We thank Dr Poullis for his interest and are glad that our articles are stimulating new ideas.R1 R2 In our initial mathematical analysis, we developed an equation (Equation 1 in Dr Poullis letter) that related systemic oxygen delivery to cardiac output, the ratio of pulmonary to systemic blood flow (QP/QS), the oxygen content in pulmonary venous blood, and whole body oxygen consumption. Each of these variables can be independently changed. For example, cardiac output can be changed without the necessity of altering QP/QS.. By making a substitution of variables, Dr Poullis develops another equation (Equation 3 in his letter). This equation presents systemic oxygen delivery as a function of systemic blood flow (QS), QS/QP, the oxygen content in pulmonary venous blood, and whole body oxygen consumption. Although the equation is mathematically valid, the conclusion that systemic oxygen delivery is not a function of cardiac output is invalid. Dr Poullis includes QS/QP ratio and Qs as 2 independent ...
1. Arginine vasopressin reduces whole-body oxygen consumption in conscious dogs. To determine whether this decrease could result from limited oxygen delivery, studies were performed in two groups of chronically instrumented dogs.. 2. In the first group (n = 7), vasopressin was infused at a rate of 18.5 pmol min−1 kg−1 while the animals were breathing 10% oxygen. Hypoxaemia alone (arterial partial pressure of oxygen 4.67 kPa) decreased whole-body oxygen delivery by 30%. The fall in whole-body oxygen consumption induced by vasopressin during hypoxaemia was not different from that measured under normoxic conditions, even though whole-body oxygen delivery was more reduced.. 3. In a second group of seven dogs, hindquarter blood flow (electromagnetic flowmeter on lower abdominal aorta) and oxygen consumption (blood flow multiplied by arteriovenous oxygen difference) were measured as infusions of vasopressin were given either systemically or into the lower abdominal aorta. Systemic vasopressin ...
If you are anything like me, when I first was learning about nutrition and our bodys metabolism I was trying to take in information from everywhere. It wasnt just good enough to know that eating green leafy veggies was healthy, I wanted to know why? I didnt want to just accept that High Intensity Interval Training was a better way to burn fat, I wanted to know why? I think the knowledge of knowing why is so important in making lasting changes to your lifestyle. You dont just have to take someone elses word for it, you understand the science behind it. If you guys are ok with it I would love to share some science with you from time to time, those of you that are like me trying to find your way with your fitness and health and want to go deeper you have us as a resource. So today wanted to share with you the concept of EPOC or Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption ...
The portion of oxygen consumed after exercise that removes excess lactic acid from the blood. A small amount of the excess lactic acid is excreted in urine and sweat; a little contributes to the manufacture of protein; some is converted to glucose or glycogen in the liver and muscle, but most of the lactic acid produced during exercise is reconverted into pyruvic acid and used in aerobic metabolism to form carbon dioxide and water. Approximately 5-10 L of oxygen forms the lactacid post-exercise oxygen consumption; it is usually higher in highly trained athletes, especially sprinters. ...
Purpose: Allometric is a method for the expression of relationship between the physiological variables, anatomical with unit of the body size that through mathematical methods can calculate vital capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluation of pulmonary function for estimation of peak oxygen consumption through the respiratory gas analysis and allometric equation in boy student. Methods: In this causal after the occurrence study, 80 subjects were selected by convenience sampling. Characteristics of anthropometric, chest circumference (diameter and depth of the chest), and for estimation of peak oxygen consumption, Bruce test, where was measured using the validated methods. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple regressions in SPSS version 16. Result: There were not significant correlations between TV, IRV, ERV, and FVC with peak oxygen consumption. While, There was significant positive correlation between FVC and peak oxygen consumption (p=0.041 & r=0.229) and between ...
The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body. The a-vO2 diff and cardiac output are the main factors that allow variation in the bodys total oxygen consumption, and are important in measuring VO2. The a-vO2 diff is usually measured in millilitres of oxygen per 100 millilitres of blood (mL/100 mL). The arteriovenous oxygen difference is usually taken by comparing the difference in the oxygen concentration of oxygenated blood in the femoral, brachial, or radial artery and the oxygen concentration in the deoxygenated blood from the mixed supply found in the pulmonary artery (as an indicator of the typical mixed venous supply). Put in simple terms: a-vO2 diff = Ca - Cv where: Ca = the oxygen concentration of arterial blood (oxygenated blood) Cv = the oxygen concentration of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acute volume expansion with colloid increases oxygen delivery and consumption but does not improve the oxygen extraction in severe preeclampsia. AU - Belfort, Michael A.. AU - Saade, George R.. AU - Wasserstrum, Nathan. AU - Johansen, Richard. AU - Anthony, John. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - The objective of this study was to determine the effect of volume expansion with colloid on oxygen consumption (VO2), oxygen delivery (DO2) and the oxygen extraction ratio in patients with severe preeclampsia. The study was prospective and descriptive and took place in the tertiary care labor and delivery unit in a university hospital. Fourteen women with severe preeclampsia who received a pulmonary artery catheter and radial arterial line to monitor their hemodynamic and respiratory status took part in the study. Patients who had received prior medication or volume expansion were excluded. The intervention employed was acute volume expansion, using colloidal solutions (Dextran 70 or ...
Devices and methods for improving cardiac efficiency involve measuring, patient-internally, an oxygen saturation parameter indicative of oxygen usage of myocardial tissue of the heart. A cardiac electrical therapy is adjusted to cause a change of the measured oxygen saturation parameter, and the adjusted cardiac electrical therapy is selected for delivery based on a changed oxygen saturation parameter indicative of an increase in cardiac efficiency.
The temperature dependence of aerobic scope has been suggested to be a major determinant of how marine animals will cope with future rises in environmental temperature. Here, we present data suggesting that in some animals, the temperature dependence of anaerobic scope (i.e., the capacity for surviving severe hypoxia) may determine present-day latitudinal distributions and potential for persistence in a warmer future. As a model for investigating the role of anaerobic scope, we studied two sibling species of coral-dwelling gobies, Gobiodon histrio, and G. erythrospilus, with different latitudinal distributions, but which overlap in equal abundance at Lizard Island (14°40′S) on the Great Barrier Reef. These species did not differ in the temperature dependence of resting oxygen consumption or critical oxygen concentration (the lowest oxygen level where resting oxygen consumption can be maintained). In contrast, the more equatorial species (G. histrio) had a better capacity to endure anaerobic ...
The effect of work rate on oxygen uptake kinetics during exhaustive severe intensity cycling exercise Jennifer L. Sylvester, Samantha D. Burdette, Steven W. Cross, Nosa O. Idemudia, John, H. Curtis, Jakob L. Vingren, David W. Hill. Applied Physiology Laboratory, University of North Texas, Denton, TX During exhaustive severe intensity exercise, the oxygen uptake (VO2) increases exponentially, with a time constant of ~30 s. After ~1 to 2 min, a slow component emerges and drives the VO2 to its maximum. There are clear differences in the VO2 response profile across exercise intensity domains. These disparities might not be attributable to metabolic demand but, rather, to characteristics of the various intensity domains, such as the consequences of lactic acid production. PURPOSE: To investigate the role of exercise intensity on the VO2 response profile at intensities wholly within the severe domain. METHODS: Four women (mean ± SD: age 22 ± 2 years, height 167 ± 7 cm, mass 66 ± 5 kg) and eight men
Using the C2C12 mouse muscle myoblast cell line, I sought to investigate the hypothesis that differentiation under hypoxia impairs muscle mitochondrial respiratory function irreversibly. Resveratrol (RSV) will increase expression of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and reverse the hypoxia-induced depression of O2 consumption rates. Hypoxia decreased oxygen consumption rates after five days of differentiation and after two days of normoxic recovery. This coincided with a hypoxia-induced decrease in protein levels of the NDUFB8 subunit of complex I of the electron transport chain and decreases in mRNA levels of mitochondrial biogenesis transcription factors, both of which could contribute to the alterations observed in oxygen consumption rates. Normoxic recovery supplemented with RSV did increase oxygen consumption rates, however this increase was not observed across all oxygen concentrations that were measured which may have be associated with the decreases in cell viability observed with RSV
Despite the use of water treadmills (WT) in conditioning horses, the intensity of WT exercise has not been well documented. The workload on a WT is a function of water height and treadmill speed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of these factors on workload during WT exercise. Fifteen client-owned Quarter Horses were used in a randomized, controlled study. Three belt speeds and three water heights (mid cannon, carpus and stifle), along with the control condition (dry treadmill, all three speeds), were tested. Measured outcomes were oxygen consumption (V̇O2), ventilation (respiratory frequency, tidal volume (VT)), heart rate (HR), and blood lactate. An ergospirometry system was used to measure V̇O2 and ventilation. Linear mixed effects models were used to examine the effects of presence or absence of water, water height and speed (as fixed effects) on measured outcomes. Water height and its interaction with speed had a significant effect on V̇O2, VT and HR, all peaking
Supervised exercise (SE) in patients with type 2 diabetes improves oxygen uptake kinetics at the onset of exercise. Maintenance of these improvements, however, has not been examined when supervision is removed. We explored if potential improvements in oxygen uptake kinetics following a 12-week SE that combined aerobic and resistance training were maintained after a subsequent 12-week unsupervised exercise (UE). The involvement of cardiac output (CO) in these improvements was also tested. Nineteen volunteers with type 2 diabetes were recruited. Oxygen uptake kinetics and CO (inert gas rebreathing) responses to constant-load cycling at 50% ventilatory threshold (VT), 80% VT, and mid-point between VT and peak workload (50% Δ) were examined at baseline (on 2 occasions) and following each 12-week training period. Participants decided to exercise at a local gymnasium during the UE. Thirteen subjects completed all the interventions. The time constant of phase 2 of oxygen uptake was significantly ...
