A tetracycline-regulated reporter system was used to investigate the regulation of cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) mRNA stability by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 signaling cascade. The stable beta-globin mRNA was rendered unstable by insertion of the 2, 500-nucleotide Cox-2 3 untranslated region (3 UTR). The chimeric transcript was stabilized by a constitutively active form of MAPK kinase 6, an activator of p38. This stabilization was blocked by SB203580, an inhibitor of p38, and by two different dominant negative forms of MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAPK-2), a kinase lying downstream of p38. Constitutively active MAPKAPK-2 was also able to stabilize chimeric beta-globin-Cox-2 transcripts. The MAPKAPK-2 substrate hsp27 may be involved in stabilization, as beta-globin-Cox-2 transcripts were partially stabilized by phosphomimetic mutant forms of hsp27. A short (123-nucleotide) fragment of the Cox-2 3 UTR was necessary and sufficient for the regulation of mRNA stability by the p38
A series of 3-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-pyridyl)-chromone derivs. were synthesized and evaluated as p38 MAP kinase inhibitors. Introduction of an amino group in the 2-position of the pyridyl moiety gave p38 inhibitors with IC50 values in the low nanomolar range (e.g. 8a; IC50 = 17 nm). Addnl., the inhibitors (8a and 8e) demonstrate an excellent selectivity profile towards the p38 kinase among other kinases, as well as inhibition (8e) of p38 signaling in human breast cancer cells. [on SciFinder(R)]. ...
p38 MAPK inhibitors (inhibiting targets of signaling pathways) used for various assays, some have entered clinical trials, which would be new cancer therapies.
Dilmapimod,SB-681323,p38 MAPK Inhibitor。CAS 番号:444606-18-2,純度:99.56%。東京倉庫。溶解度:DMSO。高品質な生理・薬理活性化合物。Dilmapimod製品詳細ページです。
Monocef Sb in Punjabi - ਵਰਤੋਂ, ਖੁਰਾਕ, ਬੁਰੇ ਪ੍ਰਭਾਵ, ਲਾਭ, ਪਰਸਪਰ ਪ੍ਰਭਾਵ ਅਤੇ ਚੇਤਾਵਨੀ ਦੇਖੋ
1. Raman M, Chen W, Cobb M.H. Differential regulation and properties of MAPKs. Oncogene. 2007;26(22):3100 2. Iñesta-Vaquera F, Sabio G, Kuma Y, Cuenda A. Alternative p38 Pathways MAPK. Stress-Activated Protein Kinases. Heidelberg: Springer Berlin. 2008:17 3. Adams R.H. et al. Essential role of p38alpha MAP kinase in placental but not embryonic cardiovascular development. Mol Cell. 2000;6(1):109 4. Allen M. et al. Deficiency of the stress kinase p38alpha results in embryonic lethality: characterization of the kinase dependence of stress responses of enzyme-deficient embryonic stem cells. J Exp Med. 2000;191(5):859 5. Mudgett J.S. et al. Essential role for p38alpha mitogen-activated protein kinase in placental angiogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97(19):10454 6. Tamura K. et al. Requirement for p38alpha in erythropoietin expression: a role for stress kinases in erythropoiesis. Cell. 2000;102(2):221 7. Zarubin T, Han J. Activation and signaling of the p38 MAP kinase pathway. Cell Res. ...
Delayed cytoprotection (preconditioning) occurs 24h after sublethal simulated ischaemia and reperfusion (SI/R) in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. SI/R was used to investigate the role of activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt in cytoprotection. SI resulted in transient dual (Thr/Tyr) phosphorylation of p42/p44-MAPK and p38-MAPK, weak phosphorylation of p46/p54-SAPK, but no phosphorylation of PKB. Reperfusion caused further transient phosphorylation of p38-MAPK, but sustained phosphorylation of p42/p44-MAPK (lasting 4h) and of Ser473 of PKB (lasting 2h). Furthermore, SI/R (24h) induced delayed protection against lethal SI, as determined by an increase in cell viability {bioreduction of MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide]} and a decrease in cell injury (release of creatine kinase). Both protection and phosphorylation of ...
Constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is implicated in the development and progression of many human cancers, including
Investigation of T-helper type 2 cytokines and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in the modulation of bronchial hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation and remodelling ...
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs): Activation, Functions and Regulation opens with a summary of the present knowledge about MAPK, with special emphasis on p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. The authors focus on how these signaling pathways are engaged during some infections with intracellular parasites.. The authors also describe selected regulatory aspects of circadian clocks in vertebrates, exploring an intriguing link to MAPK. Circadian clocks are time-tracking systems that provide organisms with a survival advantage.. Cadmium, one of the toxic metals, is an important occupational and environmental pollutant that damages various organs, especially the kidney. The concluding study proposes that the type of kidney cell and severity of cadmium-induced cellular stress appear to determine the effect of MAPK on cell fate ...
Low temperature is one of the most common environmental stresses affecting plant growth and agricultural production. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade plays a pivotal role in...
... - reflects the multidimensional character of chemical biology, focusing in particular on the fundamental science of biological structures and systems, the use of chemical and biological techniques to elucidate
Recombinant Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8 (MAPK8) Protéine. Origine: Humain. Source: Baculovirus infected Insect Cells. Commandez ABIN593493.
Recombinant Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 8 (MAPK8) Protein (GST tag). Spezies: Human. Quelle: Wheat germ. Jetzt Produkt ABIN1310303 bestellen.
SB203580 is a pyridinyl imidazole inhibitor widely used to elucidate the roles of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase.. SB203580 inhibits also the phosphorylation and activation of protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt). Both kinases are involved in a wide array of signaling pathways, including the TLR signaling pathway. Moreover, several studies suggest that p38 MAPKs regulate distinct phases of autophagy. p38 can elicit autophagy via Beclin1. Contrarily, p38α has also been reported to inhibit autophagy by interfering with the trafficking of Atg9.
Direct evidence that Gi-coupled receptor stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase is mediated by G beta gamma activation of p21ras.
TY - JOUR. T1 - NHP6A and NHP6B, which encode HMG1-like proteins, are candidates for downstream components of the yeast SLT2 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. AU - Costigan, Christine. AU - Kolodrubetz, David J. AU - Snyder, Michael. PY - 1994/4. Y1 - 1994/4. N2 - The yeast SLK1 (BCK1) gene encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activator protein which functions upstream in a protein kinase cascade that converges on the MAPK Slt2p (Mpk1p). Dominant alleles of SLK1 have been shown to bypass the conditional lethality of a protein kinase C mutation, pkc1-Δ, suggesting that Pkc1p may regulate Slk1p function. Slk1p has an important role in morphogenesis and growth control, and deletions of the SLK1 gene are lethal in a spa2-Δ mutant background. To search for genes that interact with the SLK1-SLT2 pathway, a synthetic lethal suppression screen was carried out. Genes which in multiple copies suppress the synthetic lethality of slk1-1 spa2-Δ were identified, and one, the NHP6A ...
