Oviparity, expulsion of undeveloped eggs rather than live young. The eggs may have been fertilized before release, as in birds and some reptiles, or are to be fertilized externally, as in amphibians and many lower forms. In general, the number of eggs produced by oviparous species greatly exceeds
A new study has determined that social stress adversely affects digestive function in subordinate cichlid fish. Scientists compared bile retention and gall bladder size in dominant and subordinate males that had eaten equal amounts of food. They discovered not only were the gall bladders in the subordinate fish much larger, they were filled with dark
The bushmaster is an oviparous species, which means they lay eggs rather than bear live young. The bushmaster is the only egg-laying pit viper in the Americas. Bushmasters are solitary except when mating. Males find receptive females by following scent trails left by females. Finding a female, he rubs his head and flicks his tongue along the sides of her body to state his intentions and make sure she is receptive. If so, he flips his body upside down on top of hers and rubs his spinal ridge back and forth in a sawing motion against her body to stimulate her. If she is coiled up, he may also strike her with the side of his body to encourage her to loosen her coils and allow him access. When she uncoils, they wrap their bodies around one another and mate in that position, sometimes remaining together for five or more hours. When a female bushmaster is ready to lay her eggs, she finds a burrow built by another small animal to claim as her own, sometimes sharing the burrow with the animal that built ...
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Analysis of the distribution, haplotypes and conservation of the viviparous lizard, Zootoca vivipara vivipara (Jacquin, 1787) and the oviparous subspecies, Zootoca vivipara carniolica (Mayer, Böhme, Tiedemann & Bischoff, 2000) in the Bergamasque Prealps. -- In this study we analysed the distribution of two subspecies of the viviparous, Zootoca vivipara (Jacquin, 1787) in Bergamasque Prealps-Orobic Alps. The project was commissioned by "Parco delle Orobie Bergamasche" (Anfi.Oro.Project 2008/2011); the aim of this project was to further investigate the ecological distributional, conservational and genetic aspects about this lizard. Over the course of the study it emerged that the viviparous subspecies (Zootoca vivipara vivipara) shows a broader distributional range in comparison with the oviparous populations (Zootoca vivipara carniolica, Mayer, Böhme, Tiedemann. & Bischoff, 2000). Z. v. vivipara is present along the watershed between the Brembana Valley and Valtellina, almost entirely ...
Animals make use of a variety of modes of reproduction to produce their young. Traditionally this variety was classified into three modes, oviparity (embryos in eggs), viviparity (young born live), and ovoviviparity (intermediate between the first two). However, each of those so-called traditional modes covered a wide range of diverse reproductive strategies. The biologist Thierry Lodé has accordingly proposed five modes of reproduction based on the relationship between the zygote (the fertilised egg) and the parents. His revised modes are ovuliparity, with external fertilisation ; oviparity, with internal fertilisation of large eggs containing a substantial nutritive yolk; ovo-viviparity, that is oviparity where the zygotes are retained for a time in a parent's body, but without any sort of feeding by the parent; histotrophic viviparity, where the zygotes develop in the female's oviducts , but are fed on other tissues; and hemotrophic viviparity, where the developing embryos are fed by the
Binds VLDL and transports it into cells by endocytosis. In order to be internalized, the receptor-ligand complexes must first cluster into clathrin-coated pits. Binding to Reelin induces tyrosine phosphorylation of Dab1 and modulation of Tau phosphorylation.
The Genetics Society of America (GSA), founded in 1931, is the professional membership organization for scientific researchers and educators in the field of genetics. Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level.. Online ISSN: 1943-2631. ...
Studies examining how diet affects mortality risk over age typically characterise mortality using parameters such as aging rates, which condense how much and how quickly the risk of dying changes over time into a single measure. Demographers have suggested that decoupling the tempo and the magnitude of changing mortality risk may facilitate comparative analyses of mortality trajectories, but it is unclear what biologically meaningful information this approach offers. Here, we determine how the amount and ratio of protein and carbohydrate ingested by female Drosophila melanogaster affects how much mortality risk increases over a time-standardised life-course (the shape of aging) and the tempo at which animals live and die (the pace of aging ...
Vitellogenin (VTG), a complex protein, is a precursor of yolk proteins (lipovitellin and phosvitin) in all oviparous vertebrates studied to date. In amphibians, as in other oviparous vertebrates, VTG synthesis is hormonally dependent; estradiol-17β (E2) is especially important, although in vivo in the frog Rana esculenta the pituitary may be involved in hepatic VTG synthesis and secretion. The present in vitro experiments carried out during the main phases of the annual reproductive cycle of this frog showed that homologous pituitary homogenate (HPH), as well as E2, stimulated VTG synthesis in male and female livers, although their patterns of VTG secretion showed some differences with respect to the induction time and the rate of VTG secretion. The hepatic response to HPH occurred after a longer time than that of E2 VTG induction, and no cooperation between HPH and E2 was found in the VTG synthesizing response. It should be emphasized that during the refractory period (July), hepatic VTG ...