We first examined effects of 200 nM TAT (Trans-Activator of Transcription)-HKII peptide treatment, which was previously shown to acutely decrease mtHKII by ~ 30%. In Langendorff-perfused hearts TAT-HKII resulted in a modest, but significant, increased oxygen consumption, while cardiac performance was unchanged. At the metabolic level, there was a nonsignificant (p = 0.076) ~ 40% decrease in glucose contribution to pyruvate and lactate formation through glycolysis and to mitochondrial citrate synthase flux (6.6 ± 1.1 vs. 11.2 ± 2.2%), and an 35% increase in tissue pyruvate (27 ± 2 vs. 20 ± 2 pmol/mg; p = 0.033). Secondly, we compared WT and HKII+/− hearts (50% chronic decrease in total HKII). RNA sequencing revealed no differential gene expression between WT and HKII+/− hearts indicating an absence of metabolic reprogramming at the transcriptional level. Langendorff-perfused hearts showed no significant differences in glycolysis (0.34 ± 0.03 μmol/min), glucose contribution to citrate ...
en] To study the mechanism of oxygen regulation in inflammation-induced acute kidney injury, we investigate the effects of a bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) on the basal respiration of proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) both by high-resolution respirometry and electron spin resonance spectroscopy. These two complementary methods have shown that HK-2 cells exhibit a decreased oxygen consumption rate when treated with LPS. Surprisingly, this cellular respiration alteration persists even after the stress factor was removed. We suggested that this irreversible decrease in renal oxygen consumption after LPS challenge is related to a pathologic metabolic down-regulation such as a lack of oxygen utilization by cells ...
Neuronal injury due to seizures may result from a mismatch of energy demand and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis. However, ATP demand and oxygen consumption rates have not been accurately determined, yet, for different patterns of epileptic activity, such as interictal and ictal events. We studied interictal-like and seizure-like epileptiform activity induced by the GABAA antagonist bicuculline alone, and with co-application of the M-current blocker XE-991, in rat hippocampal slices. Metabolic changes were investigated based on recording partial oxygen pressure, extracellular potassium concentration, and intracellular flavine adenine dinucleotide (FAD) redox potential. Recorded data were used to calculate oxygen consumption and relative ATP consumption rates, cellular ATP depletion, and changes in FAD/FADH2 ratio by applying a reactive-diffusion and a two compartment metabolic model. Oxygen-consumption rates were ca. five times higher during seizure activity than interictal activity. Additionally,
Figure CMB1: Components of the Mitochondrial electron transport chain with electron donors rate of oxygen consumption, increases when uncouplers are present and is affected only.. In the equation, α is the absorption coefficient of O. Oxygen consumption, proton motive force (PMF) and proton leak are that allows dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) by uncoupling oxidative The overall goal of measuring mitochondrial oxygen consumption and proton. Example calculation based on concentrations in protocol.. respirometry, mitochondrial oxygen affinities (1/P50) are reviewed with particular emphasis on the turnover effect the uncoupled respiration observed under control by ADP, as shown by relationships derived oxygen consumed, i.e. a diminished ADP/O2 flux . (B) Transition periods of ADP-injection and calculation of ...
Students nowadays face tremendous pressure in school: Longer hours of studies, increasing homework, additional projects and Co-Curricular Activities (CCAs). To cope with all these, students need the fuel for their brains to stay focused and absorb what is being taught during classes. During revision for examinations, the need for the right fuel is even more important to ensure the brain can carry out its functions well in order for students to achieve their goals for their revision and ultimately, perform better during examinations.. In order to ensure these functions can be carried out smoothly, the brain must have a constant supply of nutrients and oxygen to it. The oxygen intake for brain is actually TWENTY PERCENT of the whole bodys oxygen consumption. So it is important to keep the brain supplied with enough oxygen and along with it, the necessary nutrients for the brain to function well. Here we recommend three types of super brain food:. ...
The original method described by Fick in 1870 is difficult to carry out. Oxygen consumption is derived by measuring the expired gas volume over a known time and the difference in oxygen concentration between this expired gas and inspired gas. Accurate collection of the gas is difficult unless the patient has an endotracheal tube, because of leaks around a facemask or mouthpiece. Analysis of the gas is straightforward if the inspired gas is air, but if it is oxygen-enriched air there are two problems, (a) the addition of oxygen may fluctuate and produce an error due to the non-constancy of the inspired oxygen concentration, and (b) it is difficult to measure small changes in oxygen concentration at the top end of the scale. The denominator of the equation, the arteriovenous oxygen content difference, presents a further problem, in that the mixed venous (i.e. pulmonary arterial) oxygen content has to be measured and therefore a pulmonary artery catheter is needed to obtain the sample. ...
The oxygen consumption of cerebral arterioles from anesthetized cats was measured using the Cartesian diver microrespirometer following in vitro incubation with 200 micrograms/ml of arachidonate or 50 micrograms/ml of 15-hydroperoxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (15-HPETE). Both agents depressed oxygen consumption severely. This effect was inhibited completely by a combination of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, indicating that it is mediated by oxygen radicals. Similar depression of oxygen consumption was observed during incubation of the vessels with xanthine oxidase and acetaldehyde as substrate. This enzymic system is known to generate superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. The effect of xanthine oxidase was also partially inhibited by SOD and catalase. The effect of arachidonate was partially inhibited by cyclooxygenase inhibitors. The effect of lipoxygenase inhibitors could not be adequately tested because they depressed oxygen consumption by themselves. Prostaglandins H2 and E2 had no effect on
Oxygen Consumption Mac Informer. Featured Oxygen Consumption free downloads and reviews. Latest updates on everything Oxygen Consumption Software related.
1. Intrarenal oxygen availability is the balance between supply, mainly dependent on renal blood flow, and demand, determined by the basal metabolic demand and the energy-requiring tubular electrolyte transport. Renal blood flow is maintained within close limits in order to sustain stable glomerular filtration, so increased intrarenal oxygen consumption is likely to cause tissue hypoxia.. 2. The increased oxygen consumption is closely linked to increased oxidative stress, which increases mitochondrial oxygen usage and reduces tubular electrolyte transport efficiency, with both contributing to increased total oxygen consumption.. 3. Tubulointerstitial hypoxia stimulates the production of collagen I and alpha-smooth muscle actin, indicators of increased fibrogenesis. Furthermore, the hypoxic environment induces epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation and aggravates fibrosis, which results in reduced peritubular blood perfusion and oxygen delivery due to capillary rarefaction.. 4. Increased ...