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is the canonical signaling pathway for many receptor tyrosine kinases, such as the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor. Downstream of the receptors, this pathway involves the activation of a kinase cascade that culminates in a transcriptional response and affects processes, such as cell migration and adhesion. In addition, the strength and duration of the upstream signal also influence the mode of the cellular response that is switched on. Thus, the same components can in principle coordinate opposite responses, such as proliferation and differentiation. In recent years, it has become evident that MAPK signaling is regulated and fine-tuned by proteins that can bind to several MAPK signaling proteins simultaneously and, thereby, affect their function. These so-called MAPK scaffolding proteins are, thus, important coordinators of the signaling response in cells. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the research on MAPK/extracellular signal
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is the canonical signaling pathway for many receptor tyrosine kinases, such as the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor. Downstream of the receptors, this pathway involves the activation of a kinase cascade that culminates in a transcriptional response and affects processes, such as cell migration and adhesion. In addition, the strength and duration of the upstream signal also influence the mode of the cellular response that is switched on. Thus, the same components can in principle coordinate opposite responses, such as proliferation and differentiation. In recent years, it has become evident that MAPK signaling is regulated and fine-tuned by proteins that can bind to several MAPK signaling proteins simultaneously and, thereby, affect their function. These so-called MAPK scaffolding proteins are, thus, important coordinators of the signaling response in cells. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the research on MAPK/extracellular signal
TY - JOUR. T1 - Systematic review of p38 mitogen-activated kinase and its functional role in reproductive tissues. AU - Sheller-Miller, Samantha. AU - Richardson, Lauren. AU - Martin, Laura. AU - Jin, Jin. AU - Menon, Ramkumar. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in uterine tissue remodeling during pregnancy and parturition. While p38 MAPK is an OS-response kinase, a precise functional role is unknown. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of literature on p38 MAPK expression, activation, and function in reproductive tissues throughout pregnancy and parturition, published between January 1980 and August 2017, using four electronic databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Medline, and CoCHRANE). We identified 418 reports; 108 were selected for full-text evaluation and 74 were included in final review. p38 MAPK was investigated using feto-maternal primary or immortalized cells, tissue explants, and animal models. Western blot was most commonly used to report ...
arabidopsis, polyclonal, antibody, mpk6, mapk6, map kinase 6, mitogen activated protein kinase 6, MAP kinase induced by pathogens, ethylene biosynthesis, oxidative stress and osmotic stress
Kit Component:- KN206583G1, MAPK11 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN206583G2, MAPK11 gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN206583D, donor vector…
Preconditioning, the phenomenon whereby brief episodes of ischemia or pharmacological agents protect the myocardium against subsequent ischemic injury, consists of an early and a late phase.1 The early phase develops immediately and disappears within 1 to 2 hours of ischemic preconditioning stimulus, whereas the late phase, also known as the "second window" of protection, becomes manifest after 12 to 24 hours and lasts for 3 to 4 days. An understanding of the signaling mechanisms that trigger and mediate this cardioprotective phenomenon would have vast physiological and pathological implications. Accordingly, many recent studies have focused on the characterization and delineation of the signal transduction pathways (molecules) underlying the development and manifestation of both the early and late phases of preconditioning. The general hypothesis is that the preconditioning stimulus will induce the activation of a cascade of stress-responsive kinases, which in turn transduce the stress signal ...
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
Gut stem cell aging is driven by mTORC1 via a p38 MAPK-p53 pathway - posted in BioscienceNews: . F U L L T E X T S O U R C E : nature Abstract Nutrients are absorbed solely by the intestinal villi. Aging of this organ causes malabsorption and associated illnesses, yet its aging mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that aging-caused intestinal villus structural and fun...
Detail záznamu - Trisubstituted Purines Are Useful Tools for Developing Potent Plant Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Inhibitors - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
As previously reported, recombinant xEIAP/XLX is rapidly degraded by at least two distinct, consecutively acting proteolytic systems [11, 14]. Within 2 h incubation, xEIAP/XLX is significantly degraded in both CSF-arrested and interphase egg extracts in a C-terminal RING finger-dependent manner. Subsequently, spontaneous cytochrome c-induced caspase activation begins after 4 h incubation in interphase egg extracts (apoptotic egg extracts), and the remaining xEIAP/XLX is cleaved by the activated caspases at yet unidentified site(s). This caspase activation is delayed or suppressed in CSF-arrested egg extracts by a p42MAPK-dependent pathway [7-11]. We found that the electrophoretic mobilities of recombinant 6XHis-tagged (6XHis-FL) and MBP-tagged (MBP-FL) xEIAP/XLX slightly decreased during incubation in CSF-arrested but not interphase egg extracts (Fig. 1B), whereas those of other BIR family proteins (xSurvivin1/xBIR1, xSurvivin2/SIX, and xXIAP) did not (data not shown). However, the rapid ...
