Oxytocin and Personality. Evidence suggests that the neuropeptide oxytocin plays a role in social affiliation. This behavior may be related more to personality dimensions than specific psychiatric diagnoses. This study investigated the relationship between plasma oxytocin levels and personality dimensions using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) in 60 outpatients with major depression. The strongest correlation was between plasma oxytocin levels and the temperament dimension of Reward Dependence (0.425 Pearson correlation). This suggested that 17% of the variance in plasma oxytocin levels was explained by the Reward Dependence scores. There was a significant positive correlation between plasma oxytocin levels and the Reward Dependence personality dimension.. Nicknamed the "cuddle chemical" because it renders a warm and fuzzy feeling inside, oxytocin, (a naturally produced hormone) has been shown via brain scan to lower activity in the amygdala - a region which is overactive in social ...
Oxytocin is both a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland and also a brain neurotransmitter. The actions of oxytocin are mediated by specific, high affinity oxytocin receptors. Oxytocin has a well-recognized role in breastfeeding, and uterine contraction.. In sexual medicine, oxytocin has a role in orgasm. Several studies have found increases in plasma oxytocin at orgasm. Plasma oxytocin levels are notably increased around the time of orgasm and are still higher than baseline when measured 5 minutes after self-arousal. It is possible that oxytocins effects on muscle contractibility may facilitate male sperm and female egg transport. Oxytocin levels in women before and after sexual stimulation suggests that oxytocin serves an important role in sexual arousal. One study showed that genital tract stimulation resulted in increased oxytocin immediately after orgasm. Another study reported increases of oxytocin during sexual arousal in response to nipple/areola, genital, and/or genital tract ...
BACKGROUND A synthetic oxytocin analogue, barusiban, was shown to potently inhibit oxytocin-induced activity of myometrium from term pregnant women. The responsiveness to vasopressin was not influenced by the compound. OBJECTIVE To test the effect of barusiban and a reference compound, atosiban, on oxytocin-induced activity of myometrium from women at preterm pregnancy in comparison to myometrium from women at term. METHODS Fifteen preterm (30-36 gestational weeks) and 12 term pregnant women (38-41 weeks) who underwent cesarean delivery donated myometrial tissue for the study. Concentration-response curves following oxytocin administration to isolated myometrial strips were recorded in control experiments, in the presence of barusiban at concentrations of 2.5, 25, and 250 nM, and of atosiban at concentrations of 25, 250, and 750 nM. Effective concentration 50% (EC50) and pA2 values were calculated. RESULTS Both antagonists in higher concentrations increased the EC50 values to oxytocin. The median
[Besides its effect on the uterus and breasts, oxytocin also regulates affiliative behaviour. The so-called central oxytocin effect influences pair bonding, maternal care and attachment through the regulatory functions of oxytocin that acts as a neurotransmitter within the brain. The central oxytocin effect increases trust and social support, decreases fear and anxiety, and promotes wound healing. These effects form the basis of the stress-triggered, oxytocin-based calm and connection reaction. Some methods that are widely used in modern obstretric practice - such as the use of synthetic oxytocin for inducing or speeding up labour or epidural anaesthesia - hinder the psycho-emotive effects that are based on natural oxytocin. Epigenetic studies performed in animals indicate that the oxytocin effect experienced at birth can be transgenerational.]
Plasma oxytocin levels are significantly higher in oral contraceptive (OC) users than in to non-users, according to a study in Scientific Reports. The cross-sectional study of nearly 200 women also found that scores for satisfaction with life were higher among OC users.
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A recent study demonstrated that pregnant women with low oxytocin have a higher risk of postpartum depression. This should come as a surprise to no one. Studies have already demonstrated that low oxytocin release inhibits happy parenting. High oxytocin the opposite. Young non depressed fathers given oxytocin spray seem happier and are more likely to encourage their children to explore during playtime and are less likely to be hostile, compared to fathers given an oxytocin placebo. Mothers with higher oxytocin levels are less likely to be depressed adn more likely to coo to their babies in a playful voice, a speech scientists call "motherese." High oxytocin mothers smile more at their babies and are more flexible to changes in its moods. The additional touching, looking into the eyes, lullabys releases even more oxytocin in both mother, father and child. Parents that look into each others eyes release more oxytocin. A test for parents with low oxytocin may one day help to identify mothers and ...
