematic review of existing core outcome sets and a patient online survey. RESULTS: Several key questions were debated: Is pain a symptom or a disease? Are pain core (sub)domains consistent across RMD? How to account for pain mechanistic descriptors (e.g., central sensitization) in pain measurement? CONCLUSION: Characterizing and assessing the spectrum of pain experience across RMD in a standardized fashion is the objective of the OMERACT Pain Working Group.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pain measurement in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients: Behavioral Pain Scale versus Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool. AU - Rijkenberg, S.. AU - Stilma, W.. AU - Endeman, H.. AU - Bosman, R.J.. AU - van Straaten, H.M.. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. U2 - 10.1016/j.jcrc.2014.09.007. DO - 10.1016/j.jcrc.2014.09.007. M3 - Article. C2 - 25446372. VL - 30. SP - 167. EP - 172. JO - Journal of Critical Care. JF - Journal of Critical Care. SN - 0883-9441. IS - 1. ER - ...
Pain intensity is frequently measured on an 11-point pain intensity numerical rating scale (PI-NRS), where 0=no pain and 10=worst possible pain. However, it is difficult to interpret the clinical importance of changes from baseline on this scale (such as a 1- or 2-point change). To date, there are n …
Regardless of whether it is acute or chronic, the assessment of pain should be simple and practical. Since the intensity of pain is thought to be one of the primary factors that determine its effect on a humans overall function and sense, there are many scales to assess pain. The aim of the current article was to review pain intensity scales that are commonly used in dental and oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS). Previous studies demonstrated that multidimensional scales, such as the McGill Pain Questionnaire, Short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, and Wisconsin Brief Pain Questionnaire were suitable for assessing chronic pain, while unidimensional scales, like the Visual Analogue Scales (VAS), Verbal descriptor scale, Verbal rating scale, Numerical rating Scale, Faces Pain Scale, Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale (WBS), and Full Cup Test, were used to evaluate acute pain. The WBS is widely used to assess pain in children and elderly because other scales are often difficult to ...
Home , Papers , Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Norwegian Short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire-2 in Low Back-Related Leg Pain. ...
Read this full essay on Pain Assessment Tool for Postoperative Pain-week 12. Pain Assessment Tool for Postoperative PainAs mentioned earlier, Clark and Spear...
Running Head: Week 5Pain Assessment Tool for Postoperative Pain[Writer Name][Institute Name] Pain Assessment Tool for Postoperative PainIntroductionA study by Scott and Huskisson (1976) (N = 100) found no significant differences between the distri...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Can Multidimensional Pain Assessment Tools Help Improve Pain Outcomes in the Perianesthesia Setting?. AU - Petti, Emily. AU - Scher, Clara. AU - Meador, Lauren. AU - Van Cleave, Janet. AU - Reid, M. Carrington. PY - 2018/10/1. Y1 - 2018/10/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85053435757&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85053435757&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/j.jopan.2018.07.010. DO - 10.1016/j.jopan.2018.07.010. M3 - Article. VL - 33. SP - 767. EP - 772. JO - Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing. JF - Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing. SN - 1089-9472. IS - 5. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Small fibers, large impact. T2 - Quality of life in small-fiber neuropathy. AU - Bakkers, Mayienne. AU - Faber, Catharina G.. AU - Hoeijmakers, Janneke G J. AU - Lauria, Giuseppe. AU - Merkies, Ingemar S J. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Introduction: The impact of small-fiber neuropathy (SFN) on patients quality of life (QOL) has not been studied extensively. Our aim was to determine the impact of SFN on QOL and examine possible determinants. Methods: We examined a total of 265 patients diagnosed with SFN. The SFN Symptoms Inventory Questionnaire (SFN-SIQ), the pain Visual Analog Scale (VAS), and the generic SF-36 Health Survey were assessed. Regression studies were undertaken to evaluate determinants of functioning. Results: SFN patients demonstrated a severe overall reduction in QOL. The biggest deficits were in Role Functioning-Physical, Body Pain, and Physical Component Summary (PCS) scores. VAS scores, changed sweating pattern, dry mouth, and age were the strongest predictors ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pain relief scale is more highly correlated with numerical rating scale than with visual analogue scale in chronic pain patients. AU - Lee, Jae Jin. AU - Lee, Mi Kyoung. AU - Kim, Jung Eun. AU - Kim, Heezoo. AU - Park, Sang Hoon. AU - Tae, Jong Hyun. AU - Choi, Sang Sik. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - The pain relief scale (PRS) is a method that measures the magnitude of change in pain intensity after treatment. The present study aimed to evaluate the correlation between PRS and changes in pain determined by the visual analogue scale (VAS) and numerical rating scale (NRS), to confirm the evidence supporting the use of PRS. Sixty patients with chronic spinal pain that had a VAS and NRS recorded during an initial examination were enrolled in the study. One week later, the patients received an epidural nerve block, then VAS, NRS, and PRS assessments were performed. Differences between VAS and NRS were compared to the PRS and scatter plots and correlation coefficient were ...