Buy VX 702 - an affordable, high quality p38 MAPK Inhibitor from Hello Bio, a trusted supplier for life science researchers worldwide
MAPKAPK5-AS1 - (untagged)-Homo sapiens, clone MGC:15178 IMAGE:4122851, complete cds available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Shop a large selection of Primary Antibodies - Alphabetical products and learn more about Phospho-p38 MAPK (Thr180, Tyr182) Mouse anti-Human, Mouse, PerCP-eFluor™ 710,
A method for inhibiting proliferation of a PPAR .gamma.-responsive hyperproliferative cell which comprises the step of contacting the cell with (I) an inhibitory amount of a PPAR.gamma. agonist and (II) a MAP kinase inhibitor is disclosed. A method for treating or prophylactically ...
多种适用的MAPK12ELISA试剂盒,如人等。在antibodies-online.cn对比MAPK12ELISA试剂盒,以便找到您需要的产品。
Protein kinases have become central in the efforts to understand the nature of various diseases, and a lot is invested into creating effective therapeutic strategies and finding effective and selective protein kinase inhibitors. In order to succeed it is also important to focus on the structure of the kinases, their exact biological role, and how they interact and cooperate in the signaling. The exact structure of MAPKAPK5 is still unknown, and selective inhibitors are yet to be identified. Even though some of its biological roles are starting to emerge more work is required, including searching for selective inhibitors, analyzing its structure and interactions with its interaction partners. In order to analyze the structure of MAPKAPK5, homology models were generated and their ability to discriminate between binders and non-binders were analyzed. Based on the results, one model was found satisfactory and may be used as a working tool for further experimental studies and possibly structure aided ...
Following denervation skeletal muscles change their functional and structural properties. Some changes resemble conditions in developing muscles and may be important for reinnervation. Due to inactivity following denervation most skeletal muscles loose muscle mass and become atrophic. The hemidiaphragm muscle, however, undergoes a phase of transient hypertrophy following denervation, gaining weight during the first 6-10 days followed by a decrease in weight. In this thesis the expression (mRNA, protein and protein phosphorylations) of potential factors involved in the regulation of muscle mass were examined in denervated hind-limb and hemidiaphragm muscles.. NIFK is a protein that associates with Ki67, a protein expressed predominantly in proliferating cells. The mRNA expression of NIFK was upregulated in denervated atrophic muscles but unaltered in denervated hypertrophic muscles, suggesting a potential role in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass (Paper I). p38 MAPK has previously been ...
PGC-1α-dependent irisin, a novel myokine, is derived from cleaving Fndc5 protein. Irisin promotes brown fat-like development and thermogenesis in WAT both in vitro and in vivo. The discovery of irisin has created an opportunity to further understand the role of adipocytes in obesity, diabetes, and other associated metabolic disorders (12,13,26,27). However, the molecular mechanisms and cellular signaling pathways responsible for the browning effect of irisin have not been elucidated.. In this study, we successfully constructed the yeast expression plasmid containing a synthesized optimal codon usage, human irisin-coding sequence and generated pure human recombinant irisin protein in P. pastoris with high yield that is fully biologically functional. The P. pastoris system is widely used for heterogenic protein expression, with the capacity to generate posttranslational modified proteins (28). The human recombinant irisin protein expressed in yeast showed a predominant band of ∼22 kDa, which is ...
Protein kinase B (PKB) isoforms became activated [and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) became inhibited] when mouse Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts were exposed to oxidative stress (H2O2) or heat shock, but not when they were exposed to osmotic shock (0.5 M sorbitol or 0.7 M NaCl), chemical stress (sodium arsenite), the protein-synthesis inhibitor anisomycin, or UV radiation. In contrast, all seven stimuli activated mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAP-K2). The activation of MAPKAP-K2 was suppressed by the drug SB 203580, but not by inhibitors of phosphoinositide (phosphatidylinositide, PI) 3-kinase. In contrast, the activation of PKB isoforms and the inhibition of GSK3 by oxidative stress or heat shock were prevented by inhibitors of PI 3-kinase, but not by SB 203580. Thus the activation of PKB by oxidative stress or heat shock is mediated by PI 3-kinase and not by MAPKAP-K2. PKBα and PKBγ were also activated by heat shock and oxidative stress in human embryonic kidney ...