The aim of this thesis was to determine any association between plasma oxytocin and vasopressin concentrations and renal water and sodium excretion during normal pregnancy. In addition to investigate changes in concentrations of estradiol, progesterone, oxytocin, cortisol, and glucose in the blood before and in the nearest hours after delivery and if treatment with oxytocin affected these concentrations and the fluid balance during the different stages of labour.. Oxytocin, vasopressin, estradiol, progesterone, and cortisol were analysed in blood plasma or serum by radioimmunoassay or ELISA: serum glucose, and osmolality, and sodium in plasma and urine were analysed by standard laboratory techniques.. Fifty-seven women were studied during pregnancy and fifty-one during parturition and post partum. The low plasma vasopressin and increasing plasma oxytocin concentrations with unchanged water and sodium excretion indicate that oxytocin assists vasopressin in concentrating urine during ...
The aim of this study was to use functional neuroimaging to investigate whether oxytocin modulates the neural response to visual food cues in brain regions involved in the control of food intake. Twenty-four normal weight volunteers received intranasal oxytocin (24 IU) or placebo in a double-blind, randomized crossover study. Measurements were made forty-five minutes after dosing. On two occasions, functional MRI (fMRI) scans were performed in the fasted state; the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to images of high-calorie foods versus low-calorie foods was measured. Given its critical role in eating behaviour, the primary region of interest was the hypothalamus. Secondary analyses examined the parabrachial nuclei and other brain regions involved in food intake and food reward. Intranasal oxytocin administration suppressed hypothalamic activation to images of high-calorie compared to low-calorie food (P = 0.0125). There was also a trend towards suppression of activation in the ...
Oxytocin is a hormone produced by the brain that appears to have important roles in social cognition and emotion in humans. In a pilot study, the effects of a single dose of oxytocin on measures of emotion recognition and behaviour in patients with Frontotemporal Dementia were investigated. The results from the pilot study suggested that oxytocin may be associated with a modest improvement in neuropsychiatric behaviours seen in patients with Frontotemporal Dementia. To further examine the safety and tolerability of oxytocin in this disorder, the present study will examine the safety and tolerability of three different doses of intranasal oxytocin administered to patients with Frontotemporal Dementia twice daily for 1 week ...
The oxytocin-inactivating activity (OIA) of liver, kidney, uterus, pancreas, spleen and duodenum homogenates of hens was studied. The first-order constant of oxytocin inactivation was higher in the liver and pancreas than in the uterus and kidney or in the duodenum and spleen. Using synthetic analogues of oxytocin (deamino-oxytocin, deamino-carba1-oxytocin and carba1-oxytocin the mechanism of enzymic inactivation of oxytocin by hen tissue was investigated.. Enzymic hydrolysis by the CH2-terminal cleavage was most marked in duodenum (about 86% OIA) and kidney (54·8% OIA). Reduction of the disulphide bridge was most marked in the uterus (about 80% OIA) and pancreas (about 73% OIA). Splitting by non-specific aminopeptidases after reduction of the disulphide bridge occurred mainly in the liver (72% OIA) and in the spleen (44% OIA). ...
PART 2 The endogenous oxytocin system changes and matures over time as part of normal development. This paper postulates that individual factors and early external influences (i.e. parenting, stress and illness) affect the developing endogenous oxytocin system and its connectivity with other systems affecting oxytocin levels and alter responsiveness of the oxytocin system. When…
Abstract: Background: Oxytocin, a commonly used drug to prevent uterine atony after caesarean section, should be administered as dilute rapid infusion rather than as a bolus. This study was conducted to calculate ED90 of oxytocin infusion during caesarean delivery in parturients at high risk of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty parturients having one or more risk factors for PPH received a blinded infusion of oxytocin following emergency caesarean delivery. The initial dose of oxytocin infusion was started as 0.4 IU min−1. The dose of oxytocin infusion for the next parturient was based on the response of preceding patient in increments or decrements of 0.1 IU min−1 as per a biased-coin design up-down sequential method (UDM). Measurements of non-invasive blood pressure and heart rate were taken at 2 min intervals from the time of oxytocin infusion. Intraoperative blood loss was noted. Side effects such as tachycardia, hypotension, nausea, vomiting, ...