Arakane Y, Specht CA, Kramer KJ, Muthukrishnan S, Beeman RW. Chitin synthases are required for survival, fecundity and egg hatch in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2008 Oct; 38(10):959-62 ...
Leonard Baskin. Thelia Bimaculata from Horned Beetles and Other Insects. (book published, 1958). Etching. plate: 1 7/16 x 1 11/16" (3.7 x 4.3 cm); sheet (irreg.): 6 1/2 x 9 15/16" (16.5 x 25.2 cm). The Gehenna Press, Northampton. the artist, Northampton. trial proof before the published edition of 30. Gift of the artist. 555.1959. Drawings and Prints Caption: The Museum of Modern Art, designed by Yoshio Taniguchi. Entrance at 53rd Street. Photo © 2011 Timothy Hursley
We and others have shown that mated females suffer reduced ability to defend against systemic infection relative to virgin females (Fedorka et al. 2007; Short and Lazzaro 2010; Short et al. 2012), and this effect is eliminated when the females fail to produce eggs. We hypothesized that virgin females may exhibit gene expression differences after infection that differ from those of mated females, which could inform the nature of the physiological trade-off we have observed between reproduction and immune defense. Changes seen in egg-producing females that are not observed in eggless females may indicate germline-dependent elements of the trade-off.. There were 53 genes whose expression was significantly affected by infection in virgin but not mated females (comparison A but not comparison B in Figure 1; Figure 2). Of these 53 genes, 28 of them were up-regulated by infection, whereas 25 of them were down-regulated. GO analysis on the genes corresponding to up-regulated probesets revealed no ...
2016 Morimoto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Purpose: : It has been well documented that subretinal neovascularization (SNV) in VLDL receptor knockout (vldlr-/-) mice models retinal angiomatus proliferation (RAP). This study examines the role of VLDLR in retinal vascular formation during the development. Methods: : The level and cellular origin of VLDLR expression in the mouse retina during postnatal development were determined by Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. The development of retinal vasculature network was examined at various postnatal days in the whole mount retina after isolectin staining under a fluorescent confocal microscope. Littermates from heterozygous (vldlr+/-) breeders were used for comparison of the effect of VLDLR gene on retinal vessel development. Results: : Low level of VLDLR protein was detected in the retina at postnatal day 5 (P5). The level increased and peaked around P10 to P14 before it reduced to a lower level in adult mice. Immunofluorescent staining revealed intense signals of VLDLR in the outer ...
Aplacental viviparity is a form of egg development in which the eggs of an organism hatch while still inside the uterus but the developing young arent ...
Presented in Symposium I (Joseph Holson, L.B. Pearce, co-chairs) at the Forty-Third Annual Meeting of the Teratology Society, Philadelphia, June 26, 2003.
Infestation experience of a rodent host and offspring viability of fleas: variation among host-parasite associations. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology. 313:680-689. 2010 ...
Modification of offspring sex ratios in response to parental quality is predicted when the long-term fitness returns of sons and daughters differ. One factor that may influence a mothers sex allocation decision is the quality (or attractiveness) of her mate. We investigated whether the sex ratios of offspring produced by female Drosophila melanogaster are biased with respect to the age of the males to which they are mated, and whether there is an adaptive basis for this phenomenon. We found that females mated to old males (13 d post-eclosion) initially produced a greater proportion of daughters than did females mated to young males (1 d post-eclosion). This pattern does not appear to be due to a systematic difference in the numbers or mortality of the X- and Y-bearing sperm originating from old and young fathers, as the overall sex ratios of all offspring produced from a single copulation did not differ between broods fathered by the two types of males. The sons of older males fared worse in ...
Read "Inhibition of DD2R gene expression in the corpus allatum activates alkaline phosphatase in female Drosophila melanogaster, Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Vitellogenin (VTG) is an estrogen-dependent, females-specific yolk precursor protein naturally synthesized during the reproductive period in the liver of oviparous vertebrates. Released in blood, VTG is taken from the growing oocytes by micropinocytosis and used as nourishment for the future embryo.
Yesterday a new study was released in the journal of Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. Researchers from the University of Utah, studied the effects of the well documented right-to-left shunt in crocodylians.Okay, lets get the exposition out of the way first.. Mammals and birds are both characterized by a 4 chambered heart. This heart allows the complete separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood streams. Less publicized, but equally as important, this separation also allows for a pressure differential to exist between the two ventricular chambers. That way the right - pulmonary side - of the heart can pump deoxygenated blood at low pressure to the delicate walls of the alveoli in the lungs, while the left - systemic side - of the heart, can pump oxygenated blood at much higher pressure (~7 times higher) to the entire body.. Reptiles and amphibians differ from mammals and birds, in that they have a heart divided into 3 chambers (two atria, one ventricle). This allows for mixing of ...