Data & statistics on Relationship between heart rate and oxygen consumption: Relationship between heart rate and oxygen consumption, Cardioplegia volume ( A ) , total heart oxygen consumption (LV MVO,, in milliliters of oxygen; B), and arterial-venous oxygen content diferences (C) during each delivey interval. Duration of induction was 5 minutes at 4
Abstract Delivery of live crustaceans to markets has the potential to increase profits for Alaskan fishermen, but the practice has been limited in part by mortality occurring during shipment to distant markets. Protocols that select crabs more likely to survive shipment would likely further develop this niche market and evaluating the physiological stress response in crustaceans provides a logical entry point to explore this area. This study measures oxygen consumption rates (MO2; mgO2 g−1 hr−1) of male Tanner crabs, Chionoecetes bairdi, following 15, 30 or 45 min of emersion at 8°C or −15°C followed 12 h later by a uniform handling stressor (emersion at −15°C for 10 min). MO2 increased immediately following 15, 30 and 45 min emersion at 8°C (on average 1.5 times pre-treatment levels). All crabs survived emersion at 8°C and MO2 returned to pre-treatment levels within 12 hours. These animals also responded similarly to a uniform second stress test by increasing MO2. Crabs previously exposed
We examined a possible mechanism of action of an ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel opener, YM934, for the improvement of energy metabolism in hearts subjected to 35-min ischemia and 60-min reperfusion. The treatment with 30 nM YM934 for the final 15 min of preischemia enhanced postischemic recovery of left ventricular developed pressure, attenuated the postischemic rise in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and suppressed the release of creatine kinase and ATP metabolites during reperfusion. The treatment also restored myocardial ATP and creatine phosphate contents and attenuated the decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate during reperfusion. The higher mitochondrial function was also seen in YM934-treated hearts at the end of ischemia. In another set of experiments, myocardial skinned bundles were incubated for 30 min under hypoxic conditions in the presence and absence of YM934, and then mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate was determined. Hypoxia decreased the ...
ad_1]. aerobic training exercise that involves or improves oxygen consumption by the body. The word means Aerobics oxygen. Along with using and improving the bodys oxygen consumption and aerobic exercise increases the bodys ability to burn fat during a workout acids. An example is the aerobic workout that includes a warm-up, followed by moderate exercise for a long time that exercise large muscle groups, and then a cool down. No matter what type of exercise, it is important to know that aerobic exercise is very beneficial fat-burning cardiovascular health and wellness. during anaerobic training exercise intense enough to anaerobic metabolism. This greatly increases the bodys functional capacity and maximize explosive power, short-term energy systems. An example would be, not endurance sports such as bodybuilders to promote anaerobic training speed, strength, power and muscle mass. This leads to higher performance of the high-intensity, short-lasting activities. several physiological reactions ...
Milani, R. V., Davis, C. T., Lavie, C. J. and Mehra, M. R. (2005). Importance of left atrial volume in predicting reduced peak aerobic capacity in advanced systolic dysfunction. In: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation. , , (S129-S130). . doi:10.1016/j.healun.2004.11.292 ...
From Ergo-Log. After an intensive workout the body expends extra energy. Researchers suspect that because of this, strength training can help in maintaining a healthy weight, and they are studying ways of increasing the after burn. One such method is to consume caffeine before pumping iron, as sports scientists at California State University discovered.. After a demanding workout muscle cells need to recover. They need to replenish their creatine phosphate and glycogen reserves and restore their buffers. Were not even talking about the recovery of damaged muscle proteins, but this process costs energy too. Researchers measure this increased energy expenditure by measuring oxygen consumption; when the latter is higher, it is called elevated post-exercise oxygen consumption, or EPOC for short.. As far back as 1989 researchers showed that caffeine [structural formula shown below] raised the EPOC of untrained women after a cardio training session. [Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1989; 59(1-2): ...
Triplet imaging is a novel optical technique that allows investigating oxy- gen metabolism at the single cell and the sub-cellular level. The method combines high temporal and spatial resolution, which are required for the monitoring of fast kinetics of oxygen concentration in living cells. Calibration and validation is demon- strated with a titration experiment using L-Ascorbic Acid with the enzyme Ascor- base oxidase. The method was applied to a biological cell system, employing as reporter a cytosolic fusion protein of β-galactosidase with SNAP-tag labeled with tetramethylrhodamine. Oxygen consumption in single smooth muscle cells A7r5 during an [Arg8]-vasopressin-induced contraction is measured. The results indicate a consumption leading to an intracellular oxygen concentration that decays mono- exponentially with time. This is in good agreement with previously reported mea- surements of oxygen consumption in skeletal muscle fibers.. ...
Conditions: Diabetic Kidney Disease; Type 1 Diabetes; Diabetes; Diabetes Mellitus; Diabetes Complications; Diabetic Nephropathies; Type1diabetes; Diabetes, Autoimmune; Autoimmune Diabetes; Juvenile Diabetes; Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Interventions: Dru...
There are a few areas where I think our attention will be brought to going forward regarding the optimal development of aerobic capabilities of the organism, and one of those things is myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2).
Also known as exercise after burn, Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption (EPOC) relates to the amount of oxygen required and therefore the amount of
We tested the hypothesis that prior heavy-intensity exercise reduces the difference between asymptotic oxygen uptake (VO2) and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) during exhaustive severe-intensity running lasting ≍2 minutes. Ten trained runners each performed 2 ramp tests to determine peak VO2 (VO2peak) and speed at venti-latory threshold. They performed exhaustive square-wave runs lasting ≍2 minutes, preceded by either 6 minutes of moderate-intensity running and 6 minutes rest (SEVMOD) or 6 minutes of heavy-intensity running and 6 minutes rest (SEVHEAVY). Two transitions were completed in each condition. VO2 was determined breath by breath and averaged across the 2 repeats of each test; for the square-wave test, the averaged VO2 response was then modeled using a monoexponential function. The amplitude of the VO2 response to severe-intensity running was not different in the 2 conditions (SEVMOD vs SEVHEAVY; 3925 ± 442 vs 3997 ± 430 mL/min, P = .237), nor was the speed of the response (τ; 9.2 ...
High intensity training or HIT, often referred to as HIIT which actually stands for High Intensity Interval Training has been presented as some kind of magic bullet for fat loss in recent years - technically any form of exercise that involve high intensity efforts if HIT. This includes resistance training. Whilst HIIT (true HIIT) is very short bursts of very high intensity efforts with a short rest interval - but do they burn more fat? I mean, I was even taught this when I first did my level 3 personal trainer diploma. The main reason we are told that HIIT burns more fat than other forms of exercise is because of something called Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption or EPOC for short. This is often referred to in more simple terms as the afterburn effect. The theory being that after a bout of very high intensity exercise you burn more Calories while you recover. Some sources have claimed that you could burn an extra 1,000kcals over 24-hours. This is completely false. Let me explain ...
Toadal Results! In the Zone is a heart rate based training program for ALL fitness levels. You will get personal training quality attention with the motivation and energy of a small group. The training sessions were designed to provide a full body workout in 45 minutes at a maximum intensity level. The coaches will push you to reach and maintain an optimal heart rate zone to maximize your excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). EPOC is the scientific term for the after burn effect, which helps you continue to burn calories 16-24 hours after the workout is over. Your body will take 24-48 hours to fully recover from this high intensity workout; therefore it is not recommended that you do this type of workout every day. Aiming for a heart rate of 70-80% maximum for up to 30 minutes will offer the greatest results. Great news for those time crunched executives, busy moms & dads and those who would rather not spend their whole day exercising! Minimum Time, Maximum Results!. ...
Toadal Results! In the Zone is a heart rate based training program for ALL fitness levels. You will get personal training quality attention with the motivation and energy of a small group. The training sessions were designed to provide a full body workout in 45 minutes at a maximum intensity level. The coaches will push you to reach and maintain an optimal heart rate zone to maximize your excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). EPOC is the scientific term for the after burn effect, which helps you continue to burn calories 16-24 hours after the workout is over. Your body will take 24-48 hours to fully recover from this high intensity workout; therefore it is not recommended that you do this type of workout every day. Aiming for a heart rate of 70-80% maximum for up to 30 minutes will offer the greatest results. Great news for those time crunched executives, busy moms & dads and those who would rather not spend their whole day exercising! Minimum Time, Maximum Results!. ...