Anxious patients treated with even the best currently available anti-anxiety drugs continue to experience significant symptoms.. A variety of basic science, animal studies, and human studies support the idea that the neuropeptide oxytocin may be effective against anxiety in humans. For example, plasma oxytocin levels may function as an index of central serotonin (5-HT) function in human subjects, and serotonin is well-known to be involved in clinical anxiety disorders. Since oxytocin is released directly from limbic-hypothalamic cells, this response presumably represents a direct central assessment of 5-HT response in limbic-hypothalamus (Lee 2003). In animal models, Ring 2006 examined the effects of oxytocin on both behavioral and autonomic parameters of the anxiety response in male mice using three pharmacologically validated preclinical models of anxiety: the four-plate test (FPT), elevated zero maze (EZM), and stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH). The results from this study provide specific ...
A highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) for oxytocin was developed and used to measure oxytocin concentrations during both suckling and parturition in individual rats. In urethane-anaesthetized rats, the suckling stimuli, provided by ten pups, induced intermittent increases in intramammary pressure of about 10 mmHg. This was associated with a significant (P , 0·01) increase in serum oxytocin levels from 19·5 ± 4·5 (s.e.m., n = 9) to 49·1 ± 7·4 pmol/l (n = 9) in the samples taken within 30 s from the time of the peak in the pressure. These rises in serum oxytocin returned rapidly to the basal levels as expected from the short half-life (1·46 min) of oxytocin in general circulation.. On day 22 or 23 of gestation, serum oxytocin levels remained stable until 0-0·5 h before the first fetus was expelled. They then increased significantly (P , 0·01) from 27·6± 4·6 pmol/l (n = 19) in samples taken 0-0·5 h before to 45·1 ± 5·6 pmol/l in samples taken after the expulsion of ...
Maybe Im jumping too quickly to put two and two together but juxtaposing the description of the effect of Smiths Nambian root with the actions of oxytocin, I cant but wonder if there is some connection. There are numerous examples of other plants which contain hormones. Could this root contain oxytocin or could something in it stimulate oxytocin release in people? Food for thought, eh?. Here is concise but partial summary of oxytocins actions in the brain from Wikipedia:. 1. Sexual arousal. Oxytocin injected into the cerebrospinal fluid causes spontaneous erections in rats, reflecting actions in the hypothalamus and spinal cord. 2. Bonding. In the Prairie Vole, oxytocin released into the brain of the female during sexual activity is important for forming a monogamous pair bond with her sexual partner. Vasopressin appears to have a similar effect in males. In people, plasma concentrations of oxytocin have been reported to be higher amongst people who claim to be falling in love. Oxytocin has ...
Hypothalamic oxytocin (OT) is released into the brain by cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) with or without depolarizing stimulation. Previously, we showed that the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) that seems to trigger OT release can be elevated by -NAD+, cADPR, and ADP in mouse oxytocinergic neurons. As these -NAD+ metabolites activate warm-sensitive TRPM2 cation channels, when the incubation temperature is increased, the [Ca2+]i in hypothalamic neurons is elevated. However, it has not been determined whether OT release is facilitated by heat in vitro or hyperthermia in vivo in combination with cADPR. Furthermore, it has not been examined whether CD38 and TRPM2 exert their functions on OT release during stress or stress-induced hyperthermia in relation to the anxiolytic roles and social behaviors of OT under stress conditions. Here, we report that OT release from the isolated hypothalami of male mice in culture was enhanced by extracellular application of cADPR or increasing the
AMHERST, Mass. - The hormone oxytocin appears to increase social behaviors in newborn rhesus monkeys, say researchers at the National Institutes of Health, the University of Parma, Italy, and the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Findings suggest that oxytocin is a promising candidate for new treatments for developmental disorders affecting social skills and bonding.. Oxytocin, a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, is involved in labor, birth and breast milk production. Studies have also shown that oxytocin plays a role in parental bonding, mating and social interactions. Because of this, many researchers have suggested that oxytocin might be useful in treating conditions affecting social behavior such as autism spectrum disorders.. Earlier research in adults has shown that oxytocin increases certain social behaviors, says behavioral endocrinologist Jerrold Meyer of UMass Amherst, but the current study is the first to show that it may have the same effect in primate infants, including ...