PRAK antibody [N3C3] (mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 5) for ICC/IF, WB. Anti-PRAK pAb (GTX107938) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the micro-organism of choice for the conversion of fermentable sugars during beverage or bioethanol fermentations. These fermentations are characterised by high osmotic stress on a yeast cell, with selected brewing fermentations beginning at 20-25% fermentable sugars and bioethanol fermentations at 13% fermentable sugars. RCK2 encodes for a MAPKAP (MAPK-activated protein kinase) enzyme and was identified on a locus by QTL analysis in yeast cells under osmotic stress, RCK2 expression was placed under a tetracycline regulatable vector and rescued glucose, sorbitol or glycerol induced osmotic stress in an rck2 null strain. A strain overexpressing RCK2 had significantly faster fermentation rates when compared
Sun QY.,Wu GM.,Lai LX.,Bonk A.,Cabot R.,...&Schatten H.(2002).Regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, microtubule organization, chromatin behavior, and cell cycle progression by protein phosphatases during pig oocyte maturation and fertilization in vitro.Biology of Reproduction,66(3),580-588 ...
Looking for the definition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases? Find out what is the full meaning of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases on Abbreviations.com! Protein Kinase C is one option -- get in to view more @ The Webs largest and most authoritative acronyms and abbreviations resource.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Attenuation of CHOP-mediated myocardial apoptosis in pressure-overloaded dominant negative p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase mice. AU - Sari, Flori R.. AU - Widyantoro, Bambang. AU - Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A.. AU - Harima, Meilei. AU - Lakshmanan, Arun. AU - Zhang, Shaosong. AU - Muslin, Anthony J.. AU - Suzuki, Kenji. AU - Kodama, Makoto. AU - Watanabe, Kenichi. PY - 2011/6/27. Y1 - 2011/6/27. N2 - Background/Aims: Pressure overload stimulation is known to elicit disturbances in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which leads to ER stress (ERS). p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) plays an important role in mediating apoptotic processes, however, the roles of this kinase in activating ERS-initiated apoptosis in pressure-overloaded hearts are largely unknown. Methods: We clarified the role of p38α MAPK in ERS-associated apoptosis by subjecting transgenic mice displaying cardiac specific dominant negative (DN) mutant p38α MAPK over-expression to seven day pressure ...
MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAPKAPK2 gene. MAPKAP kinase-2 (MK2) is originally identified by its phosphorylation of glycogen synthase at serine-7 and the corresponding serine in a peptide (GS peptide-1) modelled after the N-terminus of glycogen synthase.. MAPKAP kinase-2 is a novel protein kinase activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase. This MAP kinase activated protein kinase, termed MAPKAP kinase-2, is distinguished from S6 kinase-II (MAPKAP kinase-1) by its response to inhibitors, lack of phosphorylation of S6 peptides and amino acid sequence.. ...
MAPK (mitogen-activated proteins kinase) pathways constitute major regulators of cellular transcriptional programmes. multiple ErbB ligands, vascular endothelial growth element and PHRP (parathyroid hormone-related protein). PHRP is the main mediator of humoral hypercalcaemia of malignancy, and has been implicated in metastasis to bone. We demonstrate that PHRP is definitely secreted by MEK1EE-expressing cells. This secretion is definitely inhibited by PD184352, but not by ErbB inhibitors. Our results suggest that, in addition to anti-proliferative properties, MEK1,2 inhibitors may be anti-angiogenic Tyrosine kinase inhibitor manufacture and possess restorative energy in the treatment of PHRP-positive tumours. transcription reagents (Enzo Diagnostics; Affymetrix, #900182), resulting in approx.?100-fold amplification of RNA. The biotin-labelled cRNA probes were purified and fragmented in fragmentation buffer (Affymetrix, #900371) by incubation at 95?C for 35?min. Hybridization to Affymetrix U95A ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and its role in interferon signaling. AU - Platanias, Leonidas C.. PY - 2003/5/1. Y1 - 2003/5/1. N2 - Interferons (IFNs) are pleiotropic cytokines that exhibit multiple biological effects on cells and tissues. IFN receptors are expressed widely in mammalian cells and virtually all different cell types express them on their surface. The Type I IFN receptor has a multichain structure, composed of at least two distinct receptor subunits, IFNαR1 and IFNαR2. Two Jak-kinases, Tyk-2 and Jak-1, associate with the different receptor subunits and are activated in response to IFNα or IFNβ to regulate engagement of multiple downstream signaling cascades. These include the Stat-pathway, whose function is essential for transcriptional activation of IFN-sensitive genes, and the insulin receptor substrate pathway, which regulates downstream activation of the phosphatidyl-inositol-3′ kinase. Members of the Map family of kinases are also ...