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For a member of the skink family, blue-tongued skinks are among the best suited for lives in captivity for several reasons. Being relatively slow-moving, theyre not as difficult to handle compared to most of the slender skink species. Blue-tongued skinks short, thick physique makes them easy to hold, even by children. Although a biter is occasionally encountered, most adult blue-tongued skinks are loathe to even open their mouths, much less show off their startlingly fat, blue tongues that earned them their common name.. A 20-gallon long aquarium should be considered minimal housing for one specimen. Nearly any substrate from sand to pebbles to aspen provides blue-tongued skinks an adequate material to wander about in. A simple shelter of stone or a concave piece of wood will serve as a hide box. Blue-tongued skinks should have a small bowl of water available at all times. They may also receive needed moisture from pieces of fruit or other vegetation, which makes up the bulk of their diet. ...
Skinks (properly Scincidae… though read on) are one of the most successful of squamate groups, accounting for approximately 1500 species - in other words, for about 25% of all lizards.
A bone-healthy version of a fish chowder called Cullen Skink. This home made soup has an abundance of healthy nutrients for your body . Click to learn more!
Aceptado: 17 febrero 2012.. Abstract. Egg retention (ER) and intrauterine embryonic development (IED) have been considered intermediate steps in the evolution from oviparity to viviparity. Sceloporus aeneus is an oviparous lizard that is closely related to the viviparous species (Sceloporus bicanthalis). The present study addresses the following 2 questions: 1) Are intermediate stages of egg retention (ER and IED) present in populations of Sceloporus aeneus? and 2) Are ER and/or IED explained by elevation, precipitation or phylogenetic effects? Results indicate that in S. aeneus, ER differs among populations. ER was negatively related to altitude and pluvial precipitation, whereas average environmental temperature had no effect on ER or IER. In contrast to previous observations of oviparous species related to viviparous species, populations of S. aeneus with advanced IED are associated with environmental factors such as low elevation and aridity instead of high elevation and cold climate, ...
Precise estimates of costs and benefits, the fitness economics, of mating are of key importance in understanding how selection shapes the coevolution of male and female mating traits. However, fitness is difficult to define and quantify. Here, we used a novel application of an established analytical technique to calculate individual- and population-based estimates of fitness-including those sensitive to the timing of reproduction-to measure the effects on females of increased exposure to males. Drosophila melanogaster females were exposed to high and low frequencies of contact with males, and life-history traits for each individual female were recorded. We then compared different fitness estimates to determine which of them best described the changes in life histories. We predicted that rate-sensitive estimates would be more accurate, as mating influences the rate of offspring production in this species. The results supported this prediction. Increased exposure to males led to significantly ...
Declines in populations of capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) and black grouse (Lyrurus tetrix) have been reported from both Central Europe and the continuous boreal forests of Fennoscandia. While intensified land-use is assumed to be the underlying cause of these declines, the mechanisms are not yet understood. Predation is the proximate cause of mortality of eggs, chicks and adults throughout capercaillie and black grouse ranges, but the link between predation and habitat and/or climate change remains unclear. To investigate temporal trends in reproductive output of woodland grouse, we collated previously published and unpublished data of reproduction in capercaillie and black grouse throughout their ranges from 1930 to 2012. We show that, overall, reproductive success has decreased and stabilized at low levels in most regions whilst capercaillie reproductive output in Scotland is still declining. With todays net reproduction, capercaillie and black grouse adult survival is too low to compensate for
While most skink species are identified by their distinct colors and markings, certain physical characteristics apply to most of the ones found in the United States. Theyre medium-sized lizards that reach between 4 and 7 inches long as adults. Adult males of some species, like the Five Lined skink, can reach 8½ inches (including their long tail). Skinks have long slender bodies with short limbs and are protected by a smooth-scaled skin thats similar to the skin of a snake. Their coloring can be extremely flamboyant, with many species exhibiting striped patterns with vivid metallic hues. Because theyre diurnal animals-meaning they can be active both day and night-you might find them sunning along the edges of buildings or on exposed tree roots. Most skink species are also ground dwellers that travel through dense vegetation and leaf litter to hunt their prey. There are at least 15 skink species in North America. Where I live in South Carolina, I tend to see mostly Five Lined skinks, ...
October 2014 continues - for no particular reason at all - to be Lizard Month here at Tet Zoo and right now its time for more skinks. The previous article is a sort of general introduction to the group as well as a review of the limbless acontiines/acontids and weird feylinines.