The effect of oxytocin on phosphoinositide metabolism as well as on membrane protein phosphorylation in myometrial tissue was studied. Oxytocin enhanced the 32P incorporation into phospholipids in myometrial tissue. The effect of oxytocin on phosphoinositide metabolism was also detected in plasma membrane of 20 days pregnant rats. Phosphorylated membrane lipids have been analysed and phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate proved to be the main reaction product. Oxytocin enhanced the 32P incorporation into phospholipids measured in the first 30 sec then the labeling decreased more rapidly then in case of the control. The effect of oxytocin proved to be concentration dependent. The protein phosphorylation was also influenced by oxytocin. However the amount of alkylphosphate formed depended on the presence or absence of Ca2+, Ca2+-calmodulin and cyclic AMP, oxytocin influenced the protein phosphorylation in the presence of Ca2+-calmodulin only.
Oxytocin Injection may be used as a uterine contractor to precipitate and accelerate normal parturition, the postpartum evacuation of uterine debris, and to facilitate udder milk-letdown.
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Oxytocin is critical for lactation and maternal care, but oxytocin and the related nonapeptide vasopressin are important for caregiving behaviors in fathers and alloparents as well. This experiment tested the effects of vasopressin and oxytocin on food sharing in marmoset families. We treated caregivers (parents, siblings) with intranasal vasopressin, oxytocin, or saline, and then paired them with the youngest marmoset in the family. Caregivers were given preferred food, and then observed for food sharing and aggressive behavior with young marmosets. Oxytocin reduced food sharing from male alloparents to youngest siblings, and fathers that received vasopressin refused to share food with their youngest offspring more often than when treated with oxytocin. Vasopressin increased aggressive vocalizations directed toward potential food recipients in all classes of caregivers. These results indicate that vasopressin and oxytocin do not always enhance prosocial behavior: modulation of food sharing depends on
Elephant specific information, if available, is in blue.. Chemistry - A nonapeptide hypothalamic hormone stored in the posterior pituitary (in mammals), oxytocin occurs as a white powder that is soluble in water. The commercially available preparations are highly purified and have virtually no antidiuretic or vasopressor activity when administered at usual doses. Oxytocin potency is standardized according to its vasopressor activity in chickens and is expressed in USP Posterior Pituitary Units. One unit is equivalent of approximately 2.0 - 2.2 micrograms of pure hormone.. Commercial preparations of oxytocin injection have their pH adjusted with acetic acid to 2.5-4.5 and multi-dose vials generally contain chlorbutanol 0.5% as a preservative.. Storage/Stability/Compatibility - Oxytocin injection should be stored at temperatures of less than 25°C, but should not be frozen. Some manufacturers recommend storing the product under refrigeration (2-8°C), but some products have been demonstrated to be ...
Chronic oxytocin administration inhibits food intake, increases energy expenditure, and produces weight loss in fructose-fed obese rhesus monkeys: © 2015 the Am
The main goal of the study is to look at the effects of intranasal oxytocin on the brain in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Oxytocin is a hormone that exists
Question: What is oxytocin?. Paul: Oxytocin is a mammalian neurochemical that your brain makes and is released during almost any positive social interaction. It motivates us to engage with other people. When your brain makes oxytocin, you have an increased sense of empathy for about ½ hour and reduced stress. During that time, you are more motivated to connect to people around you . The release of oxytocin also activates a much larger network in the brain, called the HOME Network: Human Oxytocin Mediated Empathy system. Oxytocin facilitates the mid-brain to release a chemical called dopamine that is essentially the reward signal. It makes us feel good. Nature has set up a system that rewards us we connect to others, as we relax and feel good.. The HOME Network directly improves the systems of depression, anxiety, and loneliness. It can also directly impact and potentially slow tumor growth by reducing the production of the stress hormone cortisol. Question: What has your oxytocin research ...