View mouse Mapkapk5 Chr5:121525038-121545905 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
... , Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
The phosphorylation of the human estrogen receptor (ER) serine residue at position 118 is required for full activity of the ER activation function 1 (AF-1). This Ser118 is phosphorylated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in vitro and in cells treated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) in vivo. Overexpression of MAPK kinase (MAPKK) or of the guanine nucleotide binding protein Ras, both of which activate MAPK, enhanced estrogen-induced and antiestrogen (tamoxifen)-induced transcriptional activity of wild-type ER, but not that of a mutant ER with an alanine in place of Ser118. Thus, the activity of the amino-terminal AF-1 of the ER is modulated by the phosphorylation of Ser118 through the Ras-MAPK cascade of the growth factor signaling pathways.. ...
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-triggered protein kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2) mediates multiple p38 MAPK-dependent inflammatory responses. at Ser-58. Computational modeling and calculation of theoretical binding energies predicted that both phosphorylation at Ser-58 and mutation of Ser-58 to Asp (S58D) jeopardized the ability of 14-3-3 to dimerize. Experimentally, S58D mutation significantly impaired both 14-3-3 dimerization and binding to Raf-1. These data suggest that MAPKAPK2-mediated phosphorylation regulates 14-3-3 functions, and this MAPKAPK2 activity may symbolize a novel pathway mediating p38 MAPK-dependent swelling. A diverse group of cellular responses are elicited by activation of a highly conserved family of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, which includes extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), c-jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs), ERK5, and p38 MAPKs. A large body of evidence shows that p38 MAPK activity is critical to immune and inflammatory responses. ...
Growth factors and various cellular stresses are known to activate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, which plays a role in conveying signals from the cytosol to the nucleus. The phosphorylation of MAP kinase is thought to be a prerequisite for translocation. Here, we investigate the translocation and activation of MAP kinase during ischaemia and reperfusion in perfused rat heart. Ischaemia (0-40 min) induces the translocation of MAP kinase from the cytosol fraction to the nuclear fraction. Immunohistochemical observation shows that MAP kinase staining in the nucleus is enhanced after ischaemia for 40 min. Unexpectedly, tyrosine phosphorylation of MAP kinase is unchanged in the nuclear fraction during ischaemia, indicating that unphosphorylated MAP kinase translocates from the cytosol to the nucleus. During reperfusion (0-30 min), after ischaemia for 20 min, tyrosine phosphorylation of MAP kinase in the nuclear fraction is increased with a peak at 10 min of reperfusion. The activation is ...
Background The mitogen-activated protein kinases, MAPKs for short, constitute cascades of signalling pathways involved in the regulation of several cellular processes that include cell proliferation, differentiation and motility. They also intervene in neurological processes like fear conditioning and memory. Since little remains known about the MAPK-Activated Protein Kinase, MAPKAPK5, we constructed the first MAPKAPK knockin mouse model, using a constitutive active variant of MAPKAPK5 and analyzed the resulting mice for changes in anxiety-related behaviour. Methods We performed primary SHIRPA observations during background breeding into the C57BL/6 background and assessed the behaviour of the background-bred animals on the elevated plus maze and in the light-dark test. Our results were analyzed using Chi-square tests and homo- and heteroscedatic T-tests; Results Female transgenic mice displayed increased amounts of head dips and open arm time on the maze, compared to littermate controls. In ...