Glucagon and ethanol have both been shown to decrease glycolysis, thereby increasing hepatic oxygen consumption (Cherrington and Exton, 1976; Thurman and Scholz, 1977). Inhibition of glycolysis slows an ATP-generating process resulting in an increase in mitochondrial oxygen consumption due to higher rates of ATP generation. When nicotine was infused into perfused livers from fed rats, glycolysis significantly decreased while oxygen uptake increased (Table1). When the increase in oxygen uptake is plotted against the decrease in lactate + pyruvate production, a positive relationship is observed (Fig. 2). The association between the increase in oxygen uptake and the decrease in lactate and pyruvate production suggests that a possible mechanism by which nicotine stimulates respiration is through an inhibition of glycolysis. Additionally, nicotine failed to stimulate oxygen uptake in perfused livers from 24-h fasted rats, where there is a shift from carbohydrate metabolism to fatty acid oxidation due ...
Principal Investigator：TAKISHIMA Tamotsu, Project Period (FY)：1989 - 1990, Research Category：Grant-in-Aid for Developmental Scientific Research (B)., Research Field：Respiratory organ internal medicine
EPOC. EPOC stands for Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Consumption. This basically means that depending on the intensity of your morning exercise, your body will continue burning calories for several hours afterward. Because your metabolism is revved up (just like those pistons firing in your car engine), food consumption is not needed. Therefore, cravings that may arise after a well-balanced breakfast are easier to stave off, enabling you to get through the morning and engage in a healthy, uncompromising afternoon lunch.. Reducing Cravings with Morning Exercise. It may be difficult to squeeze in a morning exercise routine, but take into account some of the advantages compared to an after work or evening workout.. ...
Orangetheory fitness uses heart-rate monitoring and high-intensity interval training (HIIT), but the science around its afterburn promise from excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) has been reevaluated.
O presente estudo revisa os resultados encontrados, até então, na literatura, relativos ao dispêndio energético (DE) no treino de força (TF). Para tanto, foi realizado um levantamento bibliográfico nas bases de dados Medline e Sport Discus, utilizando as palavras-chave: strength training, energy expenditure e excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). Os estudos analisados referem que protocolos de TF que envolvam exercícios para grandes grupos musculares, com grandes intensidades e volumes de treinamento, e menores intervalos de recuperação entre séries e exercícios são os que apresentam maior impacto metabólico na sessão de treino. Essas mesmas variáveis também demonstram interferir na magnitude e na duração do EPOC ...
Everyone can use the rowing machine, at any age: There are no age limits to become an indoor rower. I know people in the 80s and even in their 90s who are still rowing regularly. Since indoor rowing is a low impact exercise and easy on the joints, bad knees or bad hips are not a problem anymore. And actually, since its easy on the body but yet provides a great workout, many people, recovering from an injury, are prescribed the use of the rowing machine!. Indoor Rowing definitely burns calories. Since rowing is both strength and cardio vascular intensive at the same time, your muscle mass and lungs/heart system are constantly challenged during your rowing workout. Depending on effort level, a 160lbs male will burn between 200 and 300 calories in 30 minutes of rowing. And doing some High Intensity Intervals ( example: 30 secs rowing/30 secs off…) will greatly increase the amount of calories burned during and after the workout, due to EPOC (excess post-exercise oxygen consumption). You can ...
Measurements were made of the stoicheiometry of respiration-driven proton translocation coupled to the oxidation of NAD(P)-linked or flavin-linked substrates in intact cells of Escherichia coli. Observed stoicheiometries (→H+/O quotient; Mitchell, 1966) were approx. 4 with l-malate as substrate and approx. 2 for succinate, d-lactate and glycerol oxidation. It is concluded that the potential number of equivalent energy-conservation sites associated with the respiratory chain is 2 in aerobically grown cells of E. coli harvested during the exponential phase of growth. ...
Tsuchiya, T and Okamoto, K, The relationship between the oxygen consumption of various tissues and the radiosensitivity in mice. I. Oxygen consumption of various tissues in the normal physiological state of mice. (jap.) (1965). Subject Strain Bibliography 1965. 974 ...
Mitochondria in cardiac myocytes are critical for generating ATP to meet the high metabolic demands associated with sarcomere shortening. Distinct remodeling of mitochondrial structure and function occur in cardiac myocytes in both developmental and pathological settings. However, the factors that underlie these changes are poorly understood. Because remodeling of tissue architecture and extracellular matrix (ECM) elasticity are also hallmarks of ventricular development and disease, we hypothesize that these environmental factors regulate mitochondrial function in cardiac myocytes. To test this, we developed a new procedure to transfer tunable polydimethylsiloxane disks microcontact-printed with fibronectin into cell culture microplates. We cultured Sprague-Dawley neonatal rat ventricular myocytes within the wells, which consistently formed tissues following the printed fibronectin, and measured oxygen consumption rate using a Seahorse extracellular flux analyzer. Our data indicate that ...
On account of a meals plan is a fast time interval reply to a long term downside. Meals that are impressed in a weight-reduction plan for diabetes sufferers embrace meat, poultry, fish and dairy merchandise. It makes use of all fundamental muscle tissues of your body as you pedal and it does not require very excessive bodily abilities. But BMR Calculators will not just calculate your idle modes but additionally provides up your active modes throughout the day. Curve for woman diet principle behind the working of the Slendertone belt is collection of electronic simulations which help the physique to contract and hold the muscle tissue for few seconds. The food plan element includes a carb rotation meal plan that hurries up your inside curve for woman diet burning furnace. Weight reduction xercise plans improve the metabolic cost and burn these additional calories. The definition of aerobics is vigorous workout routines designed to increase oxygen consumption. Your loved ones members are positive ...
An energy bar is a convenient, fortified snack-food containing a blend of simple and complex carbohydrates, protein, fat, fiber, and vitamins and minerals. The primary source of protein in energy bars usually comes from milk and the fiber comes from grains and oats. Some bars also contain additional herbs, such as ginseng and guarana, to help provide maximum energy and to stimulate the central nervous system (http://s2.com.etj/ wn/sportsbars.html). Others include sodium and potassium phosphate to increase oxygen consumption capacity and to prevent lactic acid buildup in the muscles. The size of an energy bar varies with each brand and can range anywhere from one ounce to more than five ounces. The majority contain 100 to 300 calories and get most of these calories (at least 60 percent) from carbohydrates (Walsh 1997). The bars are usually easy to digest and come in a wide array of flavors and textures. They are advertised by most manufacturers as an optimum energy fuel and are used mainly as ...
Neither of the catecholamines affected blood flow distribution unfavorably. Although both catecholamines increased coronary blood flow, this increase can never account for the increase in systemic blood flow, because coronary blood flow expressed as a percentage of systemic blood flow (about 8% in the lambs with shunt) did not change. Because isoproterenol did not change cerebral, renal or splanchnic blood flow, blood flow to the carcass will have been increased. In the lambs with shunt there was no need for an increase in blood flow, because blood flow to the vital organs at rest (except for the heart) was the same in the lambs with shunt and in the control lambs. It remains unclear how isoproterenol affects blood flow distribution when blood flow to the vital organs is jeopardized. Unfortunately, the lambs with shunt in whom that happened died before a proper study could be done. Despite the fact that systemic blood flow was the same in the lambs with shunt and the control lambs, we think our ...
Energy metabolism was measured in isolated honeybee foragers (Apis mellifera carnica Pollmann 1879) and compared with their level of activity at two ambient temperatures. Artificially immobilised bees consumed more oxygen (averages: 7.4 and 6.9 μl O2min-1 at 25° and 35°C, respectively) than spontaneously motionless bees but less than active, freely moving individuals. Oxygen measurements in immobilised honeybees, therefore, are neither suited to determine the basal rate of oxygen metabolism nor to estimate the energy turnover of highly active, freely moving individuals. As was expected from thermographical temperature measurements, oxygen consumption by bees which were free to move within 95 ml Warburg vessels varied in a wide range. At an ambient temperature of 25°C it followed a bimodal distribution, with one peak below 20 and a second peak between 70-130 μl O2min-1. At 35°C oxygen consumption was always below 75 μl O2min-1. However, considering the bees level of activity led to a ...