The neuropeptide oxytocin has been implicated in social behavior and is being evaluated as a possible treatment for autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but the neural mechanisms through which oxytocin modulates social behavior remain largely unknown. One possibility is that social interaction recruits the brains reward circuits and that oxytocin plays a role in this process, which ultimately reinforces social behavior. In a recent study, Dolen et al. elucidate key circuits and mechanisms through which oxytocin can modulate social behavior via actions on the nucleus accumbems, a key component of the brains reward circuitry.. Dolen et al. studied social conditioned place preference (social CPP), in which mice prefer to spend time in a chamber that was previously associated with social interaction instead of in a chamber previously associated with social isolation. This task measures the rewarding effects of social interactions. Dolen et al. found that ablating presynaptic oxytocin ...
Oxytocin production increases the more you get the stress out of your life. A very interesting aspect of this hormone is, the more you increase it, the more you make!
The first bit of evidence that points to oxytocin as natures love glue comes from researchers who measured the hormone in couples. Psychology professor Ruth Feldman at Bar-Ilan University in Israel, spent years studying oxytocins role in the mother-child bond and recently decided to dive into the uncharted waters of romantic bonds by comparing oxytocin levels in new lovers and singles. "The increase in oxytocin during the period of falling in love was the highest that we ever found," she says of a study she and her colleagues published in Psychoneuroendocrinology. New lovers had double the amount Feldman usually sees in pregnant women ...
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the involvement of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine - 5-HT) receptors in mediation of stress-induced arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) secretion in male rats.. DESIGN: Experiments on laboratory rats with control groups.. METHODS: Different stress paradigms were applied after pretreatment with intracerebroventricular infusion of saline or different 5-HT antagonists.. RESULTS: Restraint stress (5 min), hypotensive hemorrhage or dehydration for 24 h increased AVP secretion fivefold and OT secretion threefold. Swim stress for 3 min had no effect on AVP secretion, but increased OT secretion threefold. Ether vapor or hypoglycemia had no effect on AVP or OT secretion. The restraint stress-induced AVP response was inhibited by pretreatment with the 5-HT(2A+2C) antagonists ketanserin (KET) and LY-53857 (LY) and the 5-HT(3+4) antagonist ICS-205930 (ICS), whereas the 5-HT(1A) antagonist WAY-100635 (WAY) had no effect. The OT response to restraint stress was inhibited by ...
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This study used population-based data to examine the relationship between peripartum synthetic oxytocin administration and the development of depressive and anxiety disorders within the first year postpartum.
Human beings make decisions based on implicit and explicit processes. The implicit processes are regulated by hormones; however, the same hormone could affect multiple behaviors. In this study, I will modify oxytocin levels by manipulating feelings of trustworthiness and observe if the changes in oxytocin levels affect a distinct construct controlled by this hormone: evaluative processes of romantic stimuli. I will utilize a neuroeconomic game to manipulate endogenous oxytocin levels and observe whether this manipulation changes peoples attitudes towards romantic pictures and their overall desire for a romantic connection.
Oxytocin, a peptide produced in the brain, may bring hearts together or it can help induce aggression. That conclusion arises from unique research by scientist in which mice living in semi-natural conditions had their oxytocin producing brain cells manipulated in a highly precise manner. The findings could shed new light on efforts to use oxytocin to treat a variety of psychiatric conditions, from social anxiety and autism to schizophrenia.
Background: Research in mammals has demonstrated the involvement of oxytocin (OT) in social bond formation; yet, its role in human bonding remains unclear. Plasma OT has been used as a proxy for central activity and studies indicate its association with human affiliative behaviors. Molecular genetic studies also reveal a role for OT neuropathways in shaping the social brain. However, the links between peripheral OT, genetic markers, and their combined contribution to human parenting are unknown. Methods: Participants included 352 individuals: 272 mothers and fathers and their 4- to 6-month-old-infants and 80 nonparents. Plasma OT was assayed from adults who were genotyped for oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and CD38 risk alleles associated with social dysfunctions. CD38 is an ectoenzyme that mediates the release of brain OT. Parent-infant interactions were microcoded for parental touch and gaze synchrony and participants reported on parental care in childhood. Results: OXTR (rs2254298 and rs1042778) ...