Background: Pain measurement in nonverbal older adults is best based on behavioural observation, e.g. using an observational measurement tool such as Doloplus-2. The purposes of this study were to examine the use ...
in Douleur et Analgésie (2014), 27. This article aims to establish a profile of patients presenting with chronic pain in the algology service of CHU of Liège to identify possible relationships between diagnoses, psychological states and ... [more ▼]. This article aims to establish a profile of patients presenting with chronic pain in the algology service of CHU of Liège to identify possible relationships between diagnoses, psychological states and modes of pain management. Between 2005 and 2010 we monitored 1832 individual chronic pain patients who attended our pain clinic at the University Hospital of Liège. This paper presents the characteristics of these patients and their test scores before the treatment to assess their health status in a biopsychosocial perspective. Demographic and lifestyle as well as occupational factors, pain disability index, pain belief assessment, hospital anxiety and depression scale, SF-36 (Short Form Health Survey) and pain visual analogue scale are ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anaesthetists views of managing childrens pain post-surgery. AU - Simons, Joan. AU - Carter, Bernie. AU - Craske, Jennie. AU - Parry, Sarah. AU - Cole, Sally. AU - Bennett, Michelle. PY - 2017/12/31. Y1 - 2017/12/31. N2 - This study explored the views, knowledge and use of pain assessment tools of 185 anaesthetists working Europe via an e-survey, which included three scenarios of children with varying degrees of unresolved pain. Our findings were that the three most frequently used pain assessment tools were VAS, FLACC and FACES. Anaesthetists appear to value the judgement of both parents and nurses in assessing a childs pain, as they reported that in cases of uncertainty about a childs pain, they would ask the parent (n=88) or ask a nurse (n=81). Fewer than half used a pain assessment tool with most patients and some respondents were dismissive of the value of pain tools preferring to rely on common sense or clinical judgement. Opportunities were identified ...
Patients will be assessed for pain using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) Scale at set time points after surgery (0,1,2,4,8,12,16,20,24 hours post-operatively). The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scale was measured on a scale of 0 - 10 (0 = no pain, 1-3 = mild, 4-6 = moderate, 7-10 = severe). Higher values on the VAS represent a worse outcome. The two rows below report: 1. the average VAS score for the least amount of pain reported per group and 2. the average VAS score of the worst amount of pain reported per group ...
Sixty subjects with diagnostic of facet joint syndrome will be enrolled in the study.. They were randomized into experimental and control groups. The experimental group will be submitted to intra-articular infiltration of six facet joints. The control group will be submitted to intramuscular injection of six lumbar paravertebral points. After the randomization, all subjects will be assessed by an investigator blinded to the groups. The assessment will be taken just before the interventions (T0) and them 7 , 30 , 90 and 180 days after the interventions. The following assessment instruments will be used: pain visual analogical scale (VAS) (0-10cm), pain visual analogical scale during extension of the spine (VAS E) (0-10cm), Likert scale for improving (0-5), percentage scale of subjective improving perception(0-100%), Rolland-Morris questionnaire (0-24), short health survey questionnaire (SF36), accountability of medications taken for back pain: analgesics and non-steroidal antiinflammatories ...
Aim:. To determine the associations of patients documented self-rated pain with self-rated early postoperative physical recovery.. Design:. Observational with repeated measures.. Methods:. General and orthopaedic inpatients (N = 479) were during the period 2012-2015 screened for pain. Individual daily median pain scores at rest and during activity were based on 4-9 self-ratings on postoperative days 1 and 2, using the Numeric Rating Scale. Nine items reflecting physical recovery from the Postoperative Recovery Profile were used in a questionnaire.. Results:. Associations between median pain scores on postoperative day 1 and physical recovery (fatigue, sleeping difficulties, bladder function, mobilization, muscle weakness and personal hygiene) the same day were found. Additionally, associations were found between median pain scores on day 1 and physical recovery (fatigue, sleeping difficulties, mobilization and muscle weakness) on day 2.. ...
Brief Pain Inventory©: Cleeland CS. Measurement of pain by subjective report. In: Chapman CR, Loeser JD, editors. Issues in Pain Measurement. New York: Raven Press; pp. 391-403, 1989. Advances in Pain Research and Therapy; Vol. 12.. For further information: The Brief Pain Inventory (BPI)© from M. D. Andersons Department of Symptom Research ...
Reference Values of the Pain Disability Index in Patients With Painful Musculoskeletal and Spinal Disorders: A Cross-national Study ...
Are you experiencing spine, neck or back pain? Take our online pain assessment tool to self-diagnose your pain and start finding treatment options.
We have developed a neonatal pain assessment tool CRIES. The tool is a ten point scale similar to the APGAR score (Apgar 1953). It is an acronym of five physiological and behavioural variables previously shown to be associated with neonatal pain. C--Crying; R--Requires increased oxygen administratio …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Describing pain with physical disability. T2 - Narrative interviews and the McGill Pain Questionnaire. AU - Dudgeon, Brian J.. AU - Ehde, Dawn M.. AU - Cardenas, Diana D.. AU - Engel, Joyce M.. AU - Hoffman, Amy J.. AU - Jensen, Mark P.. N1 - Funding Information: Supported by the National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (grant no. 1PO1HD/NS33988). Funding Information: The sample with SCI was recruited primarily through the mailing list of the regional newsletter of the University of Washington Northwest Regional Spinal Cord Injury System, a comprehensive, interdisciplinary service delivery model system funded in part by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research. Notices were also placed in local clinics that serve patients with SCI and in the regional newsletter. PY - 2005/1. Y1 - 2005/1. N2 - Objectives To identify common pain descriptors used by ...
Objective: To determine the influence of a new intraarticular hyaluronic acid based hydrogel (Hymovis®) injections on the amount of analgesics consumption in patients diagnosed with primary knee OA.. Methods: A prospective, single-center study that included 35 patients, aged 45-80 years was conducted in our orthopaedics department. Patients received two intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid (24 mg/3 ml; 500-730 kDa; Hymovis®) at one week apart. Follow-up was scheduled at 2 and 6 months after the injections. Assessment tools included Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and an in-house designed questionnaire regarding analgesic consumption (quantity, period and product) during the follow-up.. Results: Compared to baseline, a significant amelioration in visual analogue scale was observed at six months follow-up (74.2mm ± 11.7 vs. 57.3mm ± 12.1; p ,.0001). 28% (n=10) of the patients reduced their total analgesic consumption at two months after the injections. At final follow-up, the analgesic ...