We examine herein the contribution of V-ATPase activity to the energy budget of aerobically developing embryos of Artemia franciscana and discuss the results in the context of quiescence under anoxia. 31P-NMR analysis indicates that intracellular pH and NTP levels are unaffected by acute incubation of dechorionated embryos with the V-ATPase inhibitor, bafilomycin A1. Bafilomycin A1 also has no significant effect on oxygen consumption by isolated mitochondria. Taken together, these data indicate that bafilomycin does not affect energy-producing pathways in the developing embryo. However, the V-ATPase inhibitor exhibits a concentration-dependent inhibition of oxygen consumption in aerobic embryos. A conservative analysis of respirometric data indicates that proton pumping by the V-ATPase, and processes immediately dependent on this activity, constitutes approximately 31% of the aerobic energy budget of the preemergent embryo. Given the complete absence of detectable Na+K+-ATPase activity during the first
To establish whether pressure-volume areas (PVAs) calculated using the maximum time-varying elastance (Emax) have a relation with myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) that improves on other indexes of myocardial oxygen demand, we studied nine dogs of either sex weighing 19-39 kg, which were instrumented with a micromanometer left ventricular (LV) catheter and a Wilton-Webster coronary sinus flow catheter and had red blood cells tagged with technetium-99m for radionuclide angiography. Hemodynamics, coronary sinus flow determinations, and radionuclide angiograms were obtained under control conditions and during three to five steady-state loading conditions (mean +/- SD, 5.6 +/- 0.7). Isochronal pressure-volume data points from each pressure-volume loop were subjected to linear regression analysis to calculate Emax. The Emax relations, diastolic curves, and systolic portions of each pressure-volume loop were used to obtain calibrated PVAs. The Emax PVA (mm Hg.ml.beat-1.100 g-1) and MVO2 (ml ...
5 No-Equipment Upper Body Exercises , Livestrong.com So they improve cardiovascular health and increase muscular endurance. Burpees Upper Body Exercises Do all these exercises slowly. Squats. Try these ten bodyweight upper body exercises to sculpt your arms, shoulders, and coreâ mostly those guns, though. This upper-body routine requires zero equipment and little space. In fact, your own body is one of the most effective arm-strengthening tools at your disposal. If you feel any unusual pain in your joints or muscles while you exercise, do not continue the exercise. Full Body Exercises That Donâ t Require Weights 1. And as much as I love weights, you donâ t even need weights to build killer functional upper body strength. Do these exercises 2-3 times a week. While these can be very effective at training your back, I deliberately left them out from this list. Now that you know the importance of doing full body exercises â letâ s look into the 9 full body exercises you can do without weights. ...
A laboratory experiment was undertaken to analyze the effects of salinity on growth, body composition, oxygen consumption, and ammonia excretion of anadromous American shad (Alosa sapidissima) juveniles. Results showed the best survival rate occurred at 5‰ and 15‰. The relative weight gain and the specific growth rate declined as salinity increased. However, feed conversion rate increased with increasing salinity. Oxygen consumption rates showed a parabolic relationship in relation to salinity. From the quadratic relationship (y= -0.0004x2+0.0166x+0.319; R2=0.801; ...
Several different genomic and non-genomic mechanisms mediate the important anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of glucocorticoids (GCs). The genomic effects are the most important while the clinical relevance of non-genomic actions is still a matter of debate. We therefore investigated whether beclomethasone and clobetasol are particularly suitable for topical application because they differ in their spectrum of activity from systemically administered GCs such as dexamethasone. We compared effects on oxygen consumption as measured with a Clark electrode (nonspecific non-genomic glucocorticoid effects), on interleukin-6 synthesis by means of ELISA (genomic effects) and on apoptosis using flow cytometry (non-genomic and genomic effects) in quiescent and mitogen-stimulated PBMCs. Beclomethasone and clobetasol had stronger effects on the oxygen consumption of quiescent and stimulated cells at lower concentrations (10-10, 10-8 M) but were less potent at higher concentrations (10-5, 10-4 M) ...
|p|The aim of this study was to determine the acute effects of static and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) stretches on maximal oxygen consumption (VO|sub|2|/sub| max). Ten physically active men (mean ± SD, 23.80 ± 1.54 years, 70.60 ± 9.70 kg, 1.74.60 ± 5.23 m), who were healthy students volunteered to take part in the study. The participants were subjected to Static and PNF stretching exercises. After the interventions, the Bruce treadmill protocol was applied to measure VO|sub|2|/sub| max values. The expired gases were collected and analyzed continuously using the Cortex Metalyzer II. Analysis of variance showed significant main effects for interventions (F|sub|(2,18)|/sub|=10.74, p<.05) on VO|sub|2|/sub| max. The main result of this study showed that both static and PNF stretching exercises improved VO|sub|2|/sub| max values.|/p|
STUDY. What determines if a cell will use aerobic respiration or anaerobic respiration? Missed a question here and there? In this way, carbon molecules (as glucose and carbon dioxide) are being recycled. Disadvantages of cellular respiration: Definition. Cell respiration releases the energy stored in glucose (food) to make ATP which cells need for cellular work. As the organism inside the respirometer consumes oxygen, what happens to the water? Flashcards. Which best describes cellular respiration? produced in your muscles when there is not enough oxygen present: Term. What are the drawbacks of anaerobic respiration? Explain how photosynthesis and cellular respiration function in the cycling of chemical nutrients. Learn term:oxygen respiration = cellular respiration with free interactive flashcards. Cellular respiration is a cells way of obtaining energy, so its a process you depend on in order to live. Write. cytoplasm. During photosynthesis, carbon dioxide and water are absorbed by plant cells to
Purpose: To investigate the influence of prior heavy- and severe-intensity exercise on the oxygen uptake (V·O2) kinetics and the power-duration relationship. Methods: Ten cyclists performed 13 exercise tests over a 4 week period, consisting of a ramp test to determine the gas exchange threshold (GET) and the peak V·O2, followed by a series of square-wave tests to exhaustion under three conditions: no prior exercise (control), prior heavy exercise (6 min at a work rate above GET but below critical power (CP)) and prior severe exercise (6 min at a work rate above the CP). Pulmonary gas exchange was measured throughout the exhaustive exercise bouts and the parameters of the power duration relationship (CP and the curvature constant, W) were determined from the linear work-time model. Results: Prior heavy exercise increased the amplitude of the primary V·O2 response (by ~0.19 ± 0.28 L·min-1, P = 0.001), reduced the slow component trajectory (by 0.04 ± 0.09 L·min-2; P = 0.002) and increased ...
Tight coupling between cytosolic and mitochondrial metabolism is key for GSIS (glucose-stimulated insulin secretion). In the present study we examined the regulatory contribution of PDH (pyruvate dehydrogenase) kinase 1, a negative regulator of PDH, to metabolic coupling in 832/13 clonal beta-cells. Knockdown of PDH kinase 1 with siRNA (small interfering RNA) reduced its mRNA (,80 %) and protein level (,40 %) after 72 h. PDH activity, glucose-stimulated cellular oxygen consumption and pyruvate-stimulated mitochondrial oxygen consumption increased 1.7- (P , 0.05), 1.6- (P , 0.05) and 1.6-fold (P , 0.05) respectively. Gas chromatography/MS revealed an altered metabolite profile upon silencing of PDH kinase 1, determined by increased levels of the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates malate, fumarate and alpha-ketoglutarate. These metabolic alterations were associated with exaggerated GSIS (5-fold compared with 3.1-fold in control cells; P , 0.01). Insulin secretion, provoked by leucine and ...
Past simulations of oxidative ATP metabolism in skeletal muscle have predicted that elimination of the creatine kinase (CK) reaction should result in dramatically faster oxygen consumption dynamics during transitions in ATP turnover rate. This hypothesis was investigated. Oxygen consumption of fast-twitch (FT) muscle isolated from wild-type (WT) and transgenic mice deficient in the myoplasmic (M) and mitochondrial (Mi) CK isoforms (MiM CK−/−) were measured at 20°C at rest and during electrical stimulation. MiM CK−/− muscle oxygen consumption activation kinetics during a step change in contraction rate were 30% faster than WT (time constant 53 ± 3 vs. 69 ± 4 s, respectively; mean ± SE, n = 8 and 6, respectively). MiM CK−/− muscle oxygen consumption deactivation kinetics were 380% faster than WT (time constant 74 ± 4 s vs. 264 ± 4 s, respectively). Next, the experiments were simulated using a computational model of the oxidative ATP metabolic network in FT muscle featuring ADP ...