Oxytocin analogues (pitocin, Syntocinon®) are used to induce labour and support labour in case of non-progression of the parturition. It has largely replaced ergotamine as the principal agent to increase uterine tone in acute postpartum haemorrhage. An oxytocin nose spray may be a useful adjunct to stimulate breastfeeding. Inhibition of oxytocin action is the mode of action of the new tocolytic agent atosiban (Tractocile®), which is registered in many countries to suppress premature labour between 24 and 33 weeks of gestation. It has fewer side-effects than drugs previously used for this purpose (ritodrine, salbutamol and terbutaline). A 2005 study by Fehr et al suggested that nasally administered oxytocin worked to generate trust in humans. They demonstrated that in a risky investment game, experimental subjects given the hormone displayed what the researchers deemed "the highest level of trust" twice as often as the control group who were given placebos. The same experiment with the subjects ...
Development of myometrium in young female rats was stimulated by administration of diethylstilboestrol. Plasma membrane and sarcoplasmic reticulum from rat myometrium were separated by a new and rapid method using a Percoll gradient. Calcium uptake was inhibited in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from oxytocin-treated myometrium, while no consistent effect of oxytocin was found on the Ca2+ uptake in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Oxytocin regulated the plasma membrane Ca2+ pump by decreasing its apparent affinity for Ca2+ without affecting its maximal velocity. The K1/2 for Ca2+ in the absence of calmodulin was 0.41 +/- 0.04 microM in normal membranes; this was increased to 0.93 +/- 0.12 microM in oxytocin-treated membranes. Calmodulin decreased the K1/2 for Ca2+ to 0.27 +/- 0.027 microM and oxytocin also increased this, to 0.46 +/- 0.061 microM. The effect of oxytocin on the plasma membrane Ca2+ pump was highly dependent on the hormonal status of the animals. When the diethylstilboestrol was ...
Oxytocin is a hormone primarily known for increasing bonding, social behaviour and closeness between parents, children and couples. Increased oxytocin levels have been found, for example, in partners in functional relationships. In women, it is also produced during the childbirth process and during breastfeeding to increase the mothers bond with the baby.
Trust pervades human societies. Trust is indispensable in friendship, love, families and organizations, and plays a key role in economic exchange and politics. In the absence of trust among trading partners, market transactions break down. In the absence of trust in a countrys institutions and leaders, political legitimacy breaks down. Much recent evidence indicates that trust contributes to economic, political and social success. Little is known, however, about the biological basis of trust among humans. Here we show that intranasal administration of oxytocin, a neuropeptide that plays a key role in social attachment and affiliation in non-human mammals, causes a substantial increase in trust among humans, thereby greatly increasing the benefits from social interactions. We also show that the effect of oxytocin on trust is not due to a general increase in the readiness to bear risks. On the contrary, oxytocin specifically affects an individuals willingness to accept social risks arising through
Ive linked before to this article that speculates that women with low oxytocin levels may experience depression associated with weaning from breastfeeding. Specifically, previous studies have suggested that women who have naturally low levels of oxytocin will suffer from depression. That made sense to me. When you breastfeed, your body is supposed to release oxytocin,…
CAS NO.:50-56-6About Oxytocin : Oxytocin is a mammalian hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain.It is best known for its roles in female reproduction: it is released in large amounts after distension of the cervix and vagina during labor, and after stimulation of the nipples, facilitating birth and breastfeeding, respectively. Recent studies have begun to investigate oxytocins role in various behaviors, including orgasm, social recognition, pair bonding, anxiety, trust, love, and maternal behaviors.