Background: The guidance of prospective therapists focused on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is most often made by groups of four students. However, learning therapist skills is a sensitive process that will be affected by the processes which occur within the group. Objective: The aim was to examine prospective psychotherapists attitudes to group assessments based on the revised version of the Cognitive Therapy Scale (CTS-R). Method: Participants were 56 students with an average age of 45.65 years (range = 31 - 64). They were recruited from psychotherapy training at the Gothenburg University and the Evidens University College in Sweden. A questionnaire was constructed in which the questions were answered by check on visual analogue scales (VAS). Results: A majority of students consisting of 38 participants (68%) had a very positive approach to group assessments, while a minority of 18 participants (32%) was more negative. Most crucial for how to answer the question of group assessments was whether
Introduction: Perception of pain and the need to treat it is highly variable, even amongst oncologists. Availability of pain specialists is an added advantage. This is an analysis of prescription patterns of pain medication and its outcome in cancer patients. Materials and Methods: The center has 8 oncologists and a pain and palliative care specialist. All the patients presenting to the outpatient department of our institute with a diagnosis of cancer were prospectively analyzed for usage of pain medication using a structured questionnaire. Data on diagnosis, stage, treatment given, and outcomes were analyzed. Pain intensity was recorded on visual analogue scale, types of pain medicines used, and their side effects were noted. The average cost of the pain medication purchased in our pharmacy was calculated. Use of alternative medicines was also noted. Results: A total of 1,098 cancer patients were evaluated. Pain was a prominent complaint in 64.6% of patients. Of these, only 89.5% received pain ...
Has anyone found an effective pain relief for female genital ulcers please? This symptom started about a year ago and I am currently experiencing a severe flair But neither my doctor or specialist...
Methods. We enrolled 62 patients (40 males and 22 females, with mean age of 30.1±9.3 ranging between 17 and 52 years affected by acute muscular injuries of different sites and severity. Fourty-three patients with a mean age of 30.5±9.9 received hyperthermia (group A) and the remaining 19 with a mean age of 28.2±8.2 (group B) ultrasound. Both groups received 8 applications, three times per week with a duration of 30 for the group (A), and 10 for the group (B). All the patients underwent a clinical examination including a pain measurement with a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a ultrasound scanner before, at the end and after one month follow-up ...
Aching, stabbing, dull, sharp - pain is difficult to describe, impossible to see, and is frequently treated with opium derivatives that go back to Middle Ages. Pediatric pain has long been under recognized and under treated. In fact, as many as 40% of children and adolescents complain of pain that occurs at least once weekly. One important barrier that leads to under-treatment of pain is inadequate measurement and assessment of pain. Numerical and face-based scales (e.g. Wong Baker Faces Pain Scale, Faces Pain Scale Revised) are most commonly used to assess pain in children. These scales require a certain level of expressive capacity that younger children may not have, and give no information regarding the character of pain that the child is experiencing. In addition, children may have a number of barriers that prevent accurate communication of their pain, ranging from cognitive impairments to developmental differences that make these scales inadequate for the task at hand. By utilizing other ...
A pain management algorithm was developed. The algorithm instructed nurses to assess patients´pain at least once a shift, both at rest and during turning. Further, the algorithm instructed nurses to use valid pain assessment tools. The numeric rating scale was used when patients could self-report pain. For patients not able to self-report pain, the Behavioral Pain Scale was used when patients were receiving mechanical ventilation, and the Behavioral Pain Scale-Non Intubated was used when patients were non-intubated.. Pain treatment actions were chosen based on cutoff points that defined a pain event. The algorithm was implemented in three units. Data was collected a time period after implementing the algorithm, and the same data was collected the same time period the previous year.. ...
Results Low pain group (LPG) consists of 63 (76%) and High pain group (HPG) of 20 (24%) patients respectively. Median for SF-MPQ total index in LPG was 2.0 (IQR 0-5) and HPG 14.5 (IQR 5.5-20.5). Comparative statistical analysis showed a statistical significant difference between LPG and HPG (p≤0.001). The median number of descriptive words used to describe pain for LPG was 2 (IQR 0-4.0) and for HPG 8.5 (IQR 4.0-10.5) words (p≤0.001). Correlation was found between self-reported pain related to SLE on VAS and numbers of describing words (r=0.78, p≤0.001). In both LPG and HPG the most used words to describe moderate and severe pain related to SLE were aching and tender. In HPG burning and in LPG stabbing also were used frequently. In HPG, 70% reported their present pain (PPI) as distressing. Arthralgia was the most common location of pain due to SLAM in both LPG and HPG.. ...
After approval from the local ethical committee and written informed consent, 80 patients (ASA I-II), scheduled for elective surgery below umbilicus expected to last less than 180 minutes, were included in this prospective double blind study.. The patients were familiarized with the 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain during the pre anesthetic visit and informed of the feeling of tingling, warmth or heaviness that may be felt after the injection. Each patient received 1 mg I/v midazolam in the pre op before shifting to OT where all monitoring (ECG, noninvasive blood pressure and SpO2) was established and preloading done with 10 ml kg-1 ringer lactate over 30 min. A midline spinal puncture at L3/4 space in sitting position with 25-gauge Quincke needle was performed. All patients received a coded intrathecal drug volume of 3.0 ml at a rate of 1 ml/ 5 sec with13.5 mg 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine, with saline ± clonidine. The control group (group 1) received bupivacain with saline (0.3ml) ...