ID A0A151MF56_ALLMI Unreviewed; 2363 AA. AC A0A151MF56; DT 08-JUN-2016, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 08-JUN-2016, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 11. DE RecName: Full=Voltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU003808}; GN ORFNames=Y1Q_0005596 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO23157.1}; OS Alligator mississippiensis (American alligator). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; OC Archelosauria; Archosauria; Crocodylia; Alligatoridae; Alligatorinae; OC Alligator. OX NCBI_TaxID=8496 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO23157.1}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO23157.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000050525} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=KSC_2009_1 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:KYO23157.1}; RX PubMed=22293439; DOI=10.1186/gb-2012-13-1-415; RA St John J.A., Braun E.L., Isberg S.R., Miles L.G., Chong A.Y., RA Gongora J., Dalzell P., Moran C., Bedhom B., Abzhanov A., RA Burgess S.C., Cooksey A.M., Castoe T.A., Crawford N.G., ...
Do you know which blue tongue skink subspecies you have? Find out with this helpful guide in ReptiFiles blue tongue skink care packet!
Native to Australia, plague skinks were first recorded in Auckland during the 1960s and are now posing a threat to our rare native lizards.
They have the slithery, cylindrical body of a snake, the proportionately stunted arms of a T. rex, and knowing, lidded eyes that are reminiscent of our own species.Theyre skinks, and Zach Griffith
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The evenings are beautifully long right now, ideal for getting in some after-work rides or weekend all-dayers. These new Knog lights are
Shop cute hatching baby alligator stationery created by doonidesignsanimals. Personalize it with photos & text or purchase as is!
Viviparity (from the Latin vivus ("living") and parere ("to beget"), literally "giving live birth"), both in zoology and in botany refers to certain classes of modes of reproduction, though it has different meanings in the two contexts. The adjective viviparous is derived from "viviparity" and describes both the various modes of reproduction and the organisms that reproduce in any such mode. In zoology viviparity refers to development of the embryo inside the body of the parent, eventually leading to live birth, as opposed to reproduction by laying eggs that complete their incubation outside the parental body. There are several forms of reproductive processes that answer to that description however, and they differ so radically, both in their nature and evolutionary origin, that no definitive and exclusive terminology is universally accepted, and the usage of the term is largely a matter of convenience and preference. In botany vivipary is a common alternative form of the term, and botanical ...
The very-low-density-lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) is a transmembrane lipoprotein receptor of the low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family. VLDLR shows considerable homology with the members of this lineage. Discovered in 1992 by T. Yamamoto, VLDLR is widely distributed throughout the tissues of the body, including the heart, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and the brain, but is absent from the liver. This receptor has an important role in cholesterol uptake, metabolism of apoprotein-E-containing triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins, and neuronal migration in the developing brain. In humans, VLDLR is encoded by the VLDLR gene. Mutations of this gene may lead to a variety of symptoms and diseases, which include type I lissencephaly, cerebellar hypoplasia, and atherosclerosis. VLDLR is a member of the low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family, which is entirely composed of type I transmembrane lipoprotein receptors. All members of this family share five highly conserved structural domains: ...
Genomic DNA was extracted from tail clippings using a Qiagen™ DNeasy Kit and following the manufacturers protocol. The following regions of the mitochondrial DNA were amplified: a 427 bp fragment of the cytochrome b gene (including 21 bp from the adjacent Glu-tRNA) using primers MVZ04 and MVZ05 [60]; and 964 bp of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene (ND2) using primers MetF6 and AsnR2 [61]. Detailed PCR amplification conditions and sequencing details are available in the Additional file 1.. Sequences were automatically aligned using Sequencher 4.1. (GeneCodes, Ann Arbor, Michigan) and variable sites were checked visually for accuracy. Coding gene sequences were unambiguously translated into their amino acid sequence and no double peaks were observed in the chromatographs, suggesting sequences were of mitochondrial origin and not nuclear copies. For most analysis, the two gene fragments (cyt-b and ND2) were concatenated into a single sequence of 1370 bp. Haplotype and nucleotide diversity ...
The review considers the current problems of molecular phylogenetics based on mitochondrial and chromosomal DNA sequences. The emphasis is placed on mtDNA markers, which are widely employed in reconst
García, G. O., Becker, P. H., Favero, M. (2013), Intraspecific kleptoparasitism improves chick growth and reproductive output in Common Terns Sterna hirundo. Ibis, 155: 338-347. doi: 10.1111/ibi.12019 ...
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-| Description: Scheme for Cross Stitch - Chamomile field in the format xsdAlbum: Nature Tags: Download scheme, embroidery, cross stitch, free embroidery, cross-stitch, chamomile, field, nature {L...
This gentle cleanser was designed to cleanse skin thoroughly. Chamomile, and Vitamins A & E provide necessary healing moisture to prevent dry irritations.