Neuropeptides are small molecules that act as messengers between different brain regions. There are roughly 100 neuropeptides that are important for a variety of functions, including hunger, memory, and learning. Oxytocin is one such neuropeptide, playing a crucial role in childbirth and breastfeeding. More recently, oxytocin has been shown to be essential for our social behaviors. When given to people in the form of a nasal spray, oxytocin can change key aspects of social behavior, such as how well we can recognize emotions in others. As people with autism spectrum conditions have difficulties in how social information is understood and used, scientists have been testing oxytocin nasal spray as a potential treatment. But how does oxytocin nasal spray travel from the nose to the brain, and how does it change how we behave socially?
Helen Shen offers a review of studies on oxytocin, the "hug hormone," which influences maternal behavior and social attachment in various species. She notes research showing that oxytocin acts on inhibitory interneurons in a way that quiets background chatter within neuronal circuits, and thus may help social interaction and recognition is by enhancing the brains response to socially relevant sights, sounds or other stimuli. MindBlog has done posts on experiments showing that oxytocin, delivered through an intranasal spray, can promote various aspects of social behavior in healthy adults. People who inhale oxytocin before playing an investment game are more willing to entrust their money to a stranger than are placebo-treated players. A dose of the hormone increases the amount of time people spend gazing at the eye region of faces, and improves their ability to infer the emotional state of others from subtle expressions. Shens review also summarizes efforts to test oxytocins usefulness in ...
A recent study has demonstrated that intranasal oxytocin can influence how individuals with autism perceive emotion in others. This is an important first step for a potential pharmacological treatment of autism.
Oxytocin and Vassopressin are pituitary hormones.. (I-Newswire) - Over the past few years, neuroscientists have begun reporting evidence solidifying the possible roles of OT and VP in social behavior, both normal (bonding, romance) and pathological (autism, aggression). In a recent human study, Swiss and American scientists have also reported that intranasal spray containing the hormone oxytocin increases trust between humans by reducing the anxiety of risks that arise through interpersonal interactions. Robert Ring, a researcher with the Wyeth Discovery Neuroscience group, said that perhaps the time is right for drugmakers to take a closer look at the important roles these two substances play inside the brain. The pharmaceutical industry has been very successful in developing medicines aimed at regulating the hormonal effects of these two pituitary hormones on peripheral systems. Pitocin, an oxytocin-like molecule, was developed and commonly used to induce contractions during birth. Similarly, ...
hormone that reduces smooth muscle influences the uterus.It is due to begin oxytocin birth.In addition, the effect of the hormone on the breast promotes the release of milk.Of course, it ensures the production of another substance, prolactin, oxytocin, but it contributes to the removal of the breast.To stop the bleeding after gynecological operations, also using oxytocin.It counteracts the effects of progesterone.If progesterone is not enough, the contractile effects of oxytocin on the uterus lead to miscarriage.The impact on the psyche is associated with increased benevolence, propensity to trust the other party.In the postpartum period, relations between mother and infant, oxytocin regulates it.Hormone provides attachment to the mother the baby, helping him to understand the mood and reduces the feelings of fear and anxiety.. ...
This pilot study using a quasi-experimental design was conducted to evaluate the feasibility (i.e., limited efficacy, practicality, and acceptability) of our intervention protocol involving inhalation of the scent of clary sage essential oil by pregnant women and measurement of their preinhalation and postinhalation oxytocin levels. Participants were women of singleton pregnancies between 38 and 40 gestation weeks (N = 11). The experiment group (n = 5) inhaled the scent of clary sage essential oil diluted 50-fold with 10 mL of odorless propylene glycol for 20 min. Regarding limited efficacy, the oxytocin level 15 min postinhalation increased in 3 women and was unmeasurable in 2. The control group (n = 6) inhaled similarly without the 50-fold dilution of clary sage essential oil. Their oxytocin level increased in 2 women, decreased in 2, and was unmeasurable in 2. Uterine contraction was not observed in both groups. Regarding practicality, 3 of the 11 women could not collect sufficient saliva. The
Researchers report that the hormone oxytocin may promote fidelity by affecting the distance men keep from unknown women they find attractive.
The neuroscientists also found a relationship between oxytocin levels in husbands and wives. Since oxytocin levels are highly stable within individuals, this finding suggests that some mechanisms, perhaps social or hormonal factors, regulate oxytocin levels in an interactive way within couples.