Assessment Tools Pain assessment tools are in the public domain and are available to all health care providers to assist them in better understanding the impact of pain on a person. Single-dimensional pain scales Single-dimensional scales only measure pain intensity and are useful in acute pain when the etiology is clear. They provide a baseline and ongoing subjective measurement of a patients pain intensity score over time. Source.
A non-invasive integrated method was developed to measure neural and behavioural responses to peripheral sensory and noxious stimulation in human infants. The introduction of a novel event-detection interface allows synchronous recording of: (i) muscle and central nervous system activity with surface electromyography (EMG), scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS); (ii) behavioural responses with video-recording and (iii) autonomic responses (heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate and cardiovascular activity) with electrocardiography (ECG) and pulse oximetry. The system can detect noxious heel lance and touch stimuli with precision (33 μs and 624 μs respectively) and accuracy (523 μs and 256 μs) and has 100% sensitivity and specificity for both types of stimulation. Its ability to detect response latencies accurately was demonstrated by a shift in latency of the vertex potential of 20.7 ± 15.7 ms (n=6 infants), following touch of the heel and of the shoulder
The KOOS self-report questionnaire (Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score) has 5 sub-scales, assessing knee symptoms and function, and quality of life. It is widely used as it has been found to be a valid and reliable measure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity, reliability and responsiveness of the Icelandic translation of KOOS. A total of 145 were recruited for the study and in addition to answering KOOS, knee pain was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS), perception of knee function during activities of daily living on a numerical rating scale, and some were tested with the timed up-and-go test (TUG). Reliability was assessed by observing ICC-values, internal consistency with Cronbachs alpha, and associations between KOOS subscales and other outcome measures with Pearsons correlation coefficient. A one-way ANOVA was used to assess differences between groups of participants with different levels of knee dysfunction. A significant change in all KOOS subscales was ...
Methods TARGET assessed sarilumab 150mg and 200mg added to csDMARDs vs placebo in patients with RA intolerant of or not responding to anti-TNF therapy. MONARCH assessed sarilumab 200mg monotherapy vs adalimumab 40mg monotherapy in patients with RA either intolerant of, inadequate responders to, or considered inappropriate candidates for continued treatment with methotrexate. Treatments were administered subcutaneously every 2 weeks. RAID has 7 single-item domains, each rated by patients on an 11-point numeric rating scale from 0 (absence) to 10 (extreme). A total score from 0 to 10 (with lower scores indicative of less impact of disease) is calculated by weighting responses for each item based on patient assessment of the relative importance of the item. RAID was assessed at baseline (BL), Weeks 12 and 24. Least square mean (LSM) changes from BL in total score (Weeks 12 and 24) and domains (Week 24 only) were analysed with a mixed model for repeated measures, including treatment, region, visit, ...
40 patients (n = 23 women, n = 17 men) with acute and chronic painful condition and difficulty to perform ADL accompanying musculoskeletal or neurological disorders were comprised in the study. All patients were treated with rPMS. The therapy parameters were adjusted to patients condition. Patients with acute pain underwent daily treatments (n = 5). Patients with chronic pain underwent treatments three times per week (n = 10). The pain presence was evaluated by a 10-point Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for Pain Presence. Difficulties to perform ADL were evaluated by Patient Functional Assessment Questionnaire (PFAQ) for ADL. A three-month follow-up was completed. All collected data were further evaluated.. ...
This cross validation study examined the reliability of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) and the stability of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory Classification System of the empirically derived subgroup classification obtained by cluster analysis in chronic musculoskeletal pain. Reliability of the German Multidimensional Pain Inventory was only examined once in the past in a small sample. Previous international studies mainly involving fibromyalgia patients showed that retest resulted in 33-38% of patients being assigned to a different Multidimensional Pain Inventory subgroup classification. Participants were 204 persons with chronic musculoskeletal pain (82% chronic non-specific back pain). Subgroup classification was conducted by cluster analysis at 4 weeks before entry (=test) and at entry into the pain management program (=retest) using Multidimensional Pain Inventory scale scores. No therapeutic interventions in this period were conducted. Reliability was quantified by intraclass
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) into Bengali in patients with chronic non-malignant musculoskeletal pain. AU - Majumder, M.S.M.. AU - Ahmed, Shamim. AU - Shazzad, Md Nahiduzzamane. AU - Hasan, Abu Tahir Muhammad Tanveer. AU - Haq, Syed Atiqul. AU - Rasker, Johannes J.. PY - 2020/8/30. Y1 - 2020/8/30. N2 - Aim: To develop a culturally adapted and validated Bengali Pain Catastrophizing Scale (BePCS). Methods: The English PCS was translated, adapted and back-translated into and from Bengali, pre-tested by 30 adult patients with chronic non-malignant musculoskeletal pain. The BePCS was administered twice with 14 days interval to 90 patients. Convergent validity was measured by comparing the BePCS score with scores of the domains physical functioning and mental health of the Bengali Short Form 36, through Spearmans correlation coefficient. Test-retest reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and ...
