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In order to determine whether the effect of drugs on schistosomula obtained by vortex transformation is similar to the effect on adult Schistosoma mansoni (the worm stages which need to be targeted by drugs) in vitro, we have tested the effect of a variety of compounds, with known in vivo antischistosomal activity (e.g. praziquantel, oxamniquine, artesunate or mefloquine) against adult schistosomes and schistosomula (Figure 3). The effect of drugs was analyzed based on motility disturbances (e.g. activity or paralysis), morphological changes (relaxation, shrinkage, curling, tegumental disruption, worm disintegration) and worm death. In addition, we have used for the first time isothermal microcalorimetry to study drug effects on schistosomes. Similar sensitivities on schistosomula and adult schistosomes were observed for praziquantel and mefloquine, while slight differences in the drug susceptibilities of the two development stages were noted with oxamniquine and artesunate. Overall, we ...
In order to determine whether the effect of drugs on schistosomula obtained by vortex transformation is similar to the effect on adult Schistosoma mansoni (the worm stages which need to be targeted by drugs) in vitro, we have tested the effect of a variety of compounds, with known in vivo antischistosomal activity (e.g. praziquantel, oxamniquine, artesunate or mefloquine) against adult schistosomes and schistosomula (Figure 3). The effect of drugs was analyzed based on motility disturbances (e.g. activity or paralysis), morphological changes (relaxation, shrinkage, curling, tegumental disruption, worm disintegration) and worm death. In addition, we have used for the first time isothermal microcalorimetry to study drug effects on schistosomes. Similar sensitivities on schistosomula and adult schistosomes were observed for praziquantel and mefloquine, while slight differences in the drug susceptibilities of the two development stages were noted with oxamniquine and artesunate. Overall, we ...
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Filho RP, de Souza Menezes CM, Pinto PL, Paula GA, Brandt CA, da Silveira MA: Design, synthesis, and in vivo evaluation of oxamniquine methacrylate and acrylamide prodrugs. Bioorg Med Chem. 2007 Feb 1;15(3):1229-36. Epub 2006 Nov 16. PMID 17134907 ...
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Reference: Gordon B.G., Veselkin N.V., Intoxication of the central nervous system in hepatic functional disorders, Voprosy meditsinskoi khimii, 1956, vol: 2(5), 350-356 ...
Faria-Pinto, P et al. Cross-immunoreactivity between anti-potato apyrase antibodies and mammalian ATP diphosphohydrolases: potential use of the vegetal protein in experimental schistosomiasis. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Oct 2006, vol.101, suppl.1, p.359-363. ISSN 0074- ...
Abstract Changes over time in the prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infection were measured by serial quantitative stool examinations using the modified Ritchie concentration technique in a 9-year prospective study of an endemic Puerto Rican community with a population of about 1,000 persons. The complete interruption of transmission was achieved by snail control during the 2nd year of the study, in February 1973. Annual stool specimens were obtained from all willing community residents. In addition, from 27 of these residents 10 consecutive stools were collected in each of 3 years: 1973, 1976, 1977. After a chemotherapy campaign with oxamniquine in 1980, only eight of these 27 persons remained untreated. Ten consecutive stools were collected from seven of these untreated individuals in 1981. We calculated the rate of decline (β) in geometric mean egg count in the cohort of 27 over 5 years and in the subcohort of seven over 9 years. Similarly, β was calculated from the change in the
Increased number of mast cells at the site of infection is widely regarded as important host defense against parasites. The kinetics of mucosal mast cells and connective tissue mast cells responses were studied in the intestines of 68 female CFLP mice infected with 100 Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. The number of ...
1GTB: Crystal structures of a schistosomal drug and vaccine target: glutathione S-transferase from Schistosoma japonica and its complex with the leading antischistosomal drug praziquantel.
1GTA: Crystal structures of a schistosomal drug and vaccine target: glutathione S-transferase from Schistosoma japonica and its complex with the leading antischistosomal drug praziquantel.
During acute schistosomiasis worm ova released from adult S. japonicum elicit potent pro-inflammatory responses along with characteristic granuloma formation, which then causes substantial injuries to organs such as the liver and intestine where the eggs are trapped (Hirata et al., 2001). As a result, anti-inflammatory responses to limit excessive liver injury or intestinal hemorrhage are necessary to prevent host lethality (Herbert et al., 2008). In general, acute schistosomiasis is considered a Th1 disease (de Jesus et al., 2002), and a defect in developing a Th2 response during acute schistosomiasis is associated with high lethality in mice (Rani et al., 2012). Given that alternatively activated M2 macrophages possess a high capacity for secretion of Th2 cytokines, their role in limiting pro-inflammatory responses and granuloma formation during acute schistosomiasis has been highly appreciated.. Previous studies have suggested that the trafficking of monocytes and macrophages from peripheral ...