A single work rate paced step test is described. It was designed to allow the measurement of minute ventilation (VI) and oxygen consumption (VO2), under standardised conditions, during exercise in the clinic and lung function laboratory and in field work. The subjects and the operator found the test simple to perform. The values for ventilation at a given oxygen consumption were similar to those from more complex and stressful tests and had a high degree of reproducibility. The ergometer was a 12 inch (30 cm) step with hand rails. The subjects stepped down, once every four seconds in response to a buzzer for 10 minutes. VI and VO2 were measured with a small portable device. In 53 normal subjects of mean weight 69 (range 49-107) kg, mean VO2 measured during the last 5 minutes of the test was 0.89 (range 0.53-1.52) 1/min. Weight and height were independent contributors to the oxygen cost of stepping. The ventilatory equivalent for oxygen (VIO2, which equals VI divided by VO2) increased with age, ...
Men generally gain weight with increasing age, and the maximum oxygen intake decreases; no figures are, however, available on the changes in maximum oxygen intake with increase in age.
1. Maximal exercise capacity in cystic fibrosis is influenced by both pulmonary and nutritional factors: lung disease by limiting maximal achievable ventilation, and malnutrition through a loss of muscle mass. The associated reduction in everyday activities may result in peripheral muscle deconditioning.. 2. We studied 14 stable patients with cystic fibrosis (six males, eight females) and 14 healthy control subjects (seven males, seven females) in order to assess the influence of these factors on exercise performance. Subjects underwent anthropometry to estimate muscle mass, spirometry to assess ventilatory capacity, a 30 s sprint on an isokinetic cycle ergometer to assess maximal leg muscle performance, and progressive cycle ergometry to assess overall exercise capacity.. 3. Compared with control subjects, the patients with cystic fibrosis were of similar age and height but weighed proportionately less [% ideal weight (mean ± sd): 94.3 ± 9.64 versus 109.5 ± 11.82] and showed evidence of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Changes in running economy at different intensities following downhill running. AU - Chen, Trevor C.. AU - Nosaka, Kazunori. AU - Lin, Ming Ju. AU - Chen, Hsin Lian. AU - Wu, Chang Jun. PY - 2009/9/1. Y1 - 2009/9/1. N2 - In this study, we tested the hypothesis that running economy assessed at a high intensity [e.g. 90% maximal oxygen capacity (VO2max)] would be affected more than at a lower intensity (e.g. 70% VO2max) after downhill running. Fifteen untrained young men performed level running at 70, 80, and 90% VO2max (5 min for each intensity) before and 2 and 5 days after a 30-min downhill run (gradient of 716%) at the intensity of their pre-determined 70% VO2max. Oxygen consumption, minute ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion, and blood lactate concentration were measured during the level runs together with kinematic measures (e.g. stride length and frequency) using high-speed video analysis. Downhill running resulted in significant ...
Oxygen Uptake (VO2 ) - is the amount of oxygen being consumed by the muscles of the body.. Maximal Oxygen Uptake (V• O2Max ) - is the greatest amount of oxygen that can be used by the body at the cellular level. People do not train at their V • O2Max .. Resting Heart Rate (RHR) - the times per minute that your heart beats while at rest. Best to take this after youve been sitting quietly for a few minutes - without caffeine!. Maximal Heart Rate or (HR Max) - is an estimation obtained by subtracting ones age from the number 220. It is most often used to calculate Target Heart Rate (THR).. Heart Rate Reserve (HRR) - is the difference between the resting heart rate (RHR) and the maximal heart rate (HR Max). Also used for calculating the Target Heart Rate.. Target Heart Rate (THR) - or training heart rate - used to gauge the intensity of aerobic training.. EPOC or Excess Post-Exercise Oxygen Demand - refers to the bodys continued demand for oxygen after the exercise session is through. The ...
Piracetam, which typically comes in the form of piracetam powder is a widely-utilized and highly-recognized nootropic in the racetam family. This popular nootropic works by improving the function of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine through ACh receptors which are used in the memory process.. It has also been found to increase oxygen consumption to the brain which translates to a higher level of brain functioning. Think of it this way: consider the way our bodies function when we are stressed out. We take short, bated breaths from our chest and before we know it, were exhausted, we cant concentrate, and our heads are pounding.. The brain functions in much the same way. Without its proper intake of oxygen, it doesnt receive or produce commands correctly and it certainly isnt doing anything at the speed we need it to.. Piracetam increases oxygen levels in the brain, allowing it to function at an accelerated level without the jitters or excitability of other stimulants. It continues to be one ...
We have shown that constant-load treadmill exercise in mice produces an abrupt ventilatory increase to a maximal level at exercise onset. We examined what caused this abrupt response. We measured ventilation during 30-min constant-load exercise on a
Little is known about the mechanistic basis for the exercise intolerance characteristic of patients with respiratory disease; a lack of clearly defined, distinct patient groups limits interpretation of many studies. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the pulmonary oxygen uptake ( \$\$ \overset{.}{V} \$\$ O2) response, and its potential determinants, in patients with emphysema and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Following a ramp incremental test for the determination of peak \$\$ \overset{.}{V} \$\$ O2 and the gas exchange threshold, six emphysema (66 ± 7 years; FEV1, 36 ± 16%), five IPF (65 ± 12 years; FEV1, 82 ± 11%) and ten healthy control participants
The data collected (as seen in Figure 10) shows an average of 0 carbon dioxide bubbles per minute at 0 degrees Celsius, an average of 11.5 bubbles per minute at 19 degrees Celsius, and an average of 76.8 bubbles per minute at 83 degrees Celsius.. The test at 83 deg. C showed a near-constant decline in the amount of bubbles as time passed. This mostly occurred because enzymes denatured and could no longer catalyse the reaction. The high number of bubbles at the beginning is probably due to the rapid expansion of gas at high temperatures and does not actually represent carbon dioxide (See Fig. 6). The test at 0 degrees Celsius showed no production of carbon dioxide, presumably because the low temperatures froze the yeast. (See Fig. 7). The room temperature test (19 deg. C) showed a fairly even level of carbon dioxide production, but not enough to be useful in the making of leavened bread. (See Fig. 8). We incurred two experimental errors in the first testing at 0 degrees Celsius. By beginning the ...
Background: Submaximal exercise tests use heart rate responses to low-to-moderate intensity activity in order to predict cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max). Currently used tests may be inappropriate for obese populations as obese women have altered heart rate responses to exercise. The purpose of this study is to test the validity of the Modified Bruce Protocol submaximal treadmill test in obese women. Methods: Normal-weight (NW) women and obese (OB) women completed the Modified Bruce submaximal treadmill test (to predict VO2max using previously validated equations) and a maximal graded exercise test on a treadmill using the Standard Bruce Protocol (to obtain an actual VO2max) on two separate occasions. The relationships between actual and predicted VO2max values were analyzed using correlation coefficients. Results: 9 NW (age: 23.1 ± 8.0 y, body fat: 23.5 ± 4.9%) and 9 OB (age: 22.0 ± 4.8 y, body fat: 36.9 ± 4.4%) women participated. Actual and predicted VO2max values were not correlated ...
Several lines of evidence suggest that hypoxia decreases mitochondrial respiration rates, but some results show an opposite effect in rodents adapted to life at high altitude. In the present study we used FVB mice and SD rats, as two models showing divergent responses at high altitude or during short-term exposure to hypoxia at sea level. We assessed mitochondrial respiration rates in permeabilized brain cortex samples by high resolution respirometry (Oroboros-2k) during acclimatization to hypoxia. Rats and mice were exposed to room air (controls), short-term (6 and 24 hours), or long-term (7 and 21 days) hypoxia (12% O,sub>2,/sub>). Brain samples were rapidly dissected and permeabilized in saponin before measurements of O,sub>2,/sub> consumption rates with a standard protocol to assess NADH-, FADH,sub>2,/sub>-, or NADH+FADH,sub>2,/sub>-linked respiration. During short-term hypoxic exposure, NADH and FADH,sub>2,/sub>-linked respiration increased in mice, but remained stable in rats. During ...