OBJECTIVE: To examine patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in patients with different rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity levels and identify residual symptoms. METHODS: Post hoc analyses of overall and Japanese data from two randomized controlled trials including RA patients with previous inadequate responses to methotrexate (NCT01710358) or no/minimal previous disease-modifying antirheumatic drug treatment (NCT01711359) (sponsor: Eli Lilly and Company). Week 24 assessments were disease activity (Simplified Disease Activity Index, Disease Activity Score/Disease Activity Score 28 joints-erythrocyte sedimentation rate) and PROs (pain visual analog scale [VAS], morning joint stiffness [MJS], Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index, Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue, and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 Health Survey Physical and Mental Component Scores ...
Objectives: A tool for measuring neck pain in patients with dizziness is needed to further investigate the relationship between the two symptoms. The objective of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of a hand‐held pressure algometer in measuring pressure pain threshold (PPT) in different cervical regions of dizzy patients. Methods: PPT was measured at two bilateral standardized sites of the neck by a trained physiotherapist in 50 patients with dizziness. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for intrarater and test-retest reliability. Concurrent validity was assessed by measuring the association between PPT and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) tender points at each site and with the numeric pain rating scale (NPRS). Results: Almost perfect intrarater (ICC = 0.815-0.940) and within‐session test-retest (ICC = 0.854-0.906) reliability was found between the measures. On each site, a low PPT predicted a positive ACR tender point at each site (OR = ...
Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the effects of two different doses of intraarticular ketamine on visual analog scale (VAS) scores at rest and movement, time to first analgesic requirement, and 24-h morphine consumption in patients undergoing arthroscopic meniscectomy as well as to assess the frequency of postoperative nausea&vomiting, respiratory depression, pruritus, urinary retention, and constipation and to compare the time to discharge.. Patients and methods: This prospective randomized double- blind study was performed between August 2013 and August 2014 on 75 patients (32 males, 43 females; mean age 46.7±13 years; range, 18 to 75 years) with American Society of Anesthesiologists scores of I-II scheduled for unilateral meniscectomy. Patients were randomized to receive 0.5 mg.kg-1 ketamine (group K1), 1 mg.kg-1 ketamine (group K2) or saline (group S) to a total volume of 20 mL intraarticularly at the end of the surgery. All patients were performed periarticular 10 mL 0.5% ...
A 44-year-old woman presented with lumbar pain (visual analog scale [VAS] = 9) secondary to adrenocortical carcinoma sclerotic L4-vertebral metastasis. The positron emission tomography-computed tomography hypermetabolic lesion (Fig 1a,d) was unresponsive to radiotherapy or chemotherapy. She refused surgery. Following general anesthesia and aseptic preparation, 2 power d rill-mounted (Aescula...
Objective. In lumbar foraminal spinal stenosis (LFSS), numerous ligaments may play an important role in causing radiculopathy by narrowing the exit of the nerve root. In order to achieve effective decompression of lumbar foraminal ligaments, a specially designed instrument for percutaneous lumbar extraforaminotomy (PLEF) was invented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of PLEF in patients with intractable radiculopathy from LFSS. Design. A prospective, single-armed, observational pilot study. Setting. A pain center in a tertiary university-based hospital. Methods. The PLEF was performed in patients who suffered from radiculopathy with concordant imaging evidence of a mild to severe degree of LFSS. For each patient, an 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS) pain score, the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) score, and any adverse events were evaluated at three-month follow- ups. Successful responder percentage defined as 40% ...
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PMID: 9656903 The McGill Pain Questionnaire is an instrument that is widely used to assess the multidimensional experience of pain. Although it was introduced more than 20 years ago, limited information is available about its use in patients suffering from persistent facial pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the response patterns of persistent facial pain patients to the McGill Pain Questionnaire, to correlate these patterns with patients beliefs about the seriousness of the condition, and to compare the findings with data reported from other painful conditions. The study sample consisted of 200 consecutive female patients referred to a tertiary care facial pain clinic. The Pain Rating Index scores of the McGill Pain Questionnaire subscales and the total number of words chosen by these patients closely matched the summary scores reported by Wilkie et al, who pooled data from seven pain conditions (cancer, chronic back, mixed chronic, acute/postoperative, labor/gynecological, dental, ...
4Dicle University, School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Diyarbakır, Turkey DOI : 10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.9087-13.0 AIM: Symptoms of thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) may be vascular, neurological or combined symptoms involving both. Treatment of TOS is generally conservative. Surgical treatment is required when radiological results indicate anatomical abnormality. This study aims to present the surgical outcomes of TOS patients treated with supraclavicular approach via microsurgery.. MATERIAL and METHODS: 41 patients with thoracic outlet syndrome were rewieved retrospectively. The pain was determined using both on visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry score both in the preoperative and postoperative period. All patients underwent electromyography including brachial plexus, ulnar and median nerves. Computed Tomography (CT) angiographic examination was applied dynamically with required manoeuvres.. RESULTS: Post-op VAS scores were recorded as 0.8 for the arm, 0.6 for the shoulder and 0.5 ...
Article 8.5 of the Directive 2011/24/EU states that the degree of patients pain must be taken into account in the process of the cross-border healthcare treatment authorization.. Member States should have transposed the Directive into their national legislation by October 2013 and, consequently, should have put in place mechanisms to assess the patients level of pain.Unfortunately, in the transposition process at national level only few Countries have formally recognized the importance of the assessment of the degree of patients pain as stated in article 8.5, setting the benchmark on the implementation of the cross-border healthcare directive.. In practice, do the National implementation measures include a reference to the intensity of pain? Do the medical records have now specific sections dedicated to the patients pain assessment? How common is pain measurement in the EU Member States? According to the intensity of pain, do patients receive any medical advice from their doctors about which ...