Adult Schistosoma mansoni grown in hamsters and transferred directly to the mesenteric vessels of C57BL10J mice previously immunized with hamster cells survive normally despite evidence of cytoxic and hemagglutinating antibodies directed against hamster cells. This finding indicates that species differences may play an important part in the manifestations of the host antigen phenomenon in experimental schistosomiasis.. ...
By Maureen H. McDonnell, RN Although the entire mystery of what has caused the autism epidemic has not yet been solved, based on emerging science and parents reporting what specific treatment have improved (or in some cases recovered) their children,...
In view of the known relationship between changes in the tegumental surface of schistosomes and the potency of antischistosomal drugs, the present work is done to study the effect of two oral drugs, namely Praziquantel and Ro-15 (5458), on the tegument of Schistosoma mansoni by scanning electron microscopy. The damage produced in the tegument of both male and female worms after treatment with the curative and subcurative doses of Praziquantel and Ro-15 (5458) are described. A pronounced deformation of the whole worms was detected after the treatment with a combined reduced dose of the two oral antibilharzial drugs. The potency of the new compound Ro-15 (5458) is encouraging and deserves further studies to be recommended as an antischistosomal drug, particularly in those cases which may show evidence of drug resistance to Praziquantel ...
Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases and an important public health problem in many developing countries. In this era of global warming and climatic changes, the epidemiology of temperature-dependent infectious diseases could be changing implying the possibility of new transmission area in the world in general and in Ethiopia in particular. This study aims to assess the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection and associated factors in irrigation workers in Gamo Gofa and South Omo Zone, 2017. Community based cross-sectional parasitological survey was conducted between March and June; 2017. Data were collected by using pre tested structured questionnaire and stool sample was collected from each participant for laboratory investigation. Kato-katz technique was used as recommended by World Health Organization for stool laboratory investigation to relevant variables. Descriptive frequencies like cross tabulation was calculated to describe the study variables. Binary and
The number of Asialoglycoprotein (ASGP) receptors on the hepatocytes of patients with liver disease is reduced and is thus considered a good indicator for the evaluation of liver function. ASGP receptor-targeted radiopharmaceuticals permit a non-invasive way to evaluate total and regional hepatic function and hepatic functional reserve visually and quantitatively. Over the past three decades, a variety of ASGP receptor-targeted probes have been developed with different molecular backbones (albumin, polymer, small-molecular-weight ligand), different glycol-residues (galactose, lactose, N-acetyl-galactosamine) and different chelating systems suitable for radiolabeling with SPECT isotopes (Tc-99m, In-111, Ga-67, (131)/I-125, Sm-153) and PET isotopes (Ga-68, F-18). In this review, we present an overview of ASGP receptor-targeted radiopharmaceuticals, discuss their chemistry, biodistribution, catabolism and challenge as well as application for measurement of liver function ...
Cirrhotic patients with gastric fundal bleeding occasionally require operative intervention. Fundal variceal bleeding may be controlled by performing a fundectomy in addition to periesophagogastric devascularization. For 23 patients with cirrhosis, preoperative nonsurgical intervention alone could not achieve definitive control of variceal bleeding from the gastric fundus, and periesophagogastric devascularization with the fundectomy-specifically resection of the varix-bearing lesion in the fundus-was performed. Direct inspection and palpation determined the area for the fundectomy, and resection was limited to the engorged varix-bearing area. The overall mortality rate was 26.1%. There were two postoperative deaths (18.2%) among 11 patients in the elective operation group and four deaths (33.3%) among 12 patients in the emergency operation group (p | 0.05). The mortality rates among class A, B, and C patients, following the Child-Pugh classification for hepatic functional reserve, were 0% (0/4), 23.1%
Abstract. We investigated the serum and urine chemokine levels of patients with schistosomal mansoni glomerulonephritis. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Southeast of Brazil. Overall, 160 subjects were enrolled and divided into five groups: 1) hepatosplenic schistosomiasis with renal disease (N = 12); 2) hepatosplenic schistosomiasis without renal disease (N = 68); 3) hepatointestinal schistosomiasis (N = 27); 4) glomerulopathy caused by other diseases (N = 22); and 5) healthy controls (N = 31). The patients with microalbuminuria > 30 mg in 24 hours were considered to have renal disease. The sera and urine chemokines CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CCL11, and CXCL8 were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. A similar profile was observed between the patients with schistosomal glomerulopathy and the patients with glomerulopathy caused by other diseases, with the exception of serum CCL2 ≤ 634.3 pg/mL. In cases with sera CCL2 > 634.3 pg/mL, the diagnosis of schistosomal
Evaluation of WGA and Concanavalin A (Con A) lectin as biomarkers of hepatosplenic schistosomiasis in human biopsies with no evidence of egg-granuloma system ...