Do more HIIT: High intensity interval training (HIIT) is as close to a magic pill as we have (except it involves a whole lot more work than just swallowing a capsule-sorry). Not only does it surge your body to max intensity during the workout, but because youre working so hard, your body cant deliver enough oxygen in the moment, explains personal trainer Jeremey DuVall. Your muscles accumulate a debt of oxygen that then has to be repaid post-workout. This throws your body into a phase of fat burning for hours after youre done sweating, known as post-exercise oxygen consumption, or EPOC. Plus, super intense circuits like this activate muscle-building hormones like growth hormone and IGF-1, he adds ...
An online degree programs - Marine Biology, Marine Biology is about observing and analyzing life processes. The biological treatment is the ap biology cell respiration lab of mathematical/physical modeling to understanding the ap biology cell respiration lab. The laboratory I participated in was extremely spacious. My classmates and I performed experiments on tall work stations that had a better chance to enter the ap biology cell respiration lab and begin climbing the ap biology cell respiration lab a love of the ap biology cell respiration lab at least student-grade biological microscopes. To spice lessons up, try getting the ap biology cell respiration lab of the various organisms.. Biological microscopes also come in forms that differ in terms of the ap biology cell respiration lab from which to earn an average of \$44,000, with some earning almost double that amount. Not only are these jobs in demand right now, but they have to do so. It wont only give you the ap biology cell respiration ...
We propose a new imaging approach which interleaves complex-difference and susceptometry MRI acquisitions for real-time imaging of skeletal muscle blood flow (SMBF) and venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) for the calculation of skeletal muscle oxygen consumption (VO2). The goal of this study was to determine the reproducibility of this approach during sub-maximal knee-extensor exercise. The coefficient of variation from test/retest trials was 7.6%, 15.6% and 12.3% for SMBF, SvO2 and VO2, with mean values of 0.9 0.1L/min/kg, 43.2 13.5% and 95.7 18.0mL/min/kg respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of non-invasive skeletal muscle VO2 and its determinants (SMFB,SvO2) during dynamic exercise ...
The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of acute high-intensity interval training (HIIT) compared with continuous moderate-intensity (CMI) exercise on postprandial hyperglycemia in overweight or obese adults. Ten inactive, overweight or obese adults (41 ± 11 yrs, BMI = 36 ± 7 kg/m2) performed an acute bout of HIIT (10 × 1 min at approximately 90% peak heart rate (HRpeak) with 1-min recovery periods) or matched work CMI (30 min at approximately 65% HRpeak) in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion. Exercise was performed 2 h after breakfast, and glucose control was assessed by continuous glucose monitoring under standardized dietary conditions over 24 h. Postprandial glucose (PPG) responses to lunch, dinner, and the following days breakfast were analyzed and compared with a no-exercise control day. Exercise did not affect the PPG responses to lunch, but performing both HIIT and CMI in the morning significantly reduced the PPG incremental area under the curve (AUC) following dinner ...
We contend that the lack of appreciation for the variability in mitochondrial efficiency could lead to misleading interpretations of the relationships between oxygen consumption and animal performance, since the amount of ATP generated per molecule of oxygen consumed can vary significantly both among and within individuals. Combining sub-cellular and whole-organism measurements of metabolism will provide a more robust framework for understanding organismal energy metabolism. For example, a high P/O ratio does not necessarily result in high ATP production since this ratio can also be offset by a decrease in oxygen consumption rate (e.g. [36]); nor is it the case that individuals with a relatively low P/O ratio are necessarily producing less ATP than those with a higher P/O ratio, since this will depend on the rate of work of their mitochondria. Therefore, measuring both levels of energetic processes may give a better insight into the energy metabolism, since the rate of ATP generation is ...
In many multicellular eukaryotes--including mammals--reduced caloric intake is associated with increased life span. It has been postulated that this might result from a decrease in the metabolically dependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, whether reduced ROS production translates into increased life span has been a subject of debate. Schulz et al. exposed the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to 2-deoxy-D-glucose (DOG)--which isnt metabolized beyond the initial phosphorylation by hexokinase--to create a metabolic state similar to that elicited by glucose deprivation. Although glucose metabolism was decreased, mitochondrial respiration was increased, as was life span. Knockdown of a glycolytic enzyme also increased respiration and extended life span, whereas increased glucose availability led to a decrease in both parameters. DOG failed to increase oxygen consumption or life span in worms lacking AAK-2 (the C. elegans homolog of AMP-dependent kinase). DOG elicited an ...
AIM: We hypothesized that an extremely high pedal rate would induce much more type II muscle fibers recruitment even at an early phase of the same absolute work rate compared with normal pedal rates, and would result in changed amplitude of the pulmo
INTRODUCTION: A treadmill exercise test requiring a low initial metabolic rate that then increments the work rate linearly to reach the subjects limit of tolerance in approximately 10 min would have significant advantages for exercise testing and rehabilitation of subjects with impaired exercise tolerance. METHODS: We developed such a treadmill protocol that uses a linear increase in walking speed coupled with a curvilinear increase in treadmill grade to yield a linear increase in work rate. RESULTS: Twenty-two healthy, sedentary subjects performed both this new treadmill protocol and a standard cycle ergometry ramp protocol eliciting similar work rate profiles. The low initial treadmill speed and grade resulted in a low initial metabolic rate, commensurate with unloaded pedaling on a cycle ergometer (average [OV0312]O2 = 0.54 +/- 0.16 vs 46 +/- 0.12 l x min(-1)). This combination of simultaneous increase in speed and grade yielded a linear work rate and its oxygen uptake response (R2 = 0.96 ...
BUSTAMANTE, L et al. Discrimination of exercise limitation in submaximal and maximal exercise tests in severe COPD patients. Rev. amer. med. respiratoria [online]. 2011, vol.11, n.1, pp.18-23. ISSN 1852-236X.. There are no data about symptoms of activity limitation in COPD patients when maximal and submaximal exercise tests are compared. Objective: To compare the activity limitation by dyspnea or fatigue between maximal and submaximal exercise tests. Methods: Moderate and severe COPD patients were included (GOLD definition). They were classified as fatigue limited (FL) if Borg scale of fatigue at maximal exercise was ≥ 2 points vs. dyspnea; and dyspnea limited (DL) if it was the reverse. Each patient was evaluated in the same way with submaximal cycloergometry. Results: 15 patients in the LD group and 18 patients in the LF group were evaluated. The LF patients were mainly women (FL 55.5 vs. DL 26.6% p: 0.034), had a low body-mass index (FL 24.1 ± 3.2 vs. DL 26.8 ± 2.1; p,0.04) and less ...
A lower support frame (A) mounts a lower body support structure (B) and an upper body exercise structure (C) thereon. The upper body exercise structure includes an upper frame (30) which is selectively and adjustably mounted on the lower support frame. A flywheel (40) is rotatably mounted in the upper frame. A belt (52) and selectable number of weights (62) drag along the flywheel for selectively adjusting the effort required to maintain rotation of the flywheel. Flexible cables (70, 72) are each wrapped around a pulley (84). A one-way clutch (86) selectively connects the pulley with the flywheel for providing rotational driving force thereto as the cable is pulled. A rewind spring (92) rewinds the cable back onto the pulley. The relative positions of the lower body support structure (B) and the upper body exercise structure (C) are selectively adjustable such that the exercise apparatus is usable in training for walking or running (FIG. 1), ski poleing (FIG. 4), canoeing or kayaking (FIG. 5), rowing
article{a59a3775-0cdf-4ebf-abd7-9978bbcf91d6, abstract = {Previous studies of gender differences in maximum oxygen uptake have come to different conclusions. Limited data exists where the determinants of maximum oxygen uptake have been evaluated in a comprehensive manner. Thus, we examined 248 children (140 boys and 108 girls), aged 7.9-11.1 years. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, measured variables were total body fat (TBF) and lean body mass (LBM). Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak) was measured by indirect calorimetry during a maximal cycle exercise test. Daily physical activity was assessed by accelerometers and duration of vigorous activity per day (VPA) was calculated. Left ventricular inner diastolic diameter (LVDD) was measured by echocardiography. Lung function was evaluated with spirometric testing and whole body plethysmography. Boys had between 8 and 18% higher values than girls for VO2peak, dependent upon whether VO2peak was expressed in absolute ...