Data Synthesis:. We found good evidence that NSAIDs, skeletal muscle relaxants (for acute low back pain), and tricyclic antidepressants (for chronic low back pain) are effective for pain relief. The magnitude of benefit was moderate (effect size of 0.5 to 0.8, improvement of 10 to 20 points on a 100-point visual analogue pain scale, or relative risk of 1.25 to 2.00 for the proportion of patients experiencing clinically significant pain relief), except in the case of tricyclic antidepressants (for which the benefit was small to moderate). We also found fair evidence that acetaminophen, opioids, tramadol, benzodiazepines, and gabapentin (for radiculopathy) are effective for pain relief. We found good evidence that systemic corticosteroids are ineffective. Adverse events, such as sedation, varied by medication, although reliable data on serious and long-term harms are sparse. Most trials were short term (≤4 weeks). Few data address efficacy of dual-medication therapy compared with monotherapy, or ...
The Oxford Textbook of Paediatric Pain brings together an international team of experts to provide an authoritative and comprehensive textbook on all aspects of pain in infants, children and youth. Divided into nine sections, this resource analyses pain as a multifactorial problem and gives the reader a comprehensive understanding of this challenging subject. Topics covered include the biological, social, and psychological basis of pain, pain in specific populations, pain measurement, pharmacology, psychosocial and physical interventions, complementary therapies, education, and ethics of pain control in youths, children, and infants. Evidence-based chapters look in depth at areas ranging from the long-term effects of the pain in children, to sociodemographic differences in paediatric pain management. Case examples and online materials including scales, worksheets, and videos are provided to aid learning and illustrate the application of knowledge.
The efficacy of Qutenza, was established in two 12-week, double-blind, randomized, dose-controlled, multicenter studies. These studies enrolled patients with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) persisting for at least 6 months following healing of herpes zoster rash and a baseline score of 3-9 on an 11-point Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) ranging from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst possible pain). Qutenza and a control patch were each applied as a single 60-minute application. The control used in these studies looked similar to Qutenza but contained a low concentration of the active ingredient, capsaicin (3.2 mcg/cm 2, 0.04% w/w) to retain blinding regarding the known application site reactions of capsaicin (such as burning and erythema). The baseline mean pain scores across the 2 studies was approximately 6.0. Patients who entered the study on stable doses of pain-control medications were required to keep dosing stable throughout the duration of the study. Approximately half of the patients were taking ...
We identified 12 additional trials and included 22 trials with 8275 participants in this update. Oral oxycodone was studied in 10 trials, transdermal buprenorphine and oral tapentadol in four, oral codeine in three, oral morphine and oral oxymorphone in two, and transdermal fentanyl and oral hydromorphone in one trial each. All trials were described as double-blind, but the risk of bias for other domains was unclear in several trials due to incomplete reporting. Opioids were more beneficial in pain reduction than control interventions (SMD -0.28, 95% CI -0.35 to -0.20), which corresponds to a difference in pain scores of 0.7 cm on a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS) between opioids and placebo. This corresponds to a difference in improvement of 12% (95% CI 9% to 15%) between opioids (41% mean improvement from baseline) and placebo (29% mean improvement from baseline), which translates into a number needed to treat (NNTB) to cause one additional treatment response on pain of 10 (95% CI 8 to 14). ...
This non-experimental study was designed to investigate the congruence between in-labor report and postpartum recall of labor pain as measured by the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). Fifty married parturients, ages 19 to 39 at term with a normal pregnancy, served as subjects. Analysis of variance showed that postpartum report of labor pain on the Present Pain Intensity scale of the MPQ was not consistently congruent with pain reported during labor. In contrast, the Pain Rating Index of the MPQ provided postpartum data that was congruent with the in-labor report. Significant interaction effects, however, suggested that postpartally the women tended to devaluate the pain of early labor and inflate the pain of transitional labor when compared to their in-labor report. Theoretical and practical implications of the results for the measurement of labor pain are discussed. ...
JK Olsen et al. have tested the reliability of pain assessment with this new tool. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliabilities were all above the defined cutt off 0.75 for excellent results. The DoloCuff is now in production and has a great potential for systematic follow-up on sensitivity to pain, on both an individual basis and group wise. The article is accepted in Pain Pratice.. For more information on the study of the equipment, please contact [email protected] ...
The objective of this study is to fill gaps in the literature regarding the effectiveness of cupping therapy on lumbar stiffness. Participants will be recruited from the University of South Carolina and from local clinics in Columbia, South Carolina. Individuals will be classified based on lumbar range of motion limitations, and then they will be equally dispersed into three treatment groups via stratified randomization. These groups include dynamic cupping, static cupping, or stretching. All participants will be assessed prior to selected treatment to obtain baseline values for four measures: back range of motion (BROM), pain pressure threshold (PPT), active straight leg raise (ASLR), and numeric pain rating scale (NPRS). Participants will be given each measure directly after treatment, followed by a follow-up measurement 24 hours after treatment.