A fundamental obstacle to vaccine development in schistosomiasis mansoni is a lack of understanding of what type of an immune response should be invoked. We have addressed this central issue by using the radiation-attenuated ...
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Research Paper Title The relationship between the U.S. Navy fleet diver physical screening test and job task performance. Background The development of job-related selection and training methods will improve safety and lead to substantial cost savings to the U.S. Navy through enhanced screening and productivity. This investigation determined the extent to which the current U.S.…
Assays for biomarkers can be very useful in the selection of a lead compound, determining the mechanism of action of a drug, as a surrogate marker for monitoring clinical efficacy, or for identifying intermediate endpoints of success to decrease follow-up time for a specific treatment.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ultrasonography in a Senegalese community recently exposed to Schistosoma mansoni infection. AU - Kardorff, R. AU - Stelma, FF. AU - Vocke, AK. AU - Yazdanpanah, Y. AU - Thomas, AK. AU - Mbaye, A. AU - Talla, I. AU - Niang, M. AU - Ehrich, JHH. AU - Doehring, E. AU - Gryseels, B. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. KW - B780-tropical-medicine. KW - Helminthic diseases. KW - Schistosomiasis. KW - Schistosoma mansoni. KW - Ultrasonography. KW - Clinical manifestations. KW - Liver. KW - Senegal. KW - Africa-West. M3 - A1: Web of Science-article. VL - 54. SP - 586. EP - 590. JO - American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. JF - American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. SN - 0002-9637. ER - ...
Schistosomiasis mansoni is a water-borne disease caused by helminth Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni), in which adult worms deposit eggs in mesenteric blood vessels. Schistomiasis prevalence in the fishing communities in East Africa, and particularly in the Lake Victoria region, exceeds 60% and there is overlap in this region with a high prevalence of HIV (29%).. A recent epidemiological study found an association between S. mansoni and HIV infection in adult women residing near Lake Victoria in Tanzania. Furthermore, in primate studies S. mansoni infection was shown to increase susceptibility to SIV infection after rectal (but not intravenous) challenge, implying that S. mansoni might increase HIV susceptibility by altering local mucosal (gut) immunology.. While S. mansoni does not directly infect the genital tract, we hypothesize that the inflammation it causes in the gut may be associated with mucosal inflammation at other sites through activation of common mucosal homing integrins such as ...
Schistosomamansoni is responsible for causing schistosomiasis in humans; a major public health problem worldwide. It is estimated that 200 million people, mostly children are infected with schistosomes. Schistosomiasis occurs in 76 tropical countries, 85% of the infections in Africa. InKenya, it is estimated that 3 million people are infected. Schistosome eggs are responsible for most pathology. Even though conventional drugs are effective in the treatment of the disease, very little progress has been achieved on treatment of schistosomiasis in Kenya. Praziquantel (PZQ) is the most effective drug against all adult stages of human schistosomiasis. Being the only drug used for treatment, other drugs should be sought to avoid development of drug resistance. The use of plant extracts in treatment of diseases is universal. Many plants have been used locally for treatment of bilharziasis in Kenya. The aim of this study was to determine Phytochemistry and antischistosomal activity of five plant ...
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The role of the spleen in the process of liver fibrosis in schistosomiasis still needs clarification. The aim of this Study was to assess the effect of splenectomy on serum levels of two markers of fibrosis, type IV collagen and TIMP-1, in patients with schistosomiasis mansoni. Twenty-four patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni participated in the study. Type IV collagen and TIMP-1 serum levels were measured preoperatively, and after 2 (POD-1) and 60 days (POD-2) of spleen removal. Before splenectomy, both type IV collagen and TIMP-1 serum levels were elevated in the majority of patients. After splenectomy, the levels of type IV collagen showed a significant decrease in relation to the preoperative values both in POD-1 (median pre-splenectomy: 143.7 ng/ml versus 77.01 ng/ml p = 0.04) and POD-2 (103.3 ng/ml; p = 0.015). Serum levels of TIMP-1 also showed a significant decrease in relation to the preoperative values both in POD-1 (pre-splenectomy: 585.9 ng/ml versus 196.4 ng/ml; p = ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Schistosomiasis, Bilharziasis, Katayama Fever, Acute Schistosomiasis, Acute Toxemic Schistosomiasis.
Professional guide for Praziquantel. Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, adverse reactions and more.