The time it takes for oxygen delivery to respond to the demands of exercise is called V02 kinetics. The diagram below shows what happens when we start running from an initial standstill without any Warmup. The red line represents our exercise level as oxygen consumption, and it rises rapidly to a steady-state that represents the demands of the running pace. The blue line on the other hand represents the rate of oxygen delivery which is mostly controlled by breathing and heart rate. As you can see the oxygen delivery lags behind the oxygen consumption and this creates an oxygen debt represented by the yellow area. This oxygen debt does not cause a drop in the oxygen saturation of our blood (hypoxia), but rather forces our body to produce energy anaerobically (literally without oxygen). Our body will attempt to repay this oxygen debt by providing more oxygen as shown in the green area. The imbalance caused by the oxygen debt and the anaerobic energy production can actually last for protracted ...
Purpose This study examined alterations in ventilation and speech characteristics as well as perceived dyspnea during submaximal aerobic exercise tasks. Method Twelve healthy participants completed aerobic exercise-only and simultaneous speaking and aerobic exercise tasks at 50% and 75% of their maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max). Measures of ventilation, oxygen consumption, heart rate, perceived dyspnea, syllables per phrase, articulation rate, and inappropriate linguistic pause placements were obtained at baseline and throughout the experimental tasks. Results Ventilation was significantly lower during the speaking tasks compared with the nonspeaking tasks. Oxygen consumption, however, did not significantly differ between speaking and nonspeaking tasks. The perception of dyspnea was significantly higher during the speaking tasks compared with the nonspeaking tasks. All speech parameters were significantly altered over time at both task intensities. Conclusions It is speculated that decreased ...
Middle-aged trained male runners (N = 7; 51+6 yr) performed three different short-interval training protocols: a) alternating 15-s runs at 90% VO2max with 15-s runs at 80% VO2max; b) alternating 15-s runs at 100% VO2max with 15-s runs at 70% VO2max; and c) alternating 15-s runs at 110% VO2max with 15-s runs at 60% VO2max. The average intensity in the intervals was 85% VO2max.. Protocols A and B allowed the athletes to spend twice as long (14-min) at VO2max than did protocol C (7-min). Protocols A and B, also had lower final lactate levels (9 mmol) than C (11 mmol).. Implication. Alternating ultra-short interval training intensities of 90-80% VO2max or 100-70% VO2max provided greater volumes of training at the highest level of oxygen consumption than did a 110-60% protocol. Thus, for the greatest maximal aerobic training stimulation, work intensity should not exceed 100% VO2max when ultra-short interval training is employed.. Return to Table of Contents for this issue.. ...
Lactate Threshold Implications for Training The model in the preceding posts indicates that there are two aspects of your basic energy metabolism that affect the lactate threshold, namely aerobic capacity & anaerobic capacity Thus, changes in either will affect the lactate threshold. Importance of aerobic capacity - We make the comment at various places on this course that there is never enough aerobic capacity or VO2 max. We have not found any athletic situation where a lower VO2 max is an adv
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of duration of training on VO2(max) and citrate synthase activity in muscle during detraining. AU - Azevedo, J. L.. AU - Auleb, H. L.. AU - Evans, S. J.. AU - Willis, W. T.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - Two groups of rats were endurance trained by treadmill running for an hour a day five days a week for either 5 (n=12) or 11 (n=14) weeks. Maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max) was determined at 1, 9, and 19 days, and muscle samples were taken at 3, 11, and 21 days after cessation of training. There were no differences in V̇O2max between groups nor were there any changes in V̇O2max within any of the groups during detraining. Citrate synthase (CS) activity in deep vastus lateralis muscle was increased 30% (P,0.01) to 39.9 and 40.9 micromol/min gram wet muscle in the 5 and 11 week trained animals, respectively, compared to the control group (29.8 micromol/min gram wet muscle) 3 days post-training. Eleven days after the cessation of training CS activity in both groups ...
The main finding of this study was that prolonged endotoxemia impaired the efficiency of hepatic mitochondrial complex I and complex II respiration, whereas mitochondrial respiration in the skeletal muscle remained unchanged. The altered mitochondrial function occurred despite well-maintained total and microcirculatory hepatic blood flow. In spite of the reduced hepatic mitochondrial RCR, the hepatic oxygen consumption and extraction remained unchanged. The reduced glutamate-dependent RCR in the liver mitochondria was mainly due to an increase in the mitochondrial resting respiration rate, suggesting partial uncoupling of oxygen consumption from ATP production. These results are supported by the well-maintained hepatic oxygen consumption and by the reduction in the ADP:O ratios. The alterations in the succinate-dependent respiration were due to reduced function of the complex II, as suggested by reduced state 3 respiration. The partial uncoupling in the glutamate-dependent and ...
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Therapies that aim to modify cardiac substrate utilisation are designed to increase metabolic efficiency. Although the main energy supply for the heart is generally provided by the oxidation of fatty acids, the heart is a metabolic omnivore and able to consume glucose as well as lactate and amino acids in varying proportions. A shift from fatty acid oxidation to glucose oxidation leads to lower oxygen consumption per unit of ATP produced. This concept of reduced oxygen utilisation underlies the use of metabolic modulating agents to treat chronic stable angina. Furthermore, the model of an energy-starved heart now forms the basis for our understanding of both ischaemic and non-ischaemic heart failure. Potential alterations in substrate utilisation and thus myocardial efficiency underlie the use of metabolic agents in heart failure. This is achieved by either promoting glucose or reducing the utilisation of fatty acids. Such a shift results in a relatively greater production of ATP per unit of ...
In this issue of the Journal, Cramer et al. (4) evaluate the level of exercise intolerance and factors associated with the magnitude of intolerance in a cross-sectional cohort of 50 patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), 51 patients with heart failure, and 51 healthy control subjects. Exercise tolerance was assessed using a treadmill protocol to symptom limitation with metabolic gas exchange measurement to assess VO2peak. Intriguingly, the investigators found that, on average, CRC patients had a mean VO2peak of 21.8 ml/kg/min, equivalent to 23% below that of the age-matched control subjects (mean 28.0 ml/kg/min), and that VO2peak was only approximately 17% higher than that of the heart failure patients in the study. The marked impairment in VO2peak corroborates work by other investigators who showed that patients with various solid or hematological malignancies have marked reductions in VO2peak (5,6). This is an intriguing finding, because it can be anticipated that exercise tolerance is ...
alpha-Pinene is an organic substance. It is very slightly soluble in water (2.75 mg/L according to the slow-stirring method). The short-term toxicity of (-)-alpha-pinene to aquatic organisms was investigated according to OECD guidelines and GLP. The toxicity values below are available for the substance. Fish Acute: LC50(96h) = 0.303 mg/L (measured concentration) Aquatic invertebrates: EC50(48 h)= 0.475 mg/L (measured concentrations) Algae: ErC50(72 h) = 0.31 mg/L (predicted by QSAR) The lowest acute aquatic toxicity values based on available data ranges between 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L. There are no adequate chronic toxicity data available. The degradation of alpha-pinene multiconstituent was investigated. A reliable study was carried out according to Guideline OECD 301D and GLP. Under the conditions of this study, alpha-pinene multiconstituent was found readily biodegradable (68% of biodegradation on Day 28 based on oxygen consumption). CLP Classification (Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008) Acute aquatic ...
Under normal conditions of oxygen intake, in severe exercise lasting one minute, the oxygen debt is repaid after slightly more than seven minutes. In mild exercise lasting one minute, the oxygen debt is repaid after approximately 30 seconds. In mild exercise the anaerobic mechanism may be called on only at the beginning because as exercise proceeds, the circulatory and respiratory adjustments allow as much oxygen to be taken in as required, and a steady state is therefore reached altho the oxygen debt is still unpaid until the end of the exercise. In more vigorous exercise, however, lactic acid is formed so rapidly that the mechanisms for oxidizing it or reconverting it to glycogen are overloaded. The appearance of lactic acid in the blood varies according to the training of the subject. The accumulation of this fatigue acid after an honest workout would be common experience ...
Determination of preoperative pulmonary function is crucial in avoiding complications from pulmonary resection. Many have employed static pulmonary function testing in an attempt to decrease morbidity and mortality from lung resections. The purpose of the present study was to correlate preoperative …