In this systematic review and meta-analysis of 33 studies, we identified nine preoperative predictors that were negatively associated with pain control after surgery: young age, female sex, smoking, history of depressive symptoms, history of anxiety symptoms, sleep difficulties, higher BMI, presence of preoperative pain and use of preoperative analgesia. The most well-studied predictors were female sex (number of studies, n=20), young age (n=14) and the presence of preoperative pain (n=13). The strongest negative prognostic factors were a history of sleeping difficulties (number of studies, n=2) and depression (n=8), which were independently associated with approximately twofold higher odds of poor postoperative pain control. Our findings are consistent with and extend the results of the previous systematic review by Ip et al.20 In addition to the predictors previously described, we identified six additional preoperative predictors of poor postoperative pain control.20. Previous reports have ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Timing interval from peri-prostatic block to biopsy impacts procedural pain. AU - Pathak, Ram A.. AU - Thiel, David D.. AU - Parker, Alexander. AU - Heckman, Michael G.. AU - Crook, Juliana. AU - Diehl, Nancy N.. AU - Tavlarides, Andrea. AU - Alford, Scott W.. AU - Igel, Todd C.. PY - 2017/6/1. Y1 - 2017/6/1. N2 - Introduction: To compare visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores between patients with a 2-minute versus 10-minute delay of peri-prostatic lidocaine injection prior to transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsies (TRUS-bx). Materials and methods: Eighty patients who underwent standard 12-core TRUS-bx by a single surgeon were prospectively randomized into four different treatment arms: bibasilar injection with a 2-minute delay, bibasilar injection plus a single apical injection with a 2-minute delay, bibasilar injection with a 10-minute delay, and bibasilar injection plus a single apical injection with a 10-minute delay. Patients were asked to report their level of pain ...
View more ,Question Is Strain-Counterstrain treatment combined with exercise therapy more effective than exercise alone in reducing levels of pain and disability in people with acute low back pain? Design Randomised trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding, and intention-to-treat analysis. Participants 89 (55 female) participants between 18 and 55 years experiencing acute low back pain were randomised to experimental (n = 44) and control (n = 45) groups. Intervention Participants attended four treatments in two weeks. The experimental group received Strain-Counterstrain treatment and review of standardised exercises (abdominal bracing, knee to chest, and lumbar rotation). The control group performed the standardised exercises under supervision. Following the intervention period, all participants received exercise progression, manual therapy, and advice. Outcome measures The primary outcome was the modified Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire, measured at 2 weeks (ie, end of ...
7thSpace has reprinted an article that was first published in BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders:. Prevalence of fibromyalgia in low socioeconomic status population. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of fibromyalgia, as well as to assess the major symptoms of this syndrome in an adult, low socioeconomic status population assisted by the primary health care system in a city in Brazil.. Methods: We cross-sectionally sampled individuals assisted by the public primary health care system (n=768, 35-60 years old). Participants were interviewed by phone and screened about pain.. They were then invited to be clinically assessed (304 accepted). Pain was estimated using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS).. Fibromyalgia was assessed using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), as well as screening for tender points using dolorimetry. Statistical analyses included Bayesian Statistics and the Kruskal-Wallis Anova test (significance level=5%).. Results: From the phone-interview screening, we ...
Chronic pain is generally regarded as being divided into two mutually exclusive pain mechanisms: nociceptive and neuropathic. Recently, this dichotomous approach has been questioned and a model of chronic pain being more or less neuropathic has been suggested. To test whether such a spectrum exists, we examined responses by patients with chronic pain to validated neuropathic pain assessment tools and compared these with ratings of certainty about the neuropathic origin of pain by their specialist pain physicians. We examined 200 patients (100 each with nociceptive and neuropathic pain) and administered the self-complete Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (S-LANSS score) and the Neuropathic Pain Scale (NPS). Clinicians were asked to rate their certainty of the presence of neuropathic pain mechanisms on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) (0 = not at all neuropathic in origin to 100 = completely neuropathic in origin). The whole sample was divided into tertiles based on ...
Listen to this podcast with Clifford Moy, MD, the behavioral health medical director at TMF Health Quality Institute, and Lindsay Botsford, MD, the market medical director for Iora Health in Houston, a clinical associate professor of the Department of Clinical Science at the University of Houston Co
Three nonpharmacological nursing interventions, relaxation, chosen music, and their combination, were tested for pain relief following intestinal (INT) surgery in a randomized clinical trial. The 167 patients were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups or control and were tested during ambulation and rest on postoperative days 1 and 2. Pain sensation and distress were measured with visual analog scales (VAS). Multivariate analysis of covariance showed significantly less post-test pain in the intervention groups than in the control group on both days after rest and at three of six ambulation post-tests (p = .024-.001), resulting in 16-40% less pain. Mixed effects after ambulation were due to the large variation in pain and difficulty relaxing while returning to bed; but post hoc explorations showed effects for those with high and low pain. These interventions are recommended along with analgesics for greater postoperative relief without additional side effects.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Correspondence between EQ-5D health state classifications and EQ VAS scores. AU - Whynes, David K. AU - The TOMBOLA (Trial Of Management of Borderline and Other Low-grade Abnormal smears) Group. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - BACKGROUND: The EQ-5D health-related quality of life instrument comprises a health state classification followed by a health evaluation using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The EQ-5D has been employed frequently in economic evaluations, yet the relationship between the two parts of the instrument remains ill-understood. In this paper, we examine the correspondence between VAS scores and health state classifications for a large sample, and identify variables which contribute to determining the VAS scores independently of the health states as classified. METHODS: A UK trial of management of low-grade abnormalities detected on screening for cervical pre-cancer (TOMBOLA) provided EQ-5D data for over 3,000 women. Information on distress and multi-dimensional health ...
Treating persistent pain conditions with opioid medications is not only ineffective for long-term treatment but is also a preventable factor behind the current opioid crisis, which kills thousands of people each year. One way to address the opioid crisis is to identify better treatments to reduce pain. The purpose of this study is to determine the potential of a specific metabolite of ketamine named (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine (HNK) to be an effective alternative to opioids in reducing pain or opioid adjunct to make opioid pain treatment safer and more effective. The specific aims for this study are 1) to determine the pain reduction effects of (2R,6R)-HNK in healthy mice and mice with induced neuropathic and inflammatory pain, and 2) to examine the interaction between (2R,6R)-HNK and opioid-induced pain reduction in mice. To investigate these aims, C57BL/J6 mice will be tested utilizing various pain measurement tests after receiving (2R,6R)-HNK and compared to mice receiving saline as a placebo. ...
Around 14% of adults who experience pain report that it lasts 3 months to a year and 42% report pain that lasts more than a year.
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A prospective double-blind randomised controlled trial of intraoperative pelvic instillation with bupivacaine for management of pain following laparoscopy and dye. AU - Sripada, Sreebala. AU - Roy, S.. AU - Mathur, M.. AU - Hamilton, M. AU - Cranfield, K.. AU - Bhattacharya, Siladitya. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - The aim of this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of intraperitoneal instillation of bupivacaine following laparoscopy and dye test. Women received either 15 ml of 0.9% saline (n=42) or 15 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine (n=43), which was instilled intraperitoneally. Pain and nausea scores were recorded on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Pain perception was no different in the bupivacaine group compared with the control group with median values of VAS at 2 hours (18, 19; P=0.8), 6 hours (21, 22; P=0.5), 12 hours (19, 25; P=0.8), 24 hours (27, 27; P=0.9) and 48 hours (21, 13; P=0.26). Women in the bupivacaine group were less ...
Pain assessment is a broad concept involving clinical judgment based on observation of the type, significance and context of the individuals pain experience. There are challenges in assessing paediatric pain, none more so than in the pre-verbal and developmentally disabled child. Therefore physiological and behavioural tools are used in place of the self-report of pain. However in children with developmental disabilities there can be incorrect assumptions and there is a risk of under-treating pain. It is important to take behavioral cues identified by parents and caregivers to improve pain assessment in these children. Pain assessment in infants and children is also challenging due to the subjectivity and multidimensional nature of pain. The dependence on others to assess pain, limited language, comprehension and perception of pain expressed contextually. In some children it can be difficult to distinguish between pain, anxiety and distress. Assessment and documenting pain is needed in order to ...
RATIONALE: Low back pain has a significant socioeconomic impact. Repetitive lifting, with combined twisting and flexion motions of the lumbar spine, increases the risk for low-back pain and injury to the supporting tissues. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 60-year-old male who presented with acute low-back pain, with a pain intensity of 6/10 on the visual analog scale (VAS) and an Oswestry disability index (ODI) score of 70%. The range of motion (ROM) of the lumbar spine on initial examination, relative to the normal peak ROM, was as follows: extension, 12°/30°; flexion, 15°/80°; left rotation, 15°/45°; and right rotation, 25°/45 ...
Background: Local anesthetics act by different mechanisms to produce their effects in control acute and chronic pain. Methods: A total of 22 patients (14 female, 8 male) who need tooth apisectomy under infiltration local anesthesia were examined in two situations: Before and after administration of local anesthesia. For all patients salivary sample has been collected by salivette to estimate the level of opiorphin using ELISA Kits, the pain was assessed after administration of local anesthesia using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Results: the results showed a significant differences of salivary opiorphin before and after administration of local anesthesia (5.96+5.38) ng/ml and (14.49±3.66) ng/ml respectively with p0.05). Conclusions: local
Description: M.Cur. , Midwives are responsible to assess pain before treating it; then they should reassess the pain to evaluate the effectiveness of the interventions and plan future therapy. Accurate and objective measures of labour pain continue to be scarce and the discrepancy in labour pain perceptions between parturients and health-care providers remains challenging. Various pain measurement tools are currently in use measuring chronic and acute pain, but many problems were encountered applying these methods to the woman in labour. The charts were detailed and required too much time to complete. The aim of the study was to develop a multidimensional labour pain assessment instrument to assist clinicians and midwives with labour pain control. Objectives for developing a valid and reliable instrument to accurately measure labour pain included refinement of the labour pain assessment instrument developed from literature, testing of the refined instrument on patients during labour, compilation ...
to the editor: I was pleased to read the article1 on management of nonmalignant pain. The undertreatment of pain is a widespread issue in the United States, and helping to educate practicing family physicians in the most current pain management techniques is an important, even critical, goal.. I was disappointed, however, by the relative lack of information in the article on the two newest classes of oral analgesics: (1) tramadol (Ultram) and (2) cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, which represent a new type of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).. Tramadol has been available in the United States for five years. It is effective not only for an acute episode of neuropathic pain (as suggested in the article), but also for chronic neuropathic pain syndrome, fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis pain2 and chronic low back pain.3 Tramadol may be most notable for what it is not-tramadol is not an NSAID, nor is it a typical opioid. Tramadol has a dual mechanism of action: it acts centrally at ...
DUBLIN, IRELAND, July 9 (Korea Bizwire) - Research and Markets (http://bit.ly/VZyRjp) has announced the addition of Jain PharmaBiotechs new report Global Pain Therapeutics Report 2014: Drugs, Markets and Companies - The Latest Concepts of Pathomechanisms of Pain to their offering.. This report describes the latest concepts of pathomechanisms of pain as a basis for management and development of new pharmacotherapies for pain. Major segments of the pain market are arthritis, neuropathic pain and cancer pain. Because pain is a subjective sensation, it is difficult to evaluate objectively in clinical trials. Various tools for pain measurement are described, including brain imaging.. Most of the currently used analgesic drugs fall into the categories of opioids and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs such as COX-2 inhibitors. Non-opioid analgesics include ketamine, a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist. Adjuvant analgesics include antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs used for the